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Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is a unique compilation of reviews addressing frontiers in biologicals as a rich source for innovative medicines. This book fulfills the needs of a broad community of scientists interested in biologicals from diverse perspectives-basic research, biotechnology, protein engineering, protein delivery, medicines, pharmaceuticals and vaccinology. The diverse topics range from advanced biotechnologies aimed to introduce novel, potent engineered vaccines of unprecedented efficacy and safety for a wide scope of human diseases to natural products, small peptides and polypeptides engineered for discrete prophylaxis and therapeutic purposes. Modern biologicals promise to dramatically expand the scope of preventive medicine beyond the infectious disease arena into broad applications in immune and cancer treatment, as exemplified by anti-EGFR receptors antibodies for the treatment of breast cancer. The exponential growth in biologicals such as engineered proteins and vaccines has been boosted by unprecedented scientific breakthroughs made in the past decades culminating in an in-depth fundamental understanding of the scientific underpinnings of immune mechanisms together with knowledge of protein and peptide scaffolds that can be deliberately manipulated. This has in turn led to new strategies and processes. Deciphering the human, mammalian and numerous pathogens' genomes provides opportunities that never before have been available-identification of discrete antigens (genomes and antigenomes) that lend themselves to considerably improved antigens and monoclonal antibodies, which with more sophisticated engineered adjuvants and agonists of pattern recognition receptors present in immune cells, deliver unprecedented safety and efficacy. Technological development such a nanobiotechnologies (dendrimers, nanobodies and fullerenes), biological particles (viral-like particles and bacterial ghosts) and innovative vectors (replication-competent attenuated, replication-incompetent recombinant and defective helper-dependent vectors) fulfill a broad range of cutting-edge research, drug discovery and delivery applications. Most recent examples of breakthrough biologicals include the human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV, prevention of women genital cancer) and the multivalent Pneumoccocal vaccines, which has virtually eradicated in some populations a most prevalent bacterial ear infection (i.e., otitis media). It is expected that in the years to come similar success will be obtained in the development of vaccines for diseases which still represent major threats for human health, such as AIDS, as well as for the generation of improved vaccines against diseases like pandemic flu for which vaccines are currently available. Furthermore, advances in comparative immunology and innate immunity revealed opportunities for innovative strategies for ever smaller biologicals and vaccines derived from species such as llama and sharks, which carry tremendous potential for innovative biologicals already in development stages in many pharmaceutical companies. Such recent discoveries and knowledge exploitations hold the promise for breakthrough biologicals, with the coming decade. Finally, this book caters to individuals not directly engaged in the pharmaceutical drug discovery process via a chapter outlining discovery, preclinical development, clinical development and translational medicine issues that are critical the drug development process. The authors and editors hope that this compilation of reviews will help readers rapidly and completely update knowledge and understanding of the frontiers in pharmaceutical biotechnologies.
Biocatalysis is rapidly evolving into a key technology for the discovery and production of chemicals, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, where high yielding chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective reactions are critical. Taking the latest breakthroughs in genomics and proteomics into consideration, "Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry" concisely yet comprehensively discusses the modern application of biocatalysis to drug discovery, development, and manufacturing. Written by a team of leading experts, the book offers deep insight into this cutting edge field.
Covers a wide range of topics in a systematic manner with an emphasis on industrial applicationsProvides a thorough introduction to the latest biocatalysts, modern expression hosts, state-of-the-art directed evolution, high throughput screening, and bioprocess engineeringAddresses frontier subjects such as emerging enzymes, metabolite profiling, combinatorial biosynthesis, metabolic engineering, and autonomous enzymes for the synthesis and development of chiral molecules, drug metabolites, and semi-synthetic medicinal compounds and natural product analogsHighlights the impact of biocatalysis on green chemistryContains numerous graphics to illustrate concepts and techniques
"Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry" is an essential resource for scientists, engineers, and R&D policy makers in the fine chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. It is also an invaluable tool for academic researchers and advanced students of organic and materials synthesis, chemical biology, and medicinal chemistry.
Regulatory affairs and pharmacological drug safety issues of Ayurvedic medicine has been overlooked by practitioners for many years. Research in Ayurveda is now a world-wide phenomenon, and several large pharmaceutical corporations are investing money for novel drug discovery from Ayurvedic sources. This book examines the regulatory and pharmacological aspects and includes extensive data on scientific evaluation carried out on Ayurvedic formulations. It will also serve as a reference book on standardization, pre-clinical studies, and clinical and toxicological studies on Ayurvedic formulations.
