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The book provides data on all the species of the two genera Genera Brachystelma Sims and Ceropegia L. in India for their bioprospection and conservation. The other objectives are to promote the beauty and uniqueness of the species of these two genera and also to provide medicinal and edible uses for bioprospection.
Theory of Drug Development presents a formal quantitative framework for understanding drug development that goes beyond simply describing the properties of the statistics in individual studies. It examines the drug development process from the perspectives of drug companies and regulatory agencies. By quantifying various ideas underlying drug development, the book shows how to systematically address problems, such as: Sizing a phase 2 trial and choosing the range of p-values that will trigger a follow-up phase 3 trial Deciding whether a drug should receive marketing approval based on its phase 2/3 development program and recent experience with other drugs in the same clinical area Determining the impact of adaptive designs on the quality of drugs that receive marketing approval Designing a phase 3 pivotal study that permits the data-driven adjustment of the treatment effect estimate Knowing when enough information has been gathered to show that a drug improves the survival time for the whole patient population Drawing on his extensive work as a statistician in the pharmaceutical industry, the author focuses on the efficient development of drugs and the quantification of evidence in drug development. He provides a rationale for underpowered phase 2 trials based on the notion of efficiency, which leads to the identification of an admissible family of phase 2 designs. He also develops a framework for evaluating the strength of evidence generated by clinical trials. This approach is based on the ratio of power to type 1 error and transcends typical Bayesian and frequentist statistical analyses.
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) occur when a patient is exposed simultaneously to multiple pharmaceuticals, which can result in variations in drug response of the co-administered drugs. Using illustrative case studies and examples, Drug-Drug Interactions for Therapeutic Biologics focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of DDIs assessments for therapeutic biologics in drug development. The book addresses the complex nature of biologic drug development and DDIs, which are very different from more traditional small molecule drugs, to help readers solve problems of preclinical pharmacology, toxicology, and model-based approaches for biologic drug development and the risk of drug-drug interactions.
Renowned experts give all essential aspects of the techniques and applications of graft copolymers based on polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are the most abundant natural organic materials and polysaccharide based graft copolymers are of great importance and widely used in various fields. Natural polysaccharides have recently received more attention due to their advantages over synthetic polymers by being non-toxic, biodegradable and available at low cost. Modification of polysaccharides through graft copolymerization improves the properties of polysaccharides. Grafting is known to improve the characteristic properties of the backbones. Such properties include water repellency, thermal stability, flame resistance, dye-ability and resistance towards acid-base attack and abrasion. Polysaccharides and their graft copolymers find extensive applications in diversified fields. Applications of modified polysaccharides include drug delivery devices, controlled release of fungicides, selective water absorption from oil-water emulsions, purification of water etc.
In the past century, numerous drugs have been developed and have helped us to get rid of various diseases. By the mature development of micro/nano technologies, precise, predictable, and well-controlled instruments and tools for drug testing and delivery have been suggested. Efficient drug development and effective drug delivery can benefit the quality of human lives. This book presents advances in drug testing and drug delivery. It covers a board spectrum of topics and state of the art research in this field. As such, the book is divided into three parts, comprised of nine chapters. The first part (Chapter One) introduces recent developments of drug testing technologies targeting for subjects who suffer from drug abuse and addiction. Specimens of oral fluid and hair are the focuses of this discussion. The second part (Chapters Four through Six) includes the advanced technologies for drug testing. In the development of a new drug, the process is lengthy and costly. There are a large amount of drug tests on living cell culture involved. Therefore, in order to decrease the development time and increase the prediction precision of the drug effectiveness, advanced technologies of 3D cell culture and microfluidics for drug testing are introduced. The third part (Chapters Seven to Nine) presents the novel drug delivery systems. Compared to conventional oral and parenteral administration, microneedle patches and polymer delivery carriers are novel drug delivery approaches. In-depth discussions of different delivery systems are included to achieve promising therapeutic effects. These novel and ongoing techniques provide new insights and possibilities for drug testing and drug delivery. The reader will gain a unique perspective on the challenges and emerging opportunities in this exciting field.
