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This book contains the most current information on how to implement, develop and maintain an effective Corrective Action and Preventive Action (CAPA) and investigation program using a 9-step closed-loop process approach for medical device, pharmaceutical and biologic manufacturers, as well as any company or institution, which has to maintain a quality system. CAPA violations along with ineffective complaint investigations continue to be the number one cited violation of device warning letters for the past four years, leading the US Food and Drug Administration or FDA to remind firms to fully investigate complaints, find the root cause of nonconforming products and document their CAPA activities. A review of FDA warning letters issued to pharmaceutical companies reveals that most of these warning letters resulted from recurring failures, ineffective investigations found, and missing or inappropriate corrective and preventive actions. Companies often make the mistake of fixing problems in their processes by revising procedures or more commonly by 'retraining' employees that may or may not have caused the problem. This is typically event-focused. Companies then will make the false assumption that the errors have been eradicated. In many cases they will also consider the steps taken as their Preventive Action. The reality is that the causes of the failure were never actually determined; therefore the same problem will recur over and over. CAPA is a complete system that collects information regarding existing and potential quality problems. It analyzes and investigates the issues to identify the root cause of nonconformities. CAPA is not just a quick-fix, simple approach. It is a process and has to be understood throughout organizations. This book addresses all of the above issues, in a pragmatic, down- to-earth manner.
This practical reference for medicinal and pharmaceutical chemists combines the theoretical background with modern methods as well as applications from recent lead finding and optimization projects. Divided into two parts on the thermodynamics and kinetics of drug-receptor interaction, the text provides the conceptual and methodological basis for characterizing binding mechanisms for drugs and other bioactive molecules. It covers all currently used methods, from experimental approaches, such as ITC or SPR, right up to the latest computational methods. Case studies of real-life lead or drug development projects are also included so readers can apply the methods learned to their own projects. Finally, the benefits of a thorough binding mode analysis for any drug development project are summarized in an outlook chapter written by the editors.
Small structural modifications can significantly affect the pharmacokinetic properties of drug candidates. This book, written by a medicinal chemist for medicinal chemists, is a comprehensive guide to the pharmacokinetic impact of functional groups, the pharmacokinetic optimization of drug leads, and an exhaustive collection of pharmacokinetic data, arranged according to the structure of the drug, not its target or indication. The historical origins of most drug classes and general aspects of modern drug discovery and development are also discussed. The index contains all the drug names and synonyms to facilitate the location of any drug or functional group in the book. This compact working guide provides a wealth of information on the ways small structural modifications affect the pharmacokinetic properties of organic compounds, and offers plentiful, fact-based inspiration for the development of new drugs. This book is mainly aimed at medicinal chemists, but may also be of interest to graduate students in chemical or pharmaceutical sciences, preparing themselves for a job in the pharmaceutical industry, and to healthcare professionals in need of pharmacokinetic data.
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the current issues facing scientists working on delivering drugs locally and systemically via the membranes that line the mouth. The book describes the anatomical and physiological challenges of this route for drug delivery and how they impact the design of oral mucosal drug delivery systems. It also provides a detailed description of current oral mucosal drug delivery technologies that overcome these challenges alongside research, development and assessment methods. In 11 authoritative chapters, the book affords an in-depth evaluation of the major issues associated with this route of administration, namely the retention of the drug/product at the site of administration and increasing drug permeability through the oral mucosa. The book provides insights into the in vitro and in vivo methods available to assess drug permeability and retention, offers solutions on how to improve the permeation of the drugs through the oral mucosa, and explores approaches to prolong drug/product retention at the site of administration. It also indicates future directions in research and product development. Oral Mucosal Drug Delivery and Therapy is a key resource for those wishing to extend their knowledge of this field.
This volume offers a comprehensive guide on the theory and practice of amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) for handling challenges associated with poorly soluble drugs. In twenty-three inclusive chapters, the book examines thermodynamics and kinetics of the amorphous state and amorphous solid dispersions, ASD technologies, excipients for stabilizing amorphous solid dispersions such as polymers, and ASD manufacturing technologies, including spray drying, hot melt extrusion, fluid bed layering and solvent-controlled micro-precipitation technology (MBP). Each technology is illustrated by specific case studies. In addition, dedicated sections cover analytical tools and technologies for characterization of amorphous solid dispersions, the prediction of long-term stability, and the development of suitable dissolution methods and regulatory aspects. The book also highlights future technologies on the horizon, such as supercritical fluid processing, mesoporous silica, KinetiSol (R), and the use of non-salt-forming organic acids and amino acids for the stabilization of amorphous systems. Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Theory and Practice is a valuable reference to pharmaceutical scientists interested in developing bioavailable and therapeutically effective formulations of poorly soluble molecules in order to advance these technologies and develop better medicines for the future.
