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This thesis reports the discovery of metal nanoparticles having new structures that do not exist in bulk state and that exhibit hydrogen storage ability or CO oxidation activity. Research into the reaction of hydrogen with metals has attracted much attention because of potential applications as effective hydrogen storage materials, as permeable films, or as catalysts for hydrogenation. Also, CO oxidation catalysts have been extensively developed because of their importance to CO removal from car exhaust or fuel-cell systems. At the same time, atomic-level (solid solution) alloying has the advantage of being able to continuously control chemical and physical properties of elements by changing compositions and/or combinations of constituent elements. This thesis provides a novel strategy for the basis of inter-elemental fusion to create highly efficient functional materials for energy and material conversions.
The first reference on this rapidly growing topic provides an essential up-to-date guide to current and emerging trends. A group of international experts has been carefully selected by the editors to cover all the central aspects, with a focus on molecular species while also including industrial applications. The resulting unique overview is a must-have for researchers, both in academia and industry, who are entering or already working in the field.
This brief investigates the diradical character, which is one of the ground-state chemical indices for "bond weakness" or "electron correlation" and which allows researchers to explore the origins of the electron-correlation-driven physico-chemical phenomena concerned with electronic, optical and magnetic properties as well as to control them in the broad fields of physics and chemistry. It then provides the theoretical fundamentals of ground and excited electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric open-shell molecular systems by using model molecular systems. Moreover, it presents the theoretical design guidelines for a new class of open-shell singlet molecular systems for nonlinear optics (NLO) and singlet fission.
Written by leading Russian scientists, including Nobel laureate,
A.M. Prokhorov (1916-2002), this first book on this important
technology allows an understanding of the physics of atomic vapor
laser isotope separation and new photochemical methods of laser
This thesis explores the dispersion stability, microstructure and phase transitions involved in the nanoclay system. It describes the recently discovered formation of colloidal gels via two routes: the first is through phase separation and second is by equilibrium gelation and includes the first reported experimental observation of a system with high aspect ratio nanodiscs. The phase behavior of anisotropic nanodiscs of different aspect ratio in their individual and mixed states in aqueous and hydrophobic media is investigated. Distinct phase separation, equilibrium fluid and equilibrium gel phases are observed in nanoclay dispersions with extensive aging. The work then explores solution behavior, gelation kinetics, aging dynamics and temperature-induced ordering in the individual and mixed states of these discotic colloids. Anisotropic ordering dynamics induced by a water-air interface, waiting time and temperature in these dispersions were studied in great detail along with aggregation behavior of nanoplatelets in hydrophobic environment of alcohol solutions.
Iron catalysts in organic synthesis are strongly in demand because iron is non-toxic, inexpensive and the most abundant transition metal in the earth, although their use is still limited compared with that of rare, precious metals such as palladium, ruthenium and rhodium. This thesis describes the first practical example of iron catalysis in the carbon hydrogen bond activation reaction to synthesized fused aromatic ring compounds. By using a unique combination of iron catalyst and dichloride oxidant, various kind of naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives were synthesized via annulation reaction with alkynes including direct C H bond activation process. This achievement opens the new possibility of low-valent iron catalysis and expands synthetic methods for a sustainable society."
Chemical reactions and growth processes on surfaces depend on the diffusion and re-orientation of the adsorbate molecules. A fundamental understanding of the forces guiding surface motion is thus of utmost importance for the advancement of many fields of science and technology. To date, our understanding of the principles underlying surface dynamics remains extremely limited, due to the difficulties involved in measuring these processes experimentally. The helium-3 spin-echo (HeSE) technique is uniquely capable of probing such surface dynamical phenomena. The present thesis extends the field of application of HeSE from atomic and small molecular systems to more complex systems. Improvements to the supersonic helium beam source, a key component of the spectrometer, as well as a detailed investigation of a range of five-membered aromatic adsorbate species are presented. The thesis provides a comprehensive description of many aspects of the HeSE method - instrumentation, measurement and data analysis - and as such offers a valuable introduction for newcomers to the field.
