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Books > Humanities > Philosophy > Topics in philosophy > Philosophy of mind

The Case Against Reality - How Evolution Hid the Truth from Our Eyes (Hardcover): Donald D. Hoffman The Case Against Reality - How Evolution Hid the Truth from Our Eyes (Hardcover)
Donald D. Hoffman 1
R467 R315 Discovery Miles 3 150 Save R152 (33%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

A groundbreaking examination of human perception, reality and the evolutionary schism between the two Do we see the world as it truly is? In The Case Against Reality, pioneering cognitive scientist Donald Hoffman says no? we see what we need in order to survive. Our visual perceptions are not a window onto reality, Hoffman shows us, but instead are interfaces constructed by natural selection. The objects we see around us are not unlike the file icons on our computer desktops: while shaped like a small folder on our screens, the files themselves are made of a series of ones and zeros - too complex for most of us to understand. In a similar way, Hoffman argues, evolution has shaped our perceptions into simplistic illusions to help us navigate the world around us. Yet now these illusions can be manipulated by advertising and design. Drawing on thirty years of Hoffman's own influential research, as well as evolutionary biology, game theory, neuroscience, and philosophy, The Case Against Reality makes the mind-bending yet utterly convincing case that the world is nothing like what we see through our eyes.

The Order of Time (Paperback): Carlo Rovelli The Order of Time (Paperback)
Carlo Rovelli 1
R245 R140 Discovery Miles 1 400 Save R105 (43%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

THE #1 SUNDAY TIMES BESTSELLER The bestselling author of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics takes us on an enchanting, consoling journey to discover the meaning of time 'We are time. We are this space, this clearing opened by the traces of memory inside the connections between our neurons. We are memory. We are nostalgia. We are longing for a future that will not come' Time is a mystery that does not cease to puzzle us. Philosophers, artists and poets have long explored its meaning while scientists have found that its structure is different from the simple intuition we have of it. From Boltzmann to quantum theory, from Einstein to loop quantum gravity, our understanding of time has been undergoing radical transformations. Time flows at a different speed in different places, the past and the future differ far less than we might think, and the very notion of the present evaporates in the vast universe. With his extraordinary charm and sense of wonder, bringing together science, philosophy and art, Carlo Rovelli unravels this mystery. Enlightening and consoling, The Order of Time shows that to understand ourselves we need to reflect on time -- and to understand time we need to reflect on ourselves. Translated by Simon Carnell and Erica Segre

Hope Without Optimism (Paperback): Terry Eagleton Hope Without Optimism (Paperback)
Terry Eagleton
R279 R247 Discovery Miles 2 470 Save R32 (11%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

In a virtuoso display of erudition, thoughtfulness and humour, Terry Eagleton teases apart the concept of hope as it has been (often mistakenly) conceptualised over six millennia, from ancient Greece to today. He distinguishes hope from simple optimism, cheeriness, desire, idealism or adherence to the doctrine of Progress, bringing into focus a standpoint that requires reflection and commitment, arises from clear-sighted rationality, can be cultivated by practice and self-discipline, and which acknowledges but refuses to capitulate to the realities of failure and defeat. Authentic hope is indubitably tragic, yet Eagleton also argues for its radical implications as `a species of permanent revolution, whose enemy is as much political complacency as metaphysical despair'. It is a means of facing the future without devaluing the moment or obviating the past. Traversing centuries of thought about the many modes of hoping - from Ernst Bloch's monumental work through the Stoics, Aquinas, Marx and Kierkegaard, among others - this penetrating book throws new light on religious faith and political ideology as well as issues such as the problem of evil, the role of language and the meaning of the past. Hope Without Optimism is a brilliantly engaged, impassioned chronicle of human belief and desire in an increasingly uncertain world.

From Bacteria to Bach and Back - The Evolution of Minds (Paperback): Daniel C. Dennett From Bacteria to Bach and Back - The Evolution of Minds (Paperback)
Daniel C. Dennett 1
R215 R169 Discovery Miles 1 690 Save R46 (21%) Shipped within 4 - 8 working days

'Required reading for anyone remotely curious about how they came to be remotely curious' Observer 'Enthralling' Spectator What is human consciousness and how is it possible? These questions fascinate thinking people from poets and painters to physicists, psychologists, and philosophers. This is Daniel C. Dennett's brilliant answer, extending perspectives from his earlier work in surprising directions, exploring the deep interactions of evolution, brains and human culture. Part philosophical whodunnit, part bold scientific conjecture, this landmark work enlarges themes that have sustained Dennett's career at the forefront of philosophical thought. In his inimitable style, laced with wit and thought experiments, Dennett shows how culture enables reflection by installing a profusion of thinking tools, or memes, in our brains, and how language turbocharges this process. The result: a mind that can comprehend the questions it poses, has emerged from a process of cultural evolution. An agenda-setting book for a new generation of philosophers and thinkers, From Bacteria to Bach and Back is essential for anyone who hopes to understand human creativity in all its applications.

