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Providing critical reviews of recent advances in photochemistry including organic and computational aspects, the latest volume in the Series reflects the current interests in this area. It also includes a series of highlights on molecular devices, global artificial photosynthesis, silicon nanoparticles, solar energy conversion, organic heterogeneous photocatalysis and photochemistry in surface-water environments. Volume 44 of the annual Specialist Periodical Reports: Photochemistry is essential reading for anyone wishing to keep up with the literature on photochemistry and its applications.
"Thermal Convection - Patterns, Stages of Evolution and Stability Behavior" provides the reader with an ensemble picture of the subject, illustrating the state-of-the-art and providing the researchers from universities and industry with a basis on which they are able to estimate the possible impact of a variety of parameters. Unlike earlier books on the subject, the heavy mathematical background underlying and governing the behaviors illustrated in the text are kept to a minimum.
The text clarifies some still unresolved controversies pertaining to the physical nature of the dominating driving force responsible for asymmetric/oscillatory convection in various natural phenomena and/or technologically important processes and can help researchers in elaborating and validating new, more complex models, in accelerating the current trend towards predictable and reproducible natural phenomena and in establishing an adequate scientific foundation to industrial processes.
"Thermal Convection - Patterns, Stages of Evolution and Stability Behavior" is intended as a useful reference guide for specialists in disciplines such as the metallurgy and foundry field and researchers and scientists who are now coordinating their efforts to improve the quality of semiconductor or macromolecular crystals. The text may also be of use to organic chemists and materials scientists, atmosphere and planetary physicists, as well as an advanced level text for students taking part in courses on the physics of fluids, fluid mechanics, the behavior and evolution of non-linear systems, environmental phenomena and materials engineering.
This book is a collection of select proceedings of the FOMMS 2015 conference. FOMMS 2015 was the sixth triennial FOMMS conference showcasing applications of theory of computational quantum chemistry, molecular science, and engineering simulation. The theme of the 2015 meeting was on Molecular Modeling and the Materials Genome. This volume comprises chapters on many distinct applications of molecular modeling techniques. The content will be useful to researchers and students alike.
The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical Reviews on Topics of Research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed.
Early Main Group Metal Catalysis gives a comprehensive overview of catalytic reactions in the presence of group 1 and group 2 metals. Chapters are ordered to reaction type, contain educational elements and deal with concepts illustrated by examples that cover the main developments. After a short introduction on polar organometallic chemistry and synthesis of early main group metal complexes, a variety of catalytic reactions are described, e.g. polymerization of alkenes, hydroamination and phosphination reactions, hydrosilylation, hydroboration and hydrogenation catalysis, as well as enantioselective and Lewis-acid catalysis. The book addresses organic chemists and researchers in industry interested in the state-of-the-art and new possibilities of early main group metal catalysis as well as newcomers to the field. Written by a team of leaders in the field, it is a very welcome addition to the area of main group metal chemistry, and to the field of catalysis.
This is the first book on interfacial rheology. It aims to describe both its history as well as the current, most frequently used experimental techniques for studying dilational and shear rheology of layers at liquid/gas and liquid/liquid interfaces. The book opens with a chapter on the fundamentals of interfacial rheology. All (16) contributions include the theoretical basis for the presented methodologies, and experimental examples are given.
An updated fourth edition of the text that provides an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces The revised and enhanced fourth edition of Surface Science covers all the essential techniques and phenomena that are relevant to the field. The text elucidates the structural, dynamical, thermodynamic and kinetic principles concentrating on gas/solid and liquid/solid interfaces. These principles allow for an understanding of how and why chemical transformations occur at surfaces. The author (a noted expert on in the field) combines the required chemistry, physics and mathematics to create a text that is accessible and comprehensive. The fourth edition incorporates new end-of-chapter exercises, the solutions to which are available on-line to demonstrate how problem solving that is relevant to surface science should be performed. Each chapter begins with simple principles and builds to more advanced ones. The advanced topics provide material beyond the introductory level and highlight some frontier areas of study. This updated new edition: Contains an expanded treatment of STM and AFM as well as super-resolution microscopy Reviews advances in the theoretical basis of catalysis and the use of activity descriptors for rational catalyst design Extends the discussion of two-dimensional solids to reflect remarkable advances in their growth and characterization Delves deeper into the surface science of electrochemistry and charge transfer reactions Updates the "Frontiers and Challenges" sections at the end of each chapter as well as the list of references Written for students, researchers and professionals, the fourth edition of Surface Science offers a revitalized text that contains the tools and a set of principles for understanding the field. Instructor support material, solutions and PPTs of figures, are available at http: //booksupport.wiley.com
This book provides detailed methods to reduce or eliminate damage caused by corrosion; explains the human and environmental costs of corrosion; explains causes of and various types of corrosion; summarizes the costs of corrosion in different industries, including bridges, mining, petroleum refining, chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, agricultural, food processing, electronics, home appliances; and discusses the technical aspects of the various methods available to detect, prevent, and control corrosion.