This thesis deals with strongly luminescent lanthanide complexes having novel coordination structures. Luminescent lanthanide complexes are promising candidates as active materials for EL devices, lasers, and bio-sensing applications. The organic ligands in lanthanide complexes control geometrical and vibrational frequency structures that are closely related to the luminescent properties. In most of the previous work, however, lanthanide complexes have high-vibrational frequency C-H units close to the metal center for radiationless transition. In this thesis, the luminescent properties of lanthanide complexes with low-vibrational frequency C-F and P=O units are elucidated in terms of geometrical, vibrational, and chemical structures. The author also describes lanthanide coordination polymers with both high thermal stability (decomposition point > 300 DegreesC) and strong-luminescent properties (emission quantum yield > 80%). The author believes that novel studies on the characteristic structures and photophysical properties of lanthanide complexes may open up a frontier field in photophysical, coordination and material chemistry.
Li-Co-Mn-Ni oxides have been of extreme interest as potential positive electrode materials for next generation Li-ion batteries. Though many promising materials have been discovered and studied extensively, much debate remains in the literature about the structures of these materials. There is no consensus as to whether the lithium-rich layered materials are single-phase or form a layered-layered composite on the few nanometer length-scales. Much of this debate came about because no phase diagrams existed to describe these systems under the synthesis conditions used to make electrode materials. Detailed in this thesis are the complete Li-Co-Mn-O and Li-Mn-Ni-O phase diagrams generated by way of the combinatorial synthesis of mg-scale samples at over five hundred compositions characterized with X-ray diffraction. Selected bulk samples were used to confirm that the findings are relevant to synthesis conditions used commercially. The results help resolve a number of points of confusion and contradiction in the literature. Amongst other important findings, the compositions and synthesis conditions giving rise to layered-layered nano-composites are presented and electrochemical results are used to show how better electrode materials can be achieved by making samples in the single phase-layered regions.
Thermodynamics is fundamental to university and college curricula in chemistry, physics, engineering and many life sciences around the world. It is also notoriously difficult for students to understand, learn and apply. What makes this book different, and special, is the clarity of the text. The writing style is fluid, natural and lucid, and everything is explained in a logical and transparent manner. Thermodynamics is a deep, and important, branch of science, and this book does not make it "easy". But it does make it intelligible. This book introduces a new, 'Fourth Law' of Thermodynamics' based on the notion of Gibbs free energy, which underpins almost every application of thermodynamics and which the authors claim is worthy of recognition as a 'law'. The last four chapters bring thermodynamics into the twenty-first century, dealing with bioenergetics (how living systems capture and use free energy), macromolecule assembly (how proteins fold), and macromolecular aggregation (how, for example, virus capsids assemble). This is of great current relevance to students of biochemistry, biochemical engineering and pharmacy, and is covered in very few other texts on thermodynamics. The book also contains many novel and effective examples, such as the explanation of why friction is irreversible, the proof of the depression of the freezing point, and the explanation of the biochemical standard state.
This book focuses on a variety of photochemical reaction processes in the crystalline state. The crystalline state reaction is a new category of solid state reaction, in which a reaction occurs with retention of the single crystal form. The whole reaction processes were observed directly by X-ray and neutron diffractions. In this book, not only the structures of metastable intermediates, such as radicals, carbenes, and nitrenes, but also the unstable species of photochromic compounds and photo-excited structures are shown with colored figures of the molecular structures, with more than 200 figures. The book is an indispensable resource not only for organic, inorganic and physical chemists but also for graduate students, as it furnishes more than 300 references.
This Safety Guide is applicable to the predisposal management of radioactive waste derived from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education, including disused sealed radioactive sources. It focuses on waste generated at facilities such as hospitals and research centres, where radioactive waste is not usually generated in bulk quantities. It covers the managerial, administrative and technical issues associated with the safe management of radioactive waste, from its generation to its acceptance at a disposal facility or its release from regulatory control.
"The Application of Biofluid Mechanics: Boundary Effects on Phoretic Motions of Colloidal Spheres" focuses on the phoretic motion behavior of various micron- to nanometer-size particles. The content of this book is divided into two parts: one on the concentration gradient-driven diffusiophoresis and osmophoresis, and one on thermocapillary motion and thermophoretic motion driven by temperature gradient. Diffusiophoresis and osmophoresis are mainly used in biomedical engineering applications, such as drug delivery, purification, and the description of the behavior of the immune system; thermocapillary motion and thermophoretic motion are applied in the field of semiconductors as well as in suspended impurities removal. The book also provides a variety of computer programming source codes compiled using Fortran for researchers' future applications.
