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This book presents these important facts: a) The mechanism of anionic polymerization, a more than 50-year challenge in polymer chemistry, has now become better understood; b) Precise synthesis of many polymers with novel architectures (triblock, multi-block, graft, exact graft, comb, cyclic, many armed stars with multi-components, dendrimer-like hyper-branched, and their structural mixed (co)polymers, etc.) have been advanced significantly; c) Based on such polymers, new morphological and self-organizing nano-objects and supra molecular assemblies have been created and widely studied and are considered nanodevices in the fields of nano science and technology; d) New high-tech and industrial applications for polymeric materials synthesized by anionic polymerization have been proposed. These remarkable developments have taken place in the last 15 years. Anionic polymerization continues to be the only truly living polymerization system (100 % termination free under appropriate conditions) and consequently the only one with unique capabilities in the synthesis of well-defined (i.e., precisely controlled molecular weight, nearly mono-disperse molecular weight distribution, structural and compositional homogeneity) complex macromolecular architectures. This book, with contributions from the world's leading specialists, will be useful for all researchers, including students, working in universities, in research organizations, and in industry.
Mit seinem lebendigen und anschaulichen Stil sowie einer immer weiter verfeinerten Didaktik hat Peter Atkins das Lernen und Lehren in der Physikalischen Chemie revolutioniert. Sein Stil ist unverwechselbar - und unerreicht. Die 5. Auflagedes "kleinen" Atkins f?r natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftliche Studieng?nge hat ein neues, innovatives Konzept, das dabei unterst?tzt, s?mtliche H?rden zu meistern. Der Stoff ist in 15 Fokus-Kapitel aufgeteilt. Zu Beginn jedes Fokus werden Beziehungen zwischen den Abschnitten innerhalb eines Fokus hergestellt, um die Verbindungen zwischen den verschiedenen Gebieten der Physikalischen Chemie hervorzuheben. Jeder Abschnitt beginnt mit einer Motivation, Nennung der Schl?sselideen und der Voraussetzungen, die die Leserinnen und Leser zum Verst?ndnis des Abschnitts mitbringen sollten. Zahlreiche durchgerechnete Beispiele, Zusammenfassungen, Verst?ndnistests und Hinweise zur richtigen Verwendung von Fachsprache helfen dabei, die erlernten Konzepte zu festigen und erm?glichen zielgerichtetes Lernen und Wiederholen. Passend zur 5. Auflage gibt es erstmals ein Arbeitsbuch mit durchgerechneten L?sungen der mehr als 800 Aufgaben. Der "kleine" Atkins ist und bleibt ein Muss f?r jeden Einsteiger und jede Einsteigerin in die Physikalische Chemie. Auch im attraktiven Deluxe-Set mit dem Arbeitsbuch erh?ltlich!
K. C. Nicolaou, E. J. Sorensen Classics in Total Synthesis Targets, Strategies, Methods This book is a must for every synthetic organic chemist. With didactic skill and clarity, K. C. Nicolaou and E. J. Sorensen present the most remarkable and ingenious total syntheses from the laboratories of some of the world's greatest synthetic organic chemists. To make the strategies more understandable and accessible, especially to the novice, each total synthesis is first analyzed retrosynthetically. The authors then carefully describe each step and comment on alternative methods and potential pitfalls. When appropriate, key chemical reactions are discussed in the wider context of the chemical literature, giving the reader a lesson in both total synthesis and synthetic methods. Diverse structural types of natural products and important organic transformations including pericyclic, ionic, radical, and photochemical reactions are covered. Catalysis, asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, and cyclization reactions are especially highlighted. Mechanism, reactivity, selectivity, and stereochemistry are presented clearly and discussed analytically. Numerous references to useful reviews and the original literature will make this book the first point of entry into the vast field of synthetic organic chemistry. Special emphasis is placed on the skillful use of graphics and schemes. Retrosynthetic analyses, reaction sequences and crucial synthetic steps are presented in boxed, blue background sections within the text. For easy reference, key intermediates are also shown in the margins. Graduate students, teachers, and researchers alike will find this book to be a gold mine of useful information.Every synthetic chemist will have a copy on his or her desk.
Bridging the gap between the multitude of advanced research articles and the knowledge newcomers to the field are looking for, this is a timely and comprehensive monograph covering the interdisciplinary topic of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). The book not only covers the fundamentals and physico-chemical background of the ICT process, but also places a special emphasis on the latest experimental and theoretical studies that have been undertaken to understand this process and discusses key technological applications. After outlining the discovery of ICT molecules, the authors go on to discuss several important substance classes. They present the latest techniques for studying the underlying processes and show the interplay between charge transfer and the surrounding medium. Examples taken from nonlinear optics, viscosity and polarity sensors, and organic electronics testify to the vast range of applications. The result is a unique information source for experimentalists as well as theoreticians, from postgraduate students to researchers.