Biologics have revolutionised the treatment of many severe conditions, delivering exceptional clinical results but also producing exceptionally high prices. As patents expire, copies and price competition are expected throughout the world. However, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity and molecular complexity of biologic medicinal products, their copies cannot simply be authorized under the "generic rule" valid for small chemical entities. In response, a dedicated regulation was issued in the European Union. It is based on the concept of "biological medicinal products similar to a biological reference product", or "biosimilars". This book analyses the context of biotechnological production and addresses the European legal framework for biosimilar market approval. It highlights post-market authorisation issues, such as Risk Management Plans and substitution of products, and outlines some other issues, such as cost management and international nomenclature. This book is primarily intended for hospital-based physicians and pharmacists. It will also be a valuable resource for all actors from all countries who want to better understand the emergence of these new medicinal products within the European context.
Contents: Gerard Jaouen, Nils Metzler-Nolte : Introduction ; Stephane GIBAUD and Gerard JAOUEN: Arsenic - based drugs: from Fowler's solution to modern anticancer chemotherapy; Ana M. Pizarro, Abraha Habtemariam and Peter J. Sadler : Activation Mechanisms for Organometallic Anticancer Complexes; Angela Casini, Christian G. Hartinger, Alexey A. Nazarov, Paul J. Dyson : Organometallic antitumour agents with alternative modes of action; Elizabeth A. Hillard, Anne Vessieres, Gerard Jaouen : Ferrocene functionalized endocrine modulators for the treatment of cancer; Megan Hogan and Matthias Tacke : Titanocenes - Cytotoxic and Anti-Angiogenic Chemotherapy Against Advanced Renal-Cell Cancer; Seann P. Mulcahy and Eric Meggers : Organometallics as Structural Scaffolds for Enzyme Inhibitor Design; Christophe Biot and Daniel Dive : Bioorganometallic Chemistry and Malaria; Nils Metzler-Nolte : Biomedical applications of organometal-peptide conjugates; Roger Alberto : Organometallic Radiopharmaceuticals; Brian E. Mann : Carbon Monoxide - an essential signaling molecule.
This book critically investigates the patent protection of medication in light of the threats posed by HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis epidemics to the citizens of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (hereinafter "SSA" or "Africa"). The book outlines the systemic problems associated with the prevailing globalized patent regime and the regime's inability to promote access to life-saving medication at affordable prices in SSA. It argues that for pharmaceutical patents to retain their relevance in SSA countries, human development concepts must be integrated into global patent law- and policy-making. An integrative approach implies developing additional public health and human development exceptions/limitations to the exercise of patent rights with the goal of scaling up access to medication that can treat epidemics in SSA. By drawing on multiple perspectives of laws, institutions, practices, and politics, the book suggests that SSA countries adopt an evidence-based approach to implementing global patent standards in domestic jurisdictions. This evidence-based approach would include mechanisms like local need assessments and the use of empirical data to shape domestic patent law-making endeavors. The approach also implies revising patent rules and policies with a pro-poor and pro-health emphasis, so that medication will be more affordable and accessible to the citizens of SSA countries. It also suggests considering the opinions of individuals and pro-access institutions in enacting crucial pieces of health-related statutes in SSA countries. The approach in this book is sensitive to the public health needs of the citizens affected by epidemics and to the imperative of building local manufacturing facilities for pharmaceutical research and development in SSA.
One of the main problems concerning therapeutic tools for the treatment of parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, is that some field parasites are naturally resistant to the classical drugs; additionally, current therapies may select parasites prone to be resistant to the applied drugs. These features are (at least partially) responsible for the disappointing persistence of the disease and resultant deaths worldwide. This book provides a comprehensive view of the pathology of the disease itself, and of parasitic drug resistance, its molecular basis, consequences and possible treatments. Scientists both from academic fields and from the industry involved in biomedical research and drug design, will find in this book a valuable and fundamental guide that conveys the knowledge needed to understand and to improve the success in combating this disease worldwide.
Drug discovery originating in Africa has the potential to provide significantly improved treatment of endemic diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. This book critically reviews the current status of drug discovery research and development in Africa, for diseases that are a major threat to the health of people living in Africa. Compiled by leading African and international experts, this book presents the science and strategies of modern drug discovery. It explores how the use of natural products and traditional medicines can benefit from conventional drug discovery approaches, and proposes solutions to current technological, infrastructural, human resources, and economic challenges, which are presented when attempting to engage in full-scale drug discovery. Topics addressed are varied; from African medicinal plants to marine bioprospecting, pharmacogenetics and the use of nanotechnology. This book brings together for the first time a collection of strategies and techniques that need to be considered when developing drugs in an African setting. It is an unprecedented and truly international effort, highlighting the remarkable effort made so far in the area of drug discovery research by African scientists, and scientists from other parts of the world working on African health problems.