This book is intended for chemical engineers, biomedical engineers and scientists, biophysicists and fundamental chemotaxis researchers. Dr. Po-Yuan Chen is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
In this book, a novel optimization method inspired by a paradigm from nature is introduced. The chemical reactions are used as a paradigm to propose an optimization method that simulates these natural processes. The proposed algorithm is described in detail and then a set of typical complex benchmark functions is used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed optimization algorithm can outperform other methods in a set of benchmark functions.
This chemical reaction optimization paradigm is also applied to solve the tracking problem for the dynamic model of a unicycle mobile robot by integrating a kinematic and a torque controller based on fuzzy logic theory. Computer simulations are presented confirming that this optimization paradigm is able to outperform other optimization techniques applied to this particular robot application.
Photochromic glasses are among the most widespread types of glasses, due largely to their popular use in sunglasses. These glasses are used not only in sunglasses, but also in various opto-electronic devices that have been developed and produced throughout the world. Until now, information about photochromic glasses has been widely dispersed in the literature, much of which was published in Russian and therefore of limited accessibility to the Western world. Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses brings together the combined knowledge and understanding of photochromic glasses from these publications. Coverage includes the structure, optical properties, coloration and bleaching mechanisms, technology, and metrology of these interesting materials.
Chemistry is widely considered to be the central science: it encompasses concepts from which other branches of science are developed. Yet, for many students entering university, gaining a firm grounding in chemistry is a real challenge. Chemistry(3) responds to this challenge, providing students with a full understanding of the fundamental principles of chemistry on which to build later studies. Uniquely amongst the introductory chemistry texts currently available, Chemistry(3) is written by a team of chemists to give equal coverage of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry - coverage that is uniformly authoritative. The approach to organic chemistry is mechanistic, rather than the old-fashioned 'functional group' approach, to help students achieve a fuller understanding of the underlying principles. The expertise of the author team is complemented by two specialists in chemistry education, who bring to the book a wealth of experience of teaching chemistry in a way that students enjoy and understand, and who understand the challenges of the transition from school to university. The result is a text that builds on what students know already from school and tackles their misunderstandings and misconceptions, thereby providing a seamless transition from school to undergraduate study. The authors achieve unrivalled accessibility through the provision of carefully-worded explanations and reminders of students' existing knowledge; the introduction of concepts in a logical and progressive manner; and the use of annotated diagrams and step-by-step worked examples. Students are encouraged to engage with the text and appreciate the central role that chemistry plays in our lives through the unique use of real-world context and photographs. Chemistry(3) tackles head-on two issues pervading chemistry education: students' mathematical skills, and their ability to see the subject as a single, unified discipline. Instead of avoiding the maths, Chemistry(3) provides structured support, in the form of careful explanations, reminders of key mathematical concepts, step-by-step calculations in worked examples, and a Maths Toolkit, to help students get to grips with the essential mathematical element of chemistry. Frequent cross-references highlight the connections between each strand of chemistry and explain the relationship between the topics, so students can develop an understanding of the subject as a whole.
This edited volume presents most techniques and methods that have been developed by material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers and physicists for the commercial production of particulate materials, ranging from the millimeter to the nanometer scale. The scope includes the physical and chemical background, experimental optimization of equipment and procedures, as well as an outlook on future methods. The books addresses issues of industrial importance such as specifications, control parameter(s), control strategy, process models, energy consumption and discusses the various techniques in relation to potential applications. In addition to the production processes, all major unit operations and characterization methods are described in this book. It differs from other books which are devoted to a single technique or a single material. Contributors to this book are acknowledged experts in their field. The aim of the book is to facilitate comparison of the different unit operations leading to optimum equipment choices for the production, handling and storage of particulate materials. An advantage of this approach is that unit operations that are common in one field of application are made accessible to other fields. The overall focus is on industrial application and the book includes some concrete examples. The book is an essential resource for students or researchers who work in collaboration with manufacturing industries or who are planning to make the switch from academia to industry.
The Student Solutions Manual to accompany Atkins' Physical Chemistry 11th Edition provides full worked solutions to the 'a' exercises, and the odd-numbered discussion questions and problems presented in the parent book. The manual is intended for students and provides helpful comments and friendly advice to aid understanding.