The series Topics in Current Chemistry presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemical research. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science.The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience.Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors.Readership: research chemists at universities or in industry, graduate students
This textbook does away with the classic, unimaginative approach
and comes straight to the point with a bare minimum of mathematics
-- emphasizing the understanding of concepts rather than presenting
endless strings of formulae. It nonetheless covers all important
aspects of computational chemistry, such as
"Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. "Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at various discharge rates.
"Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries" is written for postgraduate students and researchers in electrochemistry, R&D professionals and experts in electrochemical storage.
Reagents in Mineral Technology provides comprehensive coverage of both basic as well asapplied aspects of reagents utilized in the minerals industry.This outstanding, single-source reference opens with an explicit account of flotation fundamentals,including coverage of wetting phenomena, mineral/water interfacial phenomena, flo tationchemistry, and flocculation and dispersion of mineral suspensions.It then discusses flotation of sulfide and nonsulfide minerals, with attention to formation ofclithiolates, formation of metal thiol compounds, application of fatty acids, sulfosuccinic acids,amines, and other collectors.Reagents in Mineral Technology also reviews adsorption of surfactants on minerals .. .details adsorption of polymers .. . and considers the chemistry and application of chelation agentsin minerals separations.Additional chapters consider grinding aids, frothers, inorganic and polymeric depressants,dewatering and filtering aids, analytical techniques, and much more.Unique in its depth of coverage, Reagents in Mineral Technology will prove an invaluablereference for mineral engineers and processors; analytical, surface, colloid, and physical chemists;petroleum, petrochemical, metallurgical, and mining engineers; and for use in advancedundergraduate- and graduate-level courses in these and related fields.
The series Topics in Current Chemistry presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemical research. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research chemists at universities or in industry, graduate students.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of thermodynamics. It is divided into four parts, the first of which equips readers with a deeper understanding of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics of equilibrium states and of their evolution. The second part applies these principles to a series of generalized situations, presenting applications that are of interest both in their own right and in terms of demonstrating how thermodynamics, as a theory of principle, relates to different fields. In turn, the third part focuses on non-equilibrium configurations and the dynamics of natural processes. It discusses both discontinuous and continuous systems, highlighting the interference among non-equilibrium processes, and the nature of stationary states and of fluctuations in isolated systems. Lastly, part four introduces the relation between physics and information theory, which constitutes a new frontier in fundamental research. The book includes step-by-step exercises, with solutions, to help readers to gain a fuller understanding of the subjects, and also features a series of appendices providing useful mathematical formulae. Reflecting the content of modern university courses on thermodynamics, it is a valuable resource for students and young scientists in the fields of physics, chemistry, and engineering.
Summarizing the emerging field of N-heterocyclic carbenes used in organocatalysis, this is an excellent overview of the synthesis and applications of NHCs focusing on carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Alongside comprehensive coverage of the synthesis, characteristics and applications, this handbook and ready reference also includes chapters on NHCs for polymerization reactions and natural product synthesis.
Modelling of heterogeneous processes, such as electrochemical reactions, extraction, or ion-exchange, usually requires solving the transport problem associated to the process. Since the processes at the phase boundary are described by scalar quantities and transport quantities are vectors or tensors, coupling them can take place only via conservation of mass, charge, or momentum. In this book, the transport of ionic species is addressed in a versatile manner, emphasizing the mutual coupling of fluxes in particular. Treatment is based on the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics, i.e. on linear (ionic) phenomenological equations, from which the most frequently used Nernst-Planck equation is derived. Limitations and assumptions made are thoroughly discussed. The Nernst-Planck equation is applied to selected problems at the electrodes and in membranes. Mathematical derivations are presented in detail so that the reader can learn the methodology of solving transport problems. Each chapter contains a large number of exercises, some of them more demanding than others.
The Specialist Periodical Report Electrochemistry presents comprehensive and critical reviews in all aspects of the field, with contributions from across the globe, providing the reader with an informed digest of the most important research currently carried out in this field. Re-launching in 2015 with a new editorial team, Volume 13 returns to its roots and provides a wide range of topics written by leading experts researching at the forefront and heart of electrochemistry. The book covers topics such as control and structural analysis, and combines different approaches on utilizing light as a source for materials science. This volume is a key reference in the field of electrochemistry, allowing readers to become easily acquainted with the latest research trends.