"Development of novel vaccines" gives an overview of the tasks in basic research leading to the final product -- the vaccine and its applications, belonging to the most complex biologics in the pharmaceutical field. Distinct from most textbooks in the vaccine arena, the current issue focuses on the translational aspect, namely, how research results can be transformed into life-saving medical interventions. Each chapter of the book deals with one important paradigm for the development of novel vaccines, along the value chain towards the final vaccine, and furthermore, with the inevitable tools required for this process. Contributions are prepared by teams of scientists, all of whom are experts in the field, most of them anchored in biomedical organizations devoted to translational culture, thereby lighting the certain topics from different views. This volume is a must read for researchers engaged in vaccine development and who really want to see their research results to become a product.
ABPP Methodology: Introduction and Overview, by Matthew B. Nodwell und Stephan A. Sieber Activity-Based Protein Profiling for Natural Product Target Discovery, by Joanna Krysiak und Rolf Breinbauer Photoaffinity Labeling in Activity-Based Protein Profiling, by Paul P. Geurink, Laurette M. Prely, Gijs A. van der Marel, Rainer Bischoff und Herman S. Overkleeft Application of Activity-Based Protein Profiling to the Study of Microbial Pathogenesis, by William P. Heal und Edward W. Tate Functional Analysis of Protein Targets by Metabolomic Approaches, by Yun-Gon Kim und Alan Saghatelian
This book presents the laboratory, scientific and clinical aspects of nanomaterials used for medical applications in the fields of regenerative medicine, dentistry and pharmacy. It gives a broad overview on the in vitro compatibility assessment of nanostructured materials implemented in the medical field by the combination of classical biological protocols and advanced non-destructive nano-precision techniques with special emphasis on the topographical, surface energy, optical and electrical properties. Materials in the physical form of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and thin films are addressed in terms of their toxicity. The different pillars of the Nanomedicine field are also highlighted. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach of medicine, biology, pharmacy, physics, chemistry, engineering, nanotechnology and materials science. The international group of authors specifically chosen for their distinguished expertise belong to the academic and industrial world in order to provide a broader perspective. It appeals to researchers and graduate students.
Long acting injections and implants improve therapy, enhance patient compliance, improve dosing convenience, and are the most appropriate formulation choice for drugs that undergo extensive first pass metabolism or that exhibit poor oral bioavailability. An intriguing variety of technologies have been developed to provide long acting injections and implants. Many considerations need to go into the design of these systems in order to translate a concept from the lab bench to actual therapy for a patient. This book surveys and summarizes the field. Topics covered in Long Acting Injections and Implants include the historical development of the field, drugs, diseases and clinical applications for long acting injections and implants, anatomy and physiology for these systems, specific injectable technologies (including lipophilic solutions, aqueous suspensions, microspheres, liposomes, in situ forming depots and self-assembling lipid formulations), specific implantable technologies (including osmotic implants, drug eluting stents and microfabricated systems), peptide, protein and vaccine delivery, sterilization, drug release testing and regulatory aspects of long acting injections and implants. This volume provides essential information for experienced development professionals but was also written to be useful for scientists just beginning work in the field and for others who need an understanding of long acting injections and implants. This book will also be ideal as a graduate textbook.
The Art and Science of Dermal Formulation Development is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of transdermal and topical formulation development, covering preclinical studies, evaluation, and regulatory approval. It enables the reader to understand the opportunities and challenges in developing products and how risks can be mitigated. Over the last 25 years, expertise in this area has declined whilst drug delivery systems for other administration routes have developed significantly. The advantages offered by transdermal and topical drug delivery remain compelling for sectors including the pharmaceutical industry, personal care, and cosmetics. This text addresses the dearth of expertise and discusses how skin can be a route of delivery and the processes in formulation development, but how such an application is very different to that used for oral, IV, and other administration routes.