Introduction to Computational Chemistry 3rd Edition provides a comprehensive account of the fundamental principles underlying different computational methods. Fully revised and updated throughout to reflect important method developments and improvements since publication of the previous edition, this timely update includes the following significant revisions and new topics: * Polarizable force fields * Tight-binding DFT * More extensive DFT functionals, excited states and time dependent molecular properties * Accelerated Molecular Dynamics methods * Tensor decomposition methods * Cluster analysis * Reduced scaling and reduced prefactor methods
This second, extended and updated edition presents the current state of kinetics of chemical reactions, combining basic knowledge with results recently obtained at the frontier of science. Special attention is paid to the problem of the chemical reaction complexity with theoretical and methodological concepts illustrated throughout by numerous examples taken from heterogeneous catalysis combustion and enzyme processes. Of great interest to graduate students in both chemistry and chemical engineering.
Practical skills form the cornerstone of chemistry. However, the diversity of skills required in the laboratory means that a student's experience may be limited. While some techniques do require specific skills, many of them are transferable generic skills that are required throughout the subject area. Limited time constraints of the modern curriculum often preclude or minimise laboratory time. Practical Skills in Chemistry 3rd edition provides a general guidance for use in and out of practical sessions, covering a range of techniques from the basic to the more advanced. This 'one-stop' text will guide you through the wide range of practical, analytical and data handling skills that you will need during your studies. It will also give you a solid grounding in wider transferable skills such as teamwork, using information technology, communicating information and study skills. This edition has been enhanced and updated throughout to provide a complete and easy-to-read guide to the developing skills required from your first day through to graduation, further strengthening its reputation as the practical resource for students of chemistry and related discipline areas.
The Students Solutions Manual to Accompany Physical Chemistry: Quanta, Matter, and Change 2e provides full worked solutions to the 'a' exercises, and the odd-numbered discussion questions and problems presented in the parent book. The manual is intended for students and instructors alike, and provides helpful comments and friendly advice to aid understanding.
This book is unique in occupying a gap between standard undergraduate texts and more advanced texts on quantum field theory. It covers a range of renormalization methods with a clear physical interpretation (and motivation), including mean-field theories and high-temperature and low-density expansions. It then proceeds by easy steps to the famous epsilon-expansion, ending up with the first-order corrections to critical exponents beyond mean-field theory. Nowadays there is widespread interest in applications of renormalization methods to various topics ranging over soft condensed matter, engineering dynamics, traffic queueing and fluctuations in the stock market. Hence macroscopic systems are also included, with particular emphasis on the archetypal problem of fluid turbulence. The book is also unique in making this material accessible to readers other than theoretical physicists, as it requires only the basic physics and mathematics which should be known to most scientists, engineers and mathematicians.
The first book to aid in the understanding of multiconfigurational quantum chemistry, Multiconfigurational Quantum Chemistry demystifies a subject that has historically been considered difficult to learn. Accessible to any reader with a background in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, the book contains illustrative examples showing how these methods can be used in various areas of chemistry, such as chemical reactions in ground and excited states, transition metal and other heavy element systems. The authors detail the drawbacks and limitations of DFT and coupled-cluster based methods and offer alternative, wavefunction-based methods more suitable for smaller molecules.
This textbook covers chemical thermodynamics in materials science from basic to advanced level, especially for iron and steel making processes. To improve a process by applying knowledge of thermodynamics or to assess the calculation results of thermodynamic software, an accurate and systematic understanding of thermodynamics is required. For that purpose, books from which one can learn thermodynamics from the basic to the advanced level are needed, but such books are rarely published. This book bridges the gap between the basics, which are treated in general thermodynamic books, and their application, which are only partially dealt with in most specialized books on a specific field. This textbook can be used to teach the basics of chemical thermodynamics and its applications to beginners. The basic part of the book is written to help learners acquire robust applied skills in an easy-to-understand manner, with in-depth explanations and schematic diagrams included. The same book can be used by advanced learners as well. Those higher-level readers such as post-graduate students and researchers may refer to the basic part of the book to get down to the basic concepts of chemical thermodynamics or to confirm the basic concepts. Abundant pages are also devoted to applications designed to present more advanced applied skills grounded in a deep understanding of the basics. The book contains some 50 examples and their solutions so that readers can learn through self-study.