Antisense-based drugs are part of a growing number of pharmaceutical and biotech programs to treat diseases including cancer, diabetes, and ALS. Reviewing fundamentals and offering guidelines for drug discovery and development, this book is a practical guide from the safety assessment to clinical experience with antisense oligonucleotides. Examines principles and tools for scientists in both pre-clinical and clinical settings and how to apply them to antisense oligonucleotides Reviews fundamentals and provides guidelines for scientists in drug design and discovery to increase efficiency, assessment, and success of drug candidates Helps readers understand antisense molecules and their targets, biochemistry and toxicity mechanisms, roles in disease, and applications for safety and therapeutics Includes interdisciplinary perspectives, from both academia and research, on a hot topic that combines pharmacology, toxicology, biology, and medicinal chemistry to advance our understanding and application of therapeutics
An integrated view of chiral drugs--from concept and synthesisto pharmaceutical properties
Chirality greatly influences a drug's biological and pharmacological properties. In an effort to achieve more predictable results from chiral drugs, the Food and Drug Administration now requires that these medicines be as pure as possible, which places great demands on drug synthesis, purification, analysis, and testing. To assist researchers in acquiring the essential knowledge to meet these rigid guidelines, Chiral Drugs focuses on three vital chiral technologies--asymmetric synthesis, biocatalytic process, and chiral resolution--to offer details on the basic concepts, key developments, and recent trends in chiral drug discovery, along with:
The history of chiral drugs development and industrial applications of chiral technologies
A section listing twenty-five approved or advanced-trial chiral drugs that lists each drug name, chemical name and properties, a representative synthetic pathway, pharmacological characterizations, and references
An interdisciplinary approach combining synthetic organic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology
Nearly two-thirds of the drugs on today's market are chiral drugs. Reducing and eliminating their negative characteristics is an ongoing and serious challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. With its well-balanced approach to covering each important aspect of chirality, Chiral Drugs champions important strategies for tipping the medical scale in a positive direction for the production of more effective--and safer--drugs.
Cosmeceuticals are the latest additions to the health industry and have an ever-expanding market. They are considered to be a marriage between cosmetics and drugs and are defined as preparations applied on the body that may modify the physiological functions of the skin. However, as more cosmeceuticals are being launched in the market and more types of drugs are incorporated into the formulation, the composition of cosmeceuticals is becoming more complex. Handbook of Cosmeceutical Excipients and their Safeties summarises the current evidence relating to cosmeceuticals' side effects and highlights the important information that practitioners and consumers need to know, as well as ways to avoid the adverse effects of the excipients. Handbook of Cosmeceutical Excipients and their Safeties includes chapters covering topics such as the history of cosmeceuticals and the laws that regulate them, skin permeation, carcinogenicity as a systemic adverse effect and dermatitis as a topical adverse effect. It concludes with an appendix that gives brief information on the potency and permeability of common ingredients in cosmeceuticals. The appendix aims to highlight the maximum allowable quantity of each ingredient to ensure product safety for consumers. The appendix was prepared by compiling the ingredients of 257 products containing more than 500 compounds, collected from a hospital pharmacy in Singapore.
This book is the first to summarize new technologies for engineered cell manipulation. The contents focus on control of cellular functions by nanomaterials and control of three-dimensional cell-cell interactions. Control of cellular functions is important for cell differentiation, maturation, and activation, which generally are controlled by the addition of soluble cytokines or growth factors into cell culture dishes. Target antigen molecules can be efficiently delivered to the cytosol of the dendritic cells using the nanoparticle technique described here, and cellular functions such as dendritic cell maturation can be controlled easily and with precision. This book describes basic preparation of the nanoparticles, activation control of dendritic cells, immune function control, and in vivo application for various vaccination systems. The second type of control,that of cell-cell interaction, is important for tissue engineering in order to develop three-dimensional cellular constructs. To achieve in vitro engineering of three-dimensional human tissue constructs, cell-cell interaction must be controlled in three dimensions, but typical biological cell manipulation technique cannot accomplish this task. An engineered cell manipulation technique is necessary. In this book the authors describe the fabrication of nanofilms onto cell surfaces, development of three-dimensional cellular multilayers, and various applications of the cellular multilayers as three-dimensional human models. This important work will be highly informative for researchers and students in the fields of materials science, polymer science, biomaterials, medicinal science, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and biology.
This book exclusively focuses on the science and fundamentals of polymer gels, as well as the numerous advantages that polymer gel-based materials offer. It presents a comprehensive collection of chapters on the recent advances and developments in the core science and fundamentals of both synthetic and natural polymer-based gels, and pays particular attention to applications in the various research fields of biomedicine and engineering. Key topics addressed include: polysaccharide-based gels and their fundamentals; stimuli-responsive polymer gels; polymer gels applied to enzyme and cell immobilization; chitosan-based gels for cancer therapy; natural polymeric and gelling agents; radiation dosimetry; polymeric gels as vehicles for enhanced drug delivery across the skin; transport in and through gel; and polymer gel nanocomposites and functional gels. The book's extensive and highly topical coverage will appeal to researchers working in a broad range of fields in industry and academia alike.