This set of six volumes provides a systematic and standardized description of 23,033 chemical components isolated from 6,734 medicinal plants, collected from 5,507 books/articles published in Chinese and international journals. A chemical structure with stereo-chemistry bonds is provided for each chemical component, in addition to conventional information, such as Chinese and English names, physical and chemical properties. It includes a name list of medicinal plants from which the chemical component was isolated. Furthermore, abundant pharmacological data for nearly 8,000 chemical components are presented, including experimental method, experimental animal, cell type, quantitative data, as well as control compound data. The seven indexes allow for complete cross-indexing. Regardless whether one searches for the molecular formula of a compound, the pharmacological activity of a compound, or the English name of a plant, the information in the book can be retrieved in multiple ways.
Throughout human history, we have long encountered the combination of promise, risk, and uncertainty that accompanies emerging technologies. Nanotechnology is a recent example of an emerging technology that promises to drastically improve existing products as well as allow for creative development of new goods and services. This new technology also has its potential downsides. Industry, academia, and regulatory agencies are all working overtime to assess risks accurately while keeping up with the pace of development. Subtle changes in the physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can influence their toxicity and behavior in the environment and so can be used to help control potential ENM risks. This book attempts to encompass the state of the science regarding physicochemical characterization of ENMs. It illuminates the effort to understand these properties and how they may be used to ensure safe ENM deployment in existing or future materials and products.
This book covers the essentials of drug delivery research and provides a unique forum for scientific experimental methods that are exclusively focused by the in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo methodologies of drug delivery research and felicitates translational research. The book includes recent and novel approaches in evaluation methods of transdermal, nasal, ocular, oral and intraoral, gastro-retentive, colon-targeted, and brain-targeted drug delivery systems. Providing up to date and comprehensive information, this text is invaluable to students, teachers, scientists, and others employed in the field of drug delivery.
Inhaled Pharmaceutical Product Development Perspectives: Challenges and Opportunities describes methods and procedures for consideration when developing inhaled pharmaceuticals, while commenting on product development strategies and their suitability to support regulatory submission. It bridges the gap between the aspirations of scientists invested in new technology development and the requirements that must be met for any new product. The book brings together emerging analytical and inhalation technologies, providing perspectives that illuminate formulation and device design, development, regulatory compliance, and practice. Focusing on underlying scientific and technical principles known to be acceptable from the current regulatory perspective, this monograph will remain useful as a high-level guide to inhaled product development for the foreseeable future.
Microbial lipases are industrially important and have gained attention due to their stability, selectivity, and broad substrate specificity. Lipases are used as medicine, and they also aid in indigestion, heartburn, allergy to gluten in wheat products (celiac disease), Crohn's disease, and cystic fibrosis. This volume considers the industrial demand for new sources of lipases with different catalytic characteristics that stimulate the isolation, growth, and development of new microbial strains. The volume narrates the challenging metagenomic approach with the isolation of the lipase gene, its cloning into Escherichia coli, culture of the recombinant bacteria, and extraction and assessment of the lipase enzyme. Lipase-producing bacteria are available in different habitats, such as industrial wastes, vegetable oil processing factories, dairy plants, and soils contaminated with oil and oil seeds, among others. This volume is the effort of the authors to document the scientific findings carried out over the last eight years in the area of un-culturable soil microorganisms. The book presents the physic-chemical features of lipases and their specific applications in different commercial industries. The in-depth study looks at metagenomics for lipases from all angles and provides a truly informative resource. It describes the biochemical characterization of lipase enzymes with the high activity in the presence of 1% tributyrin. A wide review has been presented in the book on lipase enzymes purified from a large collection of microbes present in soil, seawater, waste-dumping sites, animal systems (including human beings), and the atmosphere. Stability of enzymes over changing environments of the industry is indeed a big issue, and the book deals at length with the changing temperatures and pH and metal ion concentrations.
Polymers are one of the most fascinating materials of the present era finding their applications in almost every aspects of life. Polymers are either directly available in nature or are chemically synthesized and used depending upon the targeted applications.Advances in polymer science and the introduction of new polymers have resulted in the significant development of polymers with unique properties. Different kinds of polymers have been and will be one of the key in several applications in many of the advanced pharmaceutical research being carried out over the globe. This 4-partset of books contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing different kinds of polymers with basic fundamentals and practicality for application in diverse pharmaceutical technologies. The volumes aim at explaining basics of polymers based materials from different resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the pharmaceutical industry. Each volume offer deep insight into the subject being treated. Volume 1: Structure and Chemistry Volume 2: Processing and Applications Volume 3: Biodegradable Polymers Volume 4: Bioactive and Compatible Synthetic/Hybrid Polymers
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