This book provides a study in Bonding, Structure and Solid State Chemistry. It is based on lecture courses given over several years, but is not directed at any particular degree course. Thus, it will find a place in all years of first-degree courses in both chemistry and those subjects for which chemistry forms a significant part. It will also prepare readers for more intensive study in the title topics. Pre-knowledge is assumed in mathematics and physical sciences at about A-level. Additional mathematical and other topics are presented where necessary as appendices, so as not to disturb the flow of the main text. The book is copiously illustrated, including many stereoscopic diagrams (with practical advice on correct viewing) and colour illustrations. A suite of computer programs, some of which are interactive, has been devised for the book and is available on-line from the publisher's website [insert URL here]. They are available for both 32- and 64-bit operating systems, and are easily executed on a PC or laptop; notes on their applications are provided. Problems have been devised for each chapter and fully worked 'tutorial'; solutions are included. After an introductory chapter, the book presents a study based on the main interactive forces responsible for cohesion in the solid state of matter. No classification is without some ambiguity, but that chosen allows for a structured discussion over a wide range of compounds. Each chapter includes worked examples on the study topics which, together with the problems provided, should ensure a thorough understanding of the textual material.
After World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) began mass-producing radioisotopes, sending out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to scientists and physicians by 1955. Even as the atomic bomb became the focus of Cold War anxiety, radioisotopes represented the government's efforts to harness the power of the atom for peace-advancing medicine, domestic energy, and foreign relations. In Life Atomic, Angela N. H. Creager tells the story of how these radioisotopes, which were simultaneously scientific tools and political icons, transformed biomedicine and ecology. Government-produced radioisotopes provided physicians with new tools for diagnosis and therapy, specifically cancer therapy, and enabled biologists to trace molecular transformations. Yet the government's attempt to present radioisotopes as marvelous dividends of the atomic age was undercut in the 1950s by the fallout debates, as scientists and citizens recognized the hazards of low-level radiation. Creager reveals that growing consciousness of the danger of radioactivity did not reduce the demand for radioisotopes at hospitals and laboratories, but it did change their popular representation from a therapeutic agent to an environmental poison. She then demonstrates how, by the late twentieth century, public fear of radioactivity overshadowed any appreciation of the positive consequences of the AEC's provision of radioisotopes for research and medicine.
Exam Board: OCR Level: A-level Subject: Chemistry First Teaching: September 2015 First Exam: June 2017 Written by experienced author Mike Smith, this Student Guide for Chemistry: - Helps students identify what they need to know with a concise summary of the topics examined in the AS and A-level specifications - Consolidates understanding with tips and knowledge check questions - Provides opportunities to improve exam technique with sample answers to exam-style questions - Develops independent learning and research skills - Provides the content for generating individual revision notes
This most comprehensive and unrivaled compendium in the field provides an up-to-date account of the chemistry of solids, nanoparticles and hybrid materials. Following a valuable introductory chapter reviewing important synthesis techniques, the handbook presents a series of contributions by about 150 international leading experts -- the "Who's Who" of solid state science. Clearly structured, in six volumes it collates the knowledge available on solid state chemistry, starting from the synthesis, and modern methods of structure determination. Understanding and measuring the physical properties of bulk solids and the theoretical basis of modern computational treatments of solids are given ample space, as are such modern trends as nanoparticles, surface properties and heterogeneous catalysis. Emphasis is placed throughout not only on the design and structure of solids but also on practical applications of these novel materials in real chemical situations.
A pedagogical classic and an essential reference for anyone engaged in research in molecular spectroscopy, focusing on the mathematics involved in detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules. Leads the reader gradually from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving the secular determinant. 16 appendices.
Gain a comprehensive understanding of chemistry and see how it relates to health science with INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL, ORGANIC, AND BIOCHEMISTRY. This bestseller features dynamic art, interesting examples, coverage of the latest issues, and a wide variety of medical and biological applications. As you explore topics such as botulin toxin as a cosmetic agent, implications for the use of antibiotics, and ultraviolet sunscreen, you will see how useful the study of chemistry is to your life. The book's built-in integration with OWLv2 (Online Web Learning) turns your chemistry study time into active experiences that build your comprehension, bring concepts to life, and help you succeed in the course.
This thesis systematically introduces readers to a new metal-organic framework approach to fabricating nanostructured materials for electrochemical applications. Based on the metal-organic framework (MOF) approach, it also demonstrates the latest ideas on how to create optimal MOF and MOF-derived nanomaterials for electrochemical reactions under controlled conditions. The thesis offers a valuable resource for researchers who want to understand electrochemical reactions at nanoscale and optimize materials from rational design to achieve enhanced electrochemical performance. It also serves as a useful reference guide to fundamental research on advanced electrochemical energy storage materials and the synthesis of nanostructured materials.