Metaphors in the Mind - Sources of Variation in Embodied Metaphor (Paperback): Jeannette Littlemore Metaphors in the Mind - Sources of Variation in Embodied Metaphor (Paperback)
Jeannette Littlemore
R532 Discovery Miles 5 320 Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Abstract concepts are often embodied through metaphor. For example, we talk about moving through time in metaphorical terms, as if we were moving through space, allowing us to 'look back' on past events. Much of the work on embodied metaphor to date has assumed a single set of universal, shared bodily experiences that motivate our understanding of abstract concepts. This book explores sources of variation in people's experiences of embodied metaphor, including, for example, the shape and size of one's body, one's age, gender, state of mind, physical or linguistic impairments, personality, ideology, political stance, religious beliefs, and linguistic background. It focuses on the ways in which people's experiences of metaphor fluctuate over time within a single communicative event or across a lifetime. Combining theoretical argument with findings from new studies, Littlemore analyses sources of variation in embodied metaphor and provides a deeper understanding of the nature of embodied metaphor itself.

Beyond the Self - Conversations between Buddhism and Neuroscience (Hardcover): Matthieu Ricard, Wolf Singer Beyond the Self - Conversations between Buddhism and Neuroscience (Hardcover)
Matthieu Ricard, Wolf Singer
R560 R437 Discovery Miles 4 370 Save R123 (22%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Converging and diverging views on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, perception, meditation, and other topics. Buddhism shares with science the task of examining the mind empirically; it has pursued, for two millennia, direct investigation of the mind through penetrating introspection. Neuroscience, on the other hand, relies on third-person knowledge in the form of scientific observation. In this book, Matthieu Ricard, a Buddhist monk trained as a molecular biologist, and Wolf Singer, a distinguished neuroscientist-close friends, continuing an ongoing dialogue-offer their perspectives on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, epistemology, meditation, and neuroplasticity. Ricard and Singer's wide-ranging conversation stages an enlightening and engaging encounter between Buddhism's wealth of experiential findings and neuroscience's abundance of experimental results. They discuss, among many other things, the difference between rumination and meditation (rumination is the scourge of meditation, but psychotherapy depends on it); the distinction between pure awareness and its contents; the Buddhist idea (or lack of one) of the unconscious and neuroscience's precise criteria for conscious and unconscious processes; and the commonalities between cognitive behavioral therapy and meditation. Their views diverge (Ricard asserts that the third-person approach will never encounter consciousness as a primary experience) and converge (Singer points out that the neuroscientific understanding of perception as reconstruction is very like the Buddhist all-discriminating wisdom) but both keep their vision trained on understanding fundamental aspects of human life.

Current Issues in Theology, Series Number 14 - Divine Action and the Human Mind (Hardcover): Sarah Ritchie Current Issues in Theology, Series Number 14 - Divine Action and the Human Mind (Hardcover)
Sarah Ritchie
R2,002 R1,847 Discovery Miles 18 470 Save R155 (8%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Is the human mind uniquely nonphysical or even spiritual, such that divine intentions can meet physical realities? As scholars in science and religion have spent decades attempting to identify a 'causal joint' between God and the natural world, human consciousness has been often privileged as just such a locus of divine-human interaction. However, this intuitively dualistic move is both out of step with contemporary science and theologically insufficient. By discarding the God-nature model implied by contemporary noninterventionist divine action theories, one is freed up to explore theological and metaphysical alternatives for understanding divine action in the mind. Sarah Lane Ritchie suggests that a theologically robust theistic naturalism offers a more compelling vision of divine action in the mind. By affirming that to be fully natural is to be involved with God's active presence, one may affirm divine action not only in the human mind, but throughout the natural world.