How to hone your analytical skills and obtain high-quality data in the era of GMP requirements
With increased regulatory pressures on the pharmaceutical industry, there is a growing need for capable analysts who can ensure appropriate scientific practices in laboratories and manufacturing sites worldwide. Based on Johnson & Johnson's acclaimed in-house training program, this practical guide provides guidance for laboratory analysts who must juggle the Food and Drug Administration's good manufacturing practices (GMP) rules with rapidly changing analytical technologies. Highly qualified industry experts walk readers step-by-step through the concepts, techniques, and tools necessary to perform analyses in an FDA-regulated environment, including clear instructions on all major analytical chemical methods-from spectroscopy to chromatography to dissolution. An ideal manual for formal training as well as an excellent self-study guide, Analytical Chemistry in a GMP Environment features:
Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.
The authoritative source on clinical data management Extensively revised and updated, with the addition of new chapters and authors, this long-awaited second edition covers all aspects of clinical data management. Giving details of the efficient clinical data management procedures required to satisfy both corporate objectives and quality audits by regulatory authorities, this text will be a timely publication in an ever-changing field. The volume:
Best practices for conducting effective and safe clinical trials
Clinical trials are arguably the most important steps in proving drug effectiveness and safety for public use. They require intensive planning and organization and involve a wide range of disciplines: data management, biostatistics, pharmacology, toxicology, modeling and simulation, regulatory monitoring, ethics, and particular issues for given disease areas. "Clinical Trials Handbook" provides a comprehensive and thorough reference on the basics and practices of clinical trials.
With contributions from a range of international authors, the book takes the reader through each trial phase, technique, and issue. Chapters cover every key aspect of preparing and conducting clinical trials, including:
Quantitative Molecular Pharmacology and Informatics in Drug Discovery combines pharmacology, genetics and statistics to provide a complete guide to the modern drug discovery process. The book discusses the pharmacology of drug testing and provides a detailed description of the statistical methods used to analyze the resulting data. Application of genetic and genomic tools for identification of biological targets is reviewed in the context of drug discovery projects.
Stroke remains one of the major causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. Currently, the only approved therapy for the acute treatment of this disease is thrombolysis, a strategy that can only be applied to a small percentage of patients due to its narrow therapeutic window. Unfortunately, during the last years numerous promising drugs that showed neuroprotection in the experimental setting failed to translate into the clinic because of their toxicity or lack of efficacy. Researchers in the field now face the crucial need to develop effective stroke therapies and successfully translate novel strategies into the clinical setting. Rational Basis for Clinical Translation in Stroke Therapy presents the most recent promising preclinical approaches and the most updated clinical evidence for treating stroke patients. By bringing together the experience of accomplished stroke researchers and clinicians, the book is a useful tool for improving the treatment and management of stroke patients. The book describes current approaches for the management of stroke patients including thrombolysis and mechanical recanalization procedures as well as other clinically relevant topics such as diagnosis, imaging, risk factors, and prevention. Also described are emerging interventions based on the use of stem cells, botulinum toxin, and antidepressants which complement emergency stroke treatment and conventional rehabilitation procedures. Clinical approaches are integrated with the most promising therapeutic opportunities based on targeting the immune system, hypothermia, and postconditioning. The book also covers issues related to the improvement of R&D strategies in stroke therapeutics, aimed at the implementation of preclinical approaches with stroke model guidelines and at the optimization of clinical trial design. This volume is a reference for all those interested in the rational development of novel stroke therapeutics.
The field of pharmacogenomics arose to develop personalized medicine, or medicine that deals with the complexity of the human body. In this book, leading experts present methodical, state-of-the-art contributions covering topics from individual molecules to systemic diseases, examining both fundamental concepts and advanced technologies. The volume begins by exploring cutting-edge technologies used to pursue systems-based pharmacogenomics, followed by extensive chapters on gene-drug interactions and the use of pharmacogenomics in therapeutics of diseases. This book is ideal for scientists striving to transform disease treatment into disease prevention.
The first contribution presents coumarins, the largest group of 1-benzopyran derivatives found in plants. Coumarin chemistry remains one of the major interest areas of phytochemists, especially because of their structural diversity and medicinal properties, along with the wide-ranging bioactivities of these compounds, inclusive of analgesic, anticoagulant anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The second contribution presents a comprehensive survey of the many aspects of PAD biochemistry and physiology. The third contribution gives a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites from higher fungi, with more than 700 references highlighting the isolation, structure elucidation, biological activities, chemical synthesis, and biosynthesis of pigments, nitrogen-containing compounds, and terpenoids from mushrooms.
COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR DIVERSITY IN DRUG DISCOVERY
Edited by Eric M. Gordon and James F. Kerwin, Jr.