Good Laboratory Practices for Forensic Chemistry acknowledges the limitations that often challenge the validity of data and resultant conclusions. Eight chapters examine current practices in analytical chemistry as well as business practices, guidelines and regulations in the pharmaceutical industry to offer improvements to current practices in forensic chemistry. It discusses topics ranging from good manufacturing practices (GMP), good laboratory practices (GLP), the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), quality assurance (QA), and quality risk management (QRM), among others. This book is a guide for scientists, professors, and students interested in expanding their knowledge of forensic chemistry.
Drug development can be time-consuming and expensive. Recent estimates suggest that, on average, it takes 10 years and at least $1 billion to bring a drug to market. Given the time and expense of developing drugs de novo, pharmaceutical companies have become increasingly interested in finding new uses for existing drugs - a process referred to as drug repurposing or repositioning. Historically, drug repurposing has been largely an unintentional, serendipitous process that took place when a drug was found to have an offtarget effect or a previously unrecognized on-target effect that could be used for identifying a new indication. Perhaps the most recognizable example of such a successful repositioning effort is sildenafil. Originally developed as an anti-hypertensive, sildenafil, marketed as Viagra and under other trade names, has been repurposed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Viagra generated more than $2 billion worldwide in 2012 and has recently been studied for the treatment of heart failure. Given the widespread interest in drug repurposing, the Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health of the Institute of Medicine hosted a workshop on June 24, 2013, in Washington, DC, to assess the current landscape of drug repurposing activities in industry, academia, and government. Stakeholders, including government officials, pharmaceutical company representatives, academic researchers, regulators, funders, and patients, were invited to present their perspectives and to participate in workshop discussions. Drug Repurposing and Repositioning is the summary of that workshop. This report examines enabling tools and technology for drug repurposing; evaluates the business models and economic incentives for pursuing a repurposing approach; and discusses how genomic and genetic research could be positioned to better enable a drug repurposing paradigm.
"This book describes the theories, applications, and challenges for different oral controlled release formulations. This book differs from most in its focus on oral controlled release formulation design and process development. It also covers the related areas like preformulation, biopharmaceutics, in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC), quality by design (QbD), and regulatory issues"--Provided by publisher.
This book comprehensively reviews the state-of-the-art strategies developed for protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors, and highlights the success stories in new drug discovery and development. Consisting of two parts with twelve chapters, it demonstrates the design strategies and case studies of small molecule PPI inhibitors. The first part discusses various discovery strategies for small molecule PPI inhibitors, such as high throughput screening, hot spot-based design, computational approaches, and fragment-based design. The second part presents recent advances in small molecule inhibitors, focusing on clinical candidates and new PPI targets. This book has broad appeal and is of significant interest to the pharmaceutical science and medicinal chemistry communities.
The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical reviews on topics of research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research scientists at universities or in industry, graduate students Special offer for all customers who have a standing order to the print version of Structure and Bonding, we offer free access to the electronic volumes of the Series published in the current year via SpringerLink.
Volumes are organized topically and provide a comprehensive discussion of developments in the respective field over the past 3-5 years. The series also discusses new discoveries and applications. Special volumes are dedicated to selected topics which focus on new biotechnological products and new processes for their synthesis and purification. In general, special volumes are edited by well-known guest editors. The series editor and publisher will however always be pleased to receive suggestions and supplementary information. Manuscripts are accepted in English.
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Handbook covers a range of topics to help professionals better understand the methods used in the pharmaceutical manufacturing, pharmaceutical engineering, and process engineering fields. It covers many aspects, such as the building of a facility, to the various dosage and delivery forms available, and finally to the principles of validation. Other topics include quality assurance and regulatory requirements. Without exposure to all of these topics, professionals and others in the various pharmaceutical fields will not be able to produce quality drugs.
This volume provides readers with the basic principles and fundamentals of extrusion technology and a detailed description of the practical applications of a variety of extrusion processes, including various pharma grade extruders. In addition, the downstream production of films, pellets and tablets, for example, for oral and other delivery routes, are presented and discussed utilizing melt extrusion. This book is the first of its kind that discusses extensively the well-developed science of extrusion technology as applied to pharmaceutical drug product development and manufacturing. By covering a wide range of relevant topics, the text brings together all technical information necessary to develop and market pharmaceutical dosage forms that meet current quality and regulatory requirements. As extrusion technology continues to be refined further, usage of extruder systems and the array of applications will continue to expand, but the core technologies will remain the same.