The Book of Why - The New Science of Cause and Effect (Paperback): Judea Pearl The Book of Why - The New Science of Cause and Effect (Paperback)
Judea Pearl 1
R285 R178 Discovery Miles 1 780 Save R107 (38%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

'Wonderful ... Illuminating ... Fun to read' Daniel Kahneman, author of Thinking, Fast and Slow A pioneer of artificial intelligence shows how the study of causality revolutionized science and the world 'Correlation does not imply causation.' This mantra was invoked by scientists for decades in order to avoid taking positions as to whether one thing caused another, such as smoking and cancer and carbon dioxide and global warming. But today, that taboo is dead. The causal revolution, sparked by world-renowned computer scientist Judea Pearl and his colleagues, has cut through a century of confusion and placed cause and effect on a firm scientific basis. Now, Pearl and science journalist Dana Mackenzie explain causal thinking to general readers for the first time, showing how it allows us to explore the world that is and the worlds that could have been. It is the essence of human and artificial intelligence. And just as Pearl's discoveries have enabled machines to think better, The Book of Why explains how we can think better.

Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology - The Cambridge Handbook of Wisdom (Paperback): Robert J. Sternberg, Judith Gluck Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology - The Cambridge Handbook of Wisdom (Paperback)
Robert J. Sternberg, Judith Gluck
R1,171 R1,020 Discovery Miles 10 200 Save R151 (13%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

This is a comprehensive review of the psychological literature on wisdom by leading experts in the field. It covers the philosophical and sociocultural foundations of wisdom, and showcases the measurement and teaching of wisdom. The connection of wisdom to intelligence and personality is explained alongside its relationship with morality and ethics. It also explores the neurobiology of wisdom, its significance in medical decision-making, and wise leadership. How to develop wisdom is discussed and practical information is given about how to instil it in others. The book is accessible to a wide readership and includes virtually all of the major theories of wisdom, as well as the full range of research on wisdom as it is understood today. It takes both a basic-science and applied focus, making it useful to those seeking to understand wisdom scientifically, and to those who wish to apply their understanding of wisdom to their own work.

The Triumph of Profiling - The Self in Digital Culture (Paperback): Andreas Bernard The Triumph of Profiling - The Self in Digital Culture (Paperback)
Andreas Bernard
R400 R327 Discovery Miles 3 270 Save R73 (18%) Shipped within 7 - 13 working days

Until fairly recently, only serial killers and lunatics had profiles. Yet today, most of us will have a profile as users of social media, and even by using the tracking capabilities on our smartphone. But where does the idea of "profiling" an individual come from, how has it changed over time and what are its implications? In this book, Andreas Bernard shows how contemporary profiling and quantification have their roots in methods developed in criminology, psychology and psychiatry at the end of the nineteenth century. Techniques for collecting data which were long used exclusively by police or to identify groups of people are now being applied to everyone who uses a smartphone or social media. GPS transmitters and measuring devices installed on bodies are no longer just instruments for tracking suspected criminals or patients, but unconsciously embraced as a way having fun, communicating, making money, or even finding a partner. Drawing perceptive parallels between modern technologies and their antecedents, Bernard demonstrates the way in which we have unwittingly internalized what were once instruments of external control and repression.This illuminating genealogy of contemporary digital culture will be of great interest to students and scholars in media and communication, as well anyone concerned about the power technologies hold over our lives.

Out of Our Minds - What We Think and How We Came to Think It (Hardcover): Felipe Fernandez-Armesto Out of Our Minds - What We Think and How We Came to Think It (Hardcover)
Felipe Fernandez-Armesto 1
R591 R455 Discovery Miles 4 550 Save R136 (23%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

To imagine - to see that which is not there - is the startling ability that has fuelled human development and innovation through the centuries. As a species we stand alone in our remarkable capacity to refashion the world after the pictures in our minds. Traversing the realms of science, politics, religion, culture, philosophy and history, Felipe Fernandez-Armesto reveals the thrilling and disquieting tales of our imaginative leaps - from the first Homo sapiens to the present day. Through groundbreaking insights in cognitive science, he explores how and why we have ideas in the first place, providing a tantalising glimpse into who we are and what we might yet accomplish. Fernandez-Armesto shows that bad ideas are often more influential than good ones; that the oldest recoverable thoughts include some of the best; that ideas of Western origin often issued from exchanges with the wider world; and that the pace of innovative thinking is under threat.