Increasing pressure to identify, optimize, develop, and commercialize novel drugs more rapidly and more cost-effectively has led to an urgent demand for technologies that can reduce the time to market for new products. Molecular diversity, of both natural and synthetic materials, provides a valuable source of compounds for identifying and optimizing new drug leads. Through the rapidly evolving technology of combinatorial chemistry, it is now possible to produce libraries of small molecules to screen for novel bioactivities. This powerful new technology has begun to help pharmaceutical companies find new drug candidates quickly, save significant dollars in preclinical development costs, and ultimately change their fundamental approach to drug discovery.
Comprising the work of the leading authorities in the area of molecular diversity and combinatorial chemistry, Combinatorial Chemistry and Molecular Diversity in Drug Discovery highlights the critical concepts and issues involved in implementing combinatorial chemistry to create chemical libraries. The authors, industrial and academic experts in the field, apply combinatorial technologies to drug discovery and development and place co-evolving technologies and practices in a global framework.
Included among the many topics:
Combinatorial Chemistry and Molecular Diversity in Drug Discovery is one of the first comprehensive books to cover this explosive area. It is must reading for medicinal chemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, enzymologists, and drug discovery research managers in industry, academia, and government.
This book details chiroptical spectroscopic methods: electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), and vibrational Raman optical activity (VROA). For each technique, the text presents experimental methods for measurements and theoretical methods for analyzing the experimental data. It also includes a set of experiments that can be adopted for undergraduate teaching laboratories. Each chapter is written in an easy-to-follow format for novice readers, with necessary theoretical formalism in appendices for advanced readers.
The octanol-water partition coefficient is a laboratory-measured property of a substance. It provides a thermodynamic measure of the tendency of the substance to prefer a non-aqueous or oily milieu rather than water (i.e. its hydrophilic/lipophilic balance). Partition coefficients are used extensively in medicinal chemistry, drug design, ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry. The partition coefficient is recognized by governmental and international agencies (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, OECD) as a physical property of organic pollutants equal in importance to vapour pressure, water solubility and toxicity. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients is a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the thermodynamics of partitioning and of the octanol-water pair. In addition, all current methods of measurement are reviewed, strengths and weaknesses are noted and recommendations for particular applications are given. Current methods of calculation of partition coefficients are similarly surveyed and described. Five of the most popular computerized methods are tested for predictive accuracy for drugs, pollutants, aminoacids, etc. The book will be of interest not only to solution chemists, but to any chemists who use partition coefficients. It provides a thorough understanding of the fundamentals and offers clear guidance on the choice of methods of measurement and calculation. Contents: Introduction, Thermodynamics and Extrathermodynamics of Partitioning, Experimental Methods of Measurement, Discussion of Measurement Methods, Methods of Calculating Partitioning Coefficients, Discussion of LogKow Predictive Methods The Wiley Series in Solution Chemistry fills the increasing need to present authoritative, comprehensive and fully up-to-date accounts of the many aspects of solution chemistry. Internationally recognized experts from research or teaching institutions in various countries are invited to contribute to the series.
This third volume in a four-volume set offers new theories and applications for the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Having laid the groundwork in the first two volumes, the authors now embark on significant, real-life scenarios that apply their philosophy to mental disorder treatments. The goal of the project is to take the industry toward sustainability, not just in terms of the chemical engineering used to create medicines, but also environmentally, economically, and personally. Their unique approach uses a more holistic and philosophically cohesive method for treating mental disorders, making the industry "greener" and the patient healthier. The four volumes in "The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering" are: Volume 1: Practice, Analysis, and Methodology Volume 2: Theories and Solutions Volume 3: Applications for Mental Disorder Treatments Volume 4: Applications for Physical Disorder Treatments This ground-breaking set of books is a unique and state-of-the-art study that only appears here, within these pages. A fascinating study for the engineer, scientist, and pharmacist working in the pharmaceutical industry and interested in sustainability, it is also a valuable textbook for students and faculty studying these subjects.
This work presents a systematic review of traditional herbal medicine and their active compounds, as well as their mechanism of action in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. The side effects and safety of herbal-derived anti-diabetic and anti-obesity phytochemicals are detailed in depth, and the text has a strong focus on current and future trends in anti-diabetic medicinal plants. This unique and comprehensive text is the only current book on the market focusing exclusively on medicinal plants used to combat obesity and diabetes. An introductory chapter focuses on diabetes and obesity and introduces the major causes and main treatments of this increasing epidemic in modern society. Readers are then introduced to medicinal plants, including details on their therapeutic aspects, plus side effects and safety. Following chapters focus on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicinal plants, as well as phytogenic natural products in the treatment of each. The text closes by focusing on present and future trends and challenges in these medicinal plants. Anti-diabetes and Anti-obesity Medicinal Plants and Phytochemicals: Safety, Efficacy, and Action Mechanisms is a much-needed and truly original work, finally presenting in one place all the necessary information on medicinal plants used in conjunction with obesity and diabetes prevention.