This book overviews the fundamental aspects, challenges, and strategies for developing a variety of biological drugs -- a large and growing segment of the pharmaceutical industry. Contributing authors discuss the development process, safety and clinical assessments, manufacturing, regulatory and intellectual property issues. Following this opening, the major classes of biologics are discussed: proteins and peptides, vaccines, oligonucleotides, and gene and regenerative medicines. A concluding section details administration and delivery routes and systems. The book incorporates both lessons learned and future directions to make for a valuable resource and reference for pharmaceutical scientists involved in the dynamic field of biologics.
The volume aim to be a comprehensive overview of the drug and biologic development process that is often called "the valley of death" (pre-IND through approval) where high costs of studies and high rates of product failure are part of the drug development landscape. Imaging tools can serve in this period by adding high value data, the images and the kinetic information they can provide, and cost-effective development alternative tools which potentially improve pivotal study designs. Imaging may identify safety issues early such as unwanted organ or tissue distributions, and then can serve advanced development with added certainty of a drug or biologic's success to senior corporate management and investors. There are numerous textbooks, reference texts and treatises on medical imaging technologies, teaching tools on medical cases and physics books on the science of detector and computer interface systems. Rarely, in each of these are examples of medical imaging protocols and animal models of disease i.e. a text on methodology in drug development is currently unavailable.
Failure to adequately control any microbial challenge associated
within process or product by robust sterilisation will result in a
contaminated marketed product, with potential harm to the patient.
Sterilisation is therefore of great importance to healthcare and
the manufacturers of medical devices and pharmaceuticals.
Sterility, sterilisation and sterility assurance for
pharmaceuticals examines different means of rendering a product
sterile by providing an overview of sterilisation methods including
heat, radiation and filtration. The book outlines and discusses
sterilisation technology and the biopharmaceutical manufacturing
process, including aseptic filling, as well as aspects of the
design of containers and packaging, as well as addressing the
cleanroom environments in which products are prepared. Consisting
of 18 chapters, the book comprehensively covers sterility,
sterilisation and microorganisms; pyrogenicity and bacterial
endotoxins; regulatory requirements and good manufacturing
practices; and gamma radiation. Later chapters discuss e-beam; dry
heat sterilisation; steam sterilisation; sterilisation by gas;
vapour sterilisation; and sterile filtration, before final chapters
analyse depyrogenation; cleanrooms; aseptic processing; media
simulation; biological indicators; sterility testing; auditing; and
new sterilisation techniques.
This volume provides an overview of the development and scope of molecular biophysics and in-depth discussions of the major experimental methods that enable biological macromolecules to be studied at atomic resolution. It also reviews the physical chemical concepts that are needed to interpret the experimental results and to understand how the structure, dynamics, and physical properties of biological macromolecules enable them to perform their biological functions. Reviews of research on three disparate biomolecular machines-DNA helicases, ATP synthases, and myosin--illustrate how the combination of theory and experiment leads to new insights and new questions.
Transporters in Drug Development examines how membrane transporters can be dealt with in academic-industrial drug discovery and pharmaceutical development as well as from a regulatory perspective. The book describes methods and examples of in vitro characterization of single transporters in the intestines, liver and kidneys as well as characterization of substrate overlap between various transporters. Furthermore, probes and biomarkers are suggested for studies of the transporters' impact on the pharmacokinetics of drug substrates/candidates interacting on transporters. The challenges of translating in vitro observed interaction of transporters into in vivo relevance are explored, and the book highlights perspectives of applying targeted proteomics and mechanistic modeling in this process.
The blurring of boundaries between hitherto distinct scientific disciplines, technologies or markets is a common and powerful phenomenon. Subjects of this convergence often change consumer behaviours, favouring products and platforms with multiple functions. The Anticipation of Converging Industries provides a detailed focus on the triggers, drivers and consequences of convergence to create a more concise definition of convergence. This detailed analysis includes a specifically developed toolbox for `convergence foresight', creating a forecasting method for convergence trends. With the focus on the chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries, several indicators of convergence in the areas of Nutraceuticals/Functional Foods, Cosmeceuticals and ICT are derived from samples including over 1million patents and scientific publications. By supporting this methodical approach with real world data, The Anticipation of Converging Industries is perfect for industry practitioners looking for a competitive edge in the present and for the future. Similarly, academics will find a comprehensive theoretical concept for better understanding the underlying rationale of convergence at their disposal
A range of new and innovative tools used for preformulation and
formulation of medicines help optimize pharmaceutical development
projects. Such tools also assist with the performance evaluation of
the pharmaceutical process, allowing any potential gaps to be
identified. These tools can be applied in both basic research and
industrial environment. Formulation tools for pharmaceutical
development considers these key research and industrial tools.
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