The Science of Fate - Why Your Future is More Predictable Than You Think (Hardcover): Hannah Critchlow The Science of Fate - Why Your Future is More Predictable Than You Think (Hardcover)
Hannah Critchlow 1
R464 R369 Discovery Miles 3 690 Save R95 (20%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

'Acute, mind-opening, highly accessible - this book doesn't just explain how our lives might pan out, it helps us live better.' Bettany Hughes So many of us believe that we are free to shape our own destiny. But what if free will doesn't exist? What if our lives are largely predetermined, hardwired in our brains - and our choices over what we eat, who we fall in love with, even what we believe are not real choices at all? Neuroscience is challenging everything we think we know about ourselves, revealing how we make decisions and form our own reality, unaware of the role of our unconscious minds. Did you know, for example, that: * You can carry anxieties and phobias across generations of your family? * Your genes and pleasure and reward receptors in your brain will determine how much you eat? * We can sniff out ideal partners with genes that give our offspring the best chance of survival? Leading neuroscientist Hannah Critchlow draws vividly from everyday life and other experts in their field to show the extraordinary potential, as well as dangers, which come with being able to predict our likely futures - and looking at how we can alter what's in store for us. Lucid, illuminating, awe-inspiring The Science of Fate revolutionises our understanding of who we are - and empowers us to help shape a better future for ourselves and the wider world.

The Prehistory Of The Mind (Paperback, Reissue): Steven Mithen The Prehistory Of The Mind (Paperback, Reissue)
Steven Mithen
R343 R285 Discovery Miles 2 850 Save R58 (17%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Award-winning science writer Steven Mithen explores how an understanding of our ancestors and their development can illuminate our brains and behaviour today How do our minds work? When did language and religious beliefs first emerge? Why was there a cultural explosion of art and creativity with the arrival of modern humans? This ground-breaking book brings the insight of archaeology to our understanding of the development and history of the human mind, combining them with ideas from evolutionary psychology in a brilliant and provocative synthesis.

Mind and Machine (Paperback): J. Walmsley Mind and Machine (Paperback)
J. Walmsley
R631 Discovery Miles 6 310 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Walmsley offers a succinct introduction to major philosophical issues in artificial intelligence for advanced students of philosophy of mind, cognitive science and psychology. Whilst covering essential topics, it also provides the student with the chance to engage with cutting edge debates.

The Neuroethics of Memory - From Total Recall to Oblivion (Paperback): Walter Glannon The Neuroethics of Memory - From Total Recall to Oblivion (Paperback)
Walter Glannon
R590 Discovery Miles 5 900 Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

The Neuroethics of Memory is a thematically integrated analysis and discussion of neuroethical questions about memory capacity and content, as well as interventions to alter it. These include: how does memory function enable agency, and how does memory dysfunction disable it? To what extent is identity based on our capacity to accurately recall the past? Could a person who becomes aware during surgery be harmed if they have no memory of the experience? How do we weigh the benefits and risks of brain implants designed to enhance, weaken or erase memory? Can a person be responsible for an action if they do not recall it? Would a victim of an assault have an obligation to retain a memory of this act, or the right to erase it? This book uses a framework informed by neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy combined with actual and hypothetical cases to examine these and related questions.

Self - Ancient and Modern Insights about Individuality, Life, and Death (Paperback): Richard Sorabji Self - Ancient and Modern Insights about Individuality, Life, and Death (Paperback)
Richard Sorabji
R713 Discovery Miles 7 130 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Over the centuries, the idea of the self has both fascinated and confounded philosophers. From the ancient Greeks, who problematized issues of identity and self-awareness, to Locke and Hume, who popularized minimalist views of the self, to the efforts of postmodernists in our time to decenter the human subject altogether, the idea that there is something called a self has always been in steady decline. But for Richard Sorabji, this negation of the self is dispiriting. In "Self," he sets out to recover the rich variety of positive accounts of the self from Antiquity right up to the present, while offering his own inspiring view of what precisely the self might be.Drawing on Eastern religion, classical Antiquity, and Western philosophy, Sorabji proceeds to tackle a number of thematic debates that have preoccupied philosophers over the ages, including the concept of the self, its sameness and mutability, the idea of the resurrection of the body and spirit, and the fear of death. According to Sorabji, the self is not an undetectable soul or ego, but an embodied individual whose existence is plain to see. It is also neither a linguistic creation nor a psychological fiction, but something that owns both a consciousness and a body. Ultimately, Sorabji argues, the demise of a positive idea of the self stems from much older and more pervasive problems of identity than we realize. Through an astute reading of this tradition, he helps us come to terms with our uneasiness about the subject in an account that will be at the forefront of philosophical debates for years to come.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding - Second Treatise of Goverment (Paperback, UK ed.): John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding - Second Treatise of Goverment (Paperback, UK ed.)
John Locke; Series edited by Tom Griffith; Introduction by Mark G. Spencer; Notes by Mark G. Spencer
R121 R104 Discovery Miles 1 040 Save R17 (14%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Notes and Introduction by Mark G. Spencer, Brock University, Ontario John Locke (1632-1704) was perhaps the most influential English writer of his time. His Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690) and Two Treatises of Government (1690) weighed heavily on the history of ideas in the eighteenth century, and Locke's works are often rightly presented as foundations of the Age of Enlightenment. Both the Essay and the Second Treatise (by far the more influential of the Two Treatises) were widely read by Locke's contemporaries and near contemporaries. His eighteenth-century readers included philosophers, historians and political theorists, but also community and political leaders, engaged laypersons, and others eager to participate in the expanding print culture of the era. His epistemological message that the mind at birth was a blank slate, waiting to be filled, complemented his political message that human beings were free and equal and had the right to create and direct the governments under which they lived. Today, Locke continues to be an accessible author. He provides food for thought to university professors and their students, but has no less to offer the general reader who is eager to enjoy the classics of world literature.