Providing the reader with an up to date digest of the most important research currently carried out in the field, Electrochemistry Volume 14 is compiled and written by leading experts from across the globe. Coverage includes chapters on the use of metal organic frameworks as a precursor for electrocatalytic centre supports to enhance the oxygen reduction process in low temperature fuel cell systems, electrocatalysis for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media, and new polymer electrolyte and electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. This volume is a key reference for researchers providing a timely overview of this exciting and developing area.
Supramolecular catalysis is involved in assimilation or growth of biological products and it has advantages over conventional catalysis in dealing with systems beyond molecules to mimic the biological catalytic processes. Principles and Advances in Supramolecular Catalysis shows how a supramolecular catalytic reaction proceeds and how interactions among molecules provide vessels or specific binding sites to carry out chemical reactions. The utilities of such catalytic reactions in waste, hazard management, medicine, food, etc. are explained in this book. The book focuses on examples to provide a fundamental basis so that, in the future, supramolecular catalytic reactions are utilised in the field of chemical, biological, biophysical sciences and technologies. Features: Discusses fundamental and interdisciplinary aspects of supramolecular catalysis Narrates mechano-chemical and stimuli-guided supramolecular catalytic reactions Divulges the intriguing aspects of self-replications and self-assembling performed through supramolecular catalysis Incorporates supramolecular catalytic reactions of metal-organic frameworks as artificial metalloenzymes
Catalysts are required for a variety of applications and industrialists and academics are increasingly challenged to find cost effective and environmentally benign catalysts to use. This volume looks at modern approaches to catalysis and reviews the extensive literature on areas such as electrochemical promotion of catalysis, biodiesel-based metals on emission control devices, deoxygenation of fatty acids and transitioning rationally designed catalytic materials to real world catalysts produced on a commercial scale.
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. Physical chemistry covers diverse topics, from biochemistry to materials properties to the development of quantum computers. Physical chemistry applies physics and math to problems that interest chemists, biologists, and engineers. Physical chemists use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter. Their work involves manipulations of data as well as materials. Physical chemistry entails extensive work with sophisticated instrumentation and equipment as well as state-of-the-art computers. This new volume presents a selection of articles on topics in the field.
The CRC Handbook of Thermophysical and Thermochemical Data is an interactive software and handbook package that provides an invaluable source of reliable data embracing a wide range of properties of chemical substances, mixtures, and reacting systems. Use the handbook and software together to quickly, and easily generate property values at any desired temperature, pressure, or mixture composition.
Physical Chemistry: Quanta, Matter, and Change 2nd edition takes an exciting and innovative molecular approach to the teaching of physical chemistry. The text focuses on our understanding of the properties of matter at the molecular level, and how these can be linked to the macroscopic world via statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. For the second edition the structure of the text has been radically re-organised. Instead of being in chapters, material is broken down into 97 short 'topics' and related 'topics' are organised into 20 'focus on' sections. 'Roadmaps' at the beginning of each Focus show how topics are interrelated and help students to forge connections between different subjects. This novel approach is designed to improve the digestibility of the text for students and be more flexible for lecturers teaching the subject. The distinguished author team presents the subject in a rigorous but accessible manner, allowing students to gain a thorough understanding of physical chemistry. The text includes numerous learning features, such as self-test questions, notes on good practice, online 'impact on' sections, and example boxes. Furthermore, the mathematics support has been significantly enhanced for this edition, by the inclusion of new 'chemist's toolkits', which link to the more in depth 'Mathematical background' sections. The ground-breaking approach of the second edition of Physical Chemistry: Quanta, Matter, and Change will enable students to gain a deep understanding of this fascinating and important subject area. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre features: For registered adopters of the book: * Figures and tables of data from the book, ready to download. * Instructor's Solutions Manual For students: * Web links to a range of additional physical chemistry resources on the internet. * Group theory tables, available for downloading. * Living Graphs * Molecular modelling problems * Impact sections linked to via QR codes in the text
This contributed volume is inspired by the seminal discovery and identification of C60. Starting with a comprehensive discussion featuring graphene based nanostructures, subsequent chapters include topological descriptions of matrices, polynomials and indices, and an extended analysis of the symmetry and topology of nanostructures. Carbon allotropes such as diamond and its connection to higher-dimensional spaces is explored along with important mathematical and topological considerations. Further topics covered include spontaneous symmetry breaking in graphene, polyhedral carbon structures, nanotube junction energetics, and cyclic polyines as relatives of nanotubes and fullerenes. This book is aimed at researchers active in the study of carbon materials science and technology.
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