"The Drug Discovery Handbook" gives professionals a tool to facilitate drug discovery by bringing together, for the first time in one resource, a compendium of methods and techniques that need to be considered when developing new drugs. This comprehensive, practical guide presents an explanation of the latest techniques and methods in drug discovery, including: genomics, proteomics, high-throughput screening, and systems biology; summaries of how these techniques and methods are used to discover new central nervous system agents, antiviral agents, respiratory drugs, oncology drugs, and more; and, specific approaches to drug discovery, including problems that are encountered, solutions to these problems, and limitations of various methods and techniques. The thorough coverage and practical, scientifically valid problem-solving approach of "Drug Discovery Handbook" will serve as an invaluable aid in the complex task of developing new drugs.
The Medical Review Officer's Guide to Drug Testing makes it easy to understand current federal guidelines and select the best approaches for your needs. Tables, checklists, and record-keeping forms help you standardize your drug testing operations. This reference also reviews federal drug testing regulations, describes drug testing procedures and addresses risk management strategies.
In the literature, several terms are used synonymously to name the topic of this book: chem-, chemi-, or chemo-informatics. A widely recognized de- nition of this discipline is the one by Frank Brown from 1998 (1) who defined chemoinformatics as the combination of "all the information resources that a scientist needs to optimize the properties of a ligand to become a drug. " In Brown's definition, two aspects play a fundamentally important role: de- sion support by computational means and drug discovery, which distinguishes it from the term "chemical informatics" that was introduced at least ten years earlier and described as the application of information technology to ch- istry (not with a specific focus on drug discovery). In addition, there is of course "chemometrics," which is generally understood as the application of statistical methods to chemical data and the derivation of relevant statistical models and descriptors (2). The pharmaceutical focus of many developments and efforts in this area-and the current popularity of gene-to-drug or si- lar paradigms-is further reflected by the recent introduction of such terms as "discovery informatics" (3), which takes into account that gaining kno- edge from chemical data alone is not sufficient to be ultimately successful in drug discovery. Such insights are well in accord with other views that the boundaries between bio- and chemoinformatics are fluid and that these d- ciplines should be closely combined or merged to significantly impact b- technology or pharmaceutical research (4).
A collection of information on the use of color additives in the food, cosmetic and medical industries. This Third Edition documents important recent developments such as newly listed products, delisted products, modernized specifications and improved analytical technology, new manufacturers and suppliers. A general background of color additives is given including their history, regulation, areas of use and purity requirements.
An eminent scientist talks about the pharmaceutical industry, biotechnology and the future of drug research. In the course of our busy, technologically-driven lives, it is taken for granted that we respond to minor fluctuations in our health by taking pills -- pills for headache and for toothache; sleeping pills and tranquilizers; pills to lower fever, quiet coughs, and clear the sinuses; medicines to reduce appetite; preparations to relieve heartburn; and many more. In the war against serious disease, medicines are an indispensable weapon in the physician's arsenal: they save lives, or at least prolong them and make them more bearable. Despite the important role that pharmaceuticals play in our lives, few of us know where medicines come from or how the pharmaceutical industry discovers and develops new drugs. Jurgen Drews, an acclaimed leader in the pharmaceutical industry, tells the fascinating story of drug discovery and development from his years of successfully leading internatnional research teams at Hoffman-LaRoche. Drews traces the history of modern drug development from pharmacies, chemical companies, and individual entrepeneurs in Switzerland, Germany and the U.S. to the mega-corporations that dot the landscape of Europe, Japan and America. He describes the process by which new drugs are tested and brought to market, including a provacative look at how AIDS activism stimulated the approval process in the US. Drews' commentary on the role of clinical trials -- the time involved and their cost -- is sobering testimony to the complexity of bringing innovation to the marketplace. In the final two chapters of "In Quest of Tomorrow's Medicines", Drews offers an important and critical analysis of research in the the pharmaceutical industry, pointing to strategies that work and management practices that impede progress. Drews' comments on the impact that the growing relationship between the biotechnology industry and university-sponsored research will have ont he pharmaceutical industry makes provocative reading for pharmaceutical researchers, managers and investors. "In Quest of Tomorrow's Medicines" in written in clear, thoughtful language for people in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, as well as policy makers, industry analysts and observers.
It is evident that biochemical control is not strictly hierarchical and that intermediary metabolism can contribute to control of regulatory pathways. Metabolic studies are therefore increasingly important in gene function analyses, and an increased interest in metabolites as biomarkers for disease progression or response to therapeutic intervention is also evident in the pharmaceutical industry. This book offers guidelines to currently available technology and bioinformatics and database strategies now being developed. Evidence is presented that metabolic profiling is a valuable addition to genomics and proteomics strategies devoted to drug discovery and development, and that metabolic profiling offers numerous advantages.
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