Provides deep insight into the concepts and recent developments in the area of supramolecular chemistry in water Written by experts in their respective field, this comprehensive reference covers various aspects of supramolecular chemistry in water?from fundamental aspects to applications. It provides readers with a basic introduction to the current understanding of the properties of water and how they influence molecular recognition, and examines the different receptor types available in water and the types of substrates that can be bound. It also looks at areas to where they can be applied, such as materials, optical sensing, medicinal imaging, and catalysis. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water offers five major sections that address important topics like water properties, molecular recognition, association and aggregation phenomena, optical detection and imaging, and supramolecular catalysis. It covers chemistry and physical chemistry of water; water-mediated molecular recognition; peptide and protein receptors; nucleotide receptors; carbohydrate receptors; and ion receptors. The book also teaches readers all about coordination compounds; self-assembled polymers and gels; foldamers; vesicles and micelles; and surface-modified nanoparticles. In addition, it provides in-depth information on indicators and optical probes, as well as probes for medical imaging. -Covers, in a timely manner, an emerging area in chemistry that is growing more important every day -Addresses topics such as molecular recognition, aggregation, catalysis, and more -Offers comprehensive coverage of everything from fundamental aspects of supramolecular chemistry in water to its applications -Edited by one of the leading international scientists in the field Supramolecular Chemistry in Water is a one-stop-resource for all polymer chemists, catalytic chemists, biochemists, water chemists, and physical chemists involved in this growing area of research.
This book covers the basic principles and application of nanoindentation technology to determine residual stresses in films and coatings. It briefly introduces various detection technologies for measuring residual stresses, while mainly focusing on nanoindentation. Subsequently, nanoindentation is used to determine residual stresses in different types of films and coatings, and to describe them in detail. This book is intended for specialists, engineers and graduate students in mechanical design, manufacturing, maintenance and remanufacturing, and as a guide to the practice of production with social and economic benefits.
This thesis advances the long-standing challenge of measuring oxidative stress and deciphering its underlying mechanisms, and also outlines the advantages and limitations of existing design strategies. It presents a range of approaches for the chemical synthesis of fluorescent probes that detect reversible changes in cellular oxidative stress. The ability to visualise cellular processes in real-time is crucial to understanding disease development and streamline treatment, and this can be achieved using fluorescent tools that can sense reversible disturbances in cellular environments during pathogenesis. The perturbations in cellular redox state are of particular current interest in medical research, since oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. The book investigates different strategies used to achieve ratiometric fluorescence output of the reversible redox probes, which nullify concentration effects associated with intensity-based probes. It also describes suitable approaches to target these probes to specific cellular organelles, thereby enabling medical researchers to visualise sub-cellular oxidative stress levels, and addressing the typically poor uptake of chemical tools into biological studies. In total it reports on four new probes that are now being used by over twenty research groups around the globe, and two of which have been commercialised. The final chapters of this thesis demonstrate successful applications of the sensors in a variety of biological systems ranging from prokaryotes to mammalian cells and whole organisms. The results described clearly indicate the immense value of collaborative, cross-disciplinary research.
Note-by-Note Cooking is a landmark in the annals of gastronomy, liberating cooks from the constraints of traditional ingredients and methods through the use of pure molecular compounds. 1-Octen-3-ol, which has a scent of wild mushrooms; limonene, a colorless liquid hydrocarbon that has the smell of citrus; sotolon, whose fragrance at high concentrations resembles curry and at low concentrations, maple syrup or sugar; tyrosine, an odorless but flavorful amino acid present in cheese-these and many other substances, some occurring in nature, some synthesized in the laboratory, make it possible to create novel tastes and flavors in the same way that elementary sound waves can be combined to create new sounds. Note-by-note cooking promises to add unadulterated nutritional value to dishes of all kinds, actually improving upon the health benefits of so-called natural foods. Cooking with molecular compounds will be far more energy efficient and environmentally sustainable than traditional techniques of cooking. This new way of thinking about food heralds a phase of culinary evolution on which the long-term survival of a growing human population depends. Herve This clearly explains the properties of naturally occurring and synthesized compounds, dispels a host of misconceptions about the place of chemistry in cooking, and shows why note-by-note cooking is an obvious-and inevitable-extension of his earlier pioneering work in molecular gastronomy. An appendix contains a representative selection of recipes, vividly illustrated in color.
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