The AI Does Not Hate You - Superintelligence, Rationality and the Race to Save the World (Paperback): Tom Chivers The AI Does Not Hate You - Superintelligence, Rationality and the Race to Save the World (Paperback)
Tom Chivers 1
R325 R266 Discovery Miles 2 660 Save R59 (18%) Shipped within 4 - 8 working days

'The AI does not hate you, nor does it love you, but you are made of atoms which it can use for something else' This is a book about AI and AI risk. But it's also more importantly about a community of people who are trying to think rationally about intelligence, and the places that these thoughts are taking them, and what insight they can and can't give us about the future of the human race over the next few years. It explains why these people are worried, why they might be right, and why they might be wrong. It is a book about the cutting edge of our thinking on intelligence and rationality right now by the people who stay up all night worrying about it. Along the way, we discover why we probably don't need to worry about a future AI resurrecting a perfect copy of our minds and torturing us for not inventing it sooner, but we perhaps should be concerned about paperclips destroying life as we know it; how Mickey Mouse can teach us an important lesson about how to programme AI; and why Spock is not as logical as we think he is.

Freedom - The End of the Human Condition (Paperback): Jeremy Griffith Freedom - The End of the Human Condition (Paperback)
Jeremy Griffith
R466 R382 Discovery Miles 3 820 Save R84 (18%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days
The Embodied Mind - Cognitive Science and Human Experience (Paperback, revised edition): Francisco J. Varela, Evan Thompson,... The Embodied Mind - Cognitive Science and Human Experience (Paperback, revised edition)
Francisco J. Varela, Evan Thompson, Eleanor Rosch; Foreword by Jon Kabat-Zinn
R556 R433 Discovery Miles 4 330 Save R123 (22%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

A new edition of a classic work that originated the "embodied cognition" movement and was one of the first to link science and Buddhist practices. This classic book, first published in 1991, was one of the first to propose the "embodied cognition" approach in cognitive science. It pioneered the connections between phenomenology and science and between Buddhist practices and science-claims that have since become highly influential. Through this cross-fertilization of disparate fields of study, The Embodied Mind introduced a new form of cognitive science called "enaction," in which both the environment and first person experience are aspects of embodiment. However, enactive embodiment is not the grasping of an independent, outside world by a brain, a mind, or a self; rather it is the bringing forth of an interdependent world in and through embodied action. Although enacted cognition lacks an absolute foundation, the book shows how that does not lead to either experiential or philosophical nihilism. Above all, the book's arguments were powered by the conviction that the sciences of mind must encompass lived human experience and the possibilities for transformation inherent in human experience. This revised edition includes substantive introductions by Evan Thompson and Eleanor Rosch that clarify central arguments of the work and discuss and evaluate subsequent research that has expanded on the themes of the book, including the renewed theoretical and practical interest in Buddhism and mindfulness. A preface by Jon Kabat-Zinn, the originator of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program, contextualizes the book and describes its influence on his life and work.

Physicalism Deconstructed - Levels of Reality and the Mind-Body Problem (Hardcover): Kevin Morris Physicalism Deconstructed - Levels of Reality and the Mind-Body Problem (Hardcover)
Kevin Morris
R1,671 R1,545 Discovery Miles 15 450 Save R126 (8%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

How should thought and consciousness be understood within a view of the world as being through-and-through physical? Many philosophers have proposed non-reductive, levels-based positions, according to which the physical domain is fundamental, while thought and consciousness are higher-level processes, dependent on and determined by physical processes. In this book, Kevin Morris's careful philosophical and historical critique shows that it is very difficult to make good metaphysical sense of this idea - notions like supervenience, physical realization, and grounding all fail to articulate a viable non-reductive, levels-based physicalism. Challenging assumptions about the mind-body problem and providing new perspectives on the debate over physicalism, this accessible and comprehensive book will interest scholars working in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of science.

The Neuroethics of Memory - From Total Recall to Oblivion (Hardcover): Walter Glannon The Neuroethics of Memory - From Total Recall to Oblivion (Hardcover)
Walter Glannon
R1,776 R1,664 Discovery Miles 16 640 Save R112 (6%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

The Neuroethics of Memory is a thematically integrated analysis and discussion of neuroethical questions about memory capacity and content, as well as interventions to alter it. These include: how does memory function enable agency, and how does memory dysfunction disable it? To what extent is identity based on our capacity to accurately recall the past? Could a person who becomes aware during surgery be harmed if they have no memory of the experience? How do we weigh the benefits and risks of brain implants designed to enhance, weaken or erase memory? Can a person be responsible for an action if they do not recall it? Would a victim of an assault have an obligation to retain a memory of this act, or the right to erase it? This book uses a framework informed by neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy combined with actual and hypothetical cases to examine these and related questions.

The Measure of All Minds - Evaluating Natural and Artificial Intelligence (Hardcover): Jose Hernandez Orallo The Measure of All Minds - Evaluating Natural and Artificial Intelligence (Hardcover)
Jose Hernandez Orallo
R1,502 R1,355 Discovery Miles 13 550 Save R147 (10%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Are psychometric tests valid for a new reality of artificial intelligence systems, technology-enhanced humans, and hybrids yet to come? Are the Turing Test, the ubiquitous CAPTCHAs, and the various animal cognition tests the best alternatives? In this fascinating and provocative book, Jose Hernandez-Orallo formulates major scientific questions, integrates the most significant research developments, and offers a vision of the universal evaluation of cognition. By replacing the dominant anthropocentric stance with a universal perspective where living organisms are considered as a special case, long-standing questions in the evaluation of behavior can be addressed in a wider landscape. Can we derive task difficulty intrinsically? Is a universal g factor - a common general component for all abilities - theoretically possible? Using algorithmic information theory as a foundation, the book elaborates on the evaluation of perceptual, developmental, social, verbal and collective features and critically analyzes what the future of intelligence might look like.

Are We Bodies or Souls? (Hardcover): Richard Swinburne Are We Bodies or Souls? (Hardcover)
Richard Swinburne
R388 R276 Discovery Miles 2 760 Save R112 (29%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

What are humans? What makes us who we are? Many think that we are just complicated machines, or animals that are different from machines only by being conscious. In Are We Bodies or Souls? Richard Swinburne comes to the defence of the soul and presents new philosophical arguments that are supported by modern neuroscience. When scientific advances enable neuroscientists to transplant a part of brain into a new body, he reasons, no matter how much we can find out about their brain activity or conscious experiences we will never know whether the resulting person is the same as before or somebody entirely new. Swinburne thus argues that we are immaterial souls sustained in existence by our brains. Sensations, thoughts, and intentions are conscious events in our souls that cause events in our brains. While scientists might discover some of the laws of nature that determine conscious events and brain events, each person's soul is an individual thing and this is what ultimately makes us who we are.

The Concept of Mind (Paperback, 2nd ed.): Gilbert Ryle The Concept of Mind (Paperback, 2nd ed.)
Gilbert Ryle; Preface by Daniel C. Dennett
R492 R386 Discovery Miles 3 860 Save R106 (22%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

This now-classic work challenges what Ryle calls philosophy's "official theory," the Cartesians "myth" of the separation of mind and matter. Ryle's linguistic analysis remaps the conceptual geography of mind, not so much solving traditional philosophical problems as dissolving them into the mere consequences of misguided language. His plain language and esstentially simple purpose place him in the traditioin of Locke, Berkeley, Mill, and Russell.

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