Workbook for Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control Paul Wyatt Senior Lecturer and Director of Undergraduate Studies, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, UK Stuart Warren Reader in Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, UK. Workbook for Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control This workbook provides a comprehensive graded set of problems to illustrate and develop the themes of each of the chapters in the textbook Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control. Each problem is followed by a fully explained solution and discussion. The examples extend the student's experience of the types of molecules being synthesised by organic chemists, and the strategies they employ to control their syntheses. By working through these examples students will develop their skills in analysing synthetic challenges, and build a toolkit of strategies for planning new syntheses. Together the workbook and textbook provide a complete course in advanced organic synthesis. Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control is a sequel to Stuart Warren's bestseller Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach. The 'Disconnection' book concentrated on the planning behind the synthesis of compounds. This book focuses on putting the planning into practice. The two themes of the book are strategy and control: solving problems either by finding an alternative strategy or by controlling any established strategy to make it work. The book is divided into five sections that deal with selectivity, carbon-carbon single bonds, carbon-carbon double bonds, stereochemistry and functional group strategy. Interpenetrating this structure, the 36 chapters start with classic methods and progress to modern methods and modern strategic considerations. Heterocyclic chemistry is treated throughout the book with full mechanistic explanations as part of organic chemistry rather than a separate entity. Students and professional chemists familiar with Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach will enjoy the leap into a book designed for chemists at the coalface of organic synthesis.
Drawing on the wealth of photochemical research, this volume combines reviews on the latest advances in the field with specific topical highlights. With critical review chapters devoted to solar energy conversion, cryogenic matrices and polymers and highlights covering for example continuous flow photochemistry and photoactive cyclodextrin-based nanosystems, this volume captures the literature in an authoritative digest of the latest developments in this established field. Relevant to a wide range of academic and commercial disciplines and covering chemistry, physics, biology and technology, this series is essential reading for postgraduates, academics and industrialists working in the field of photochemistry.
This textbook covers chemical thermodynamics in materials science from basic to advanced level, especially for iron and steel making processes. To improve a process by applying knowledge of thermodynamics or to assess the calculation results of thermodynamic software, an accurate and systematic understanding of thermodynamics is required. For that purpose, books from which one can learn thermodynamics from the basic to the advanced level are needed, but such books are rarely published. This book bridges the gap between the basics, which are treated in general thermodynamic books, and their application, which are only partially dealt with in most specialized books on a specific field. This textbook can be used to teach the basics of chemical thermodynamics and its applications to beginners. The basic part of the book is written to help learners acquire robust applied skills in an easy-to-understand manner, with in-depth explanations and schematic diagrams included. The same book can be used by advanced learners as well. Those higher-level readers such as post-graduate students and researchers may refer to the basic part of the book to get down to the basic concepts of chemical thermodynamics or to confirm the basic concepts. Abundant pages are also devoted to applications designed to present more advanced applied skills grounded in a deep understanding of the basics. The book contains some 50 examples and their solutions so that readers can learn through self-study.
Recognizing the critical need for bringing a handy referece work that deals with the most popular reagents in synthesis to the laboratory of practising organic chemists, the Editor selected the best reagents from two sources. The first is in the Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (EROS) which was published in 1995. In the intervening time, new entries have been written by many experts in the field for incorporation in the ever-expanding electronic version of the same work (e-EROS).
Chiral Reagents for Asymmetric Synthesis assembles into a single volume many of the optically active reagents and catalysts in use at the present time, with the overall intention to compile in manageable format as much indispensable information as possible. The selection reflects the sharp increase in demand for enantionmerically pure reagents and products that has taken place over the past twenty-five years. This development has been driven by synthetic organic chemists working in natural products synthesis and by medicinal chemists working on the development of enantionmerically pure drugs. These two comunities will find this volume of particular benefit.
All the information compiled in this volume is also available in electronic format on Wiley InterScience. The electronic Encyclopedia for Organic Synthesis (e-EROS) includes all the reagents described in this volume plus many more reagents of other types and for other uses. e-EROS allows for text and structure search and has many new and updated entries added every year.
The new edition of this best-selling textbook addresses the difficulties that can arise with the mathematics that underpins the study of symmetry, and acknowledges that group theory can be a complex concept for students to grasp. Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory is based around a series of programmes that help students learn at their own pace and enable them to understand the subject fully. Readers are taken through a series of carefully constructed exercises, designed to simplify the mathematics and give them a full understanding of how this relates to the chemistry. The second edition has been revised and expanded and includes a new chapter on the projection operator method. This is used to calculate the form of the normal modes of vibration of a molecule and the normalised wave functions of hybrid orbitals or molecular orbitals.
The ideal addition to the companion volume on fundamentals,
methodologies, and applications, this second volume combines
fundamental information with an overview of the role of ceramic
membranes, electrodes and interfaces in this important,
interdisciplinary and rapidly developing field.
Long awaited, this textbook fills the gap for convincing concepts to describe amorphous solids. Adopting a unique approach, the author develops a framework that lays the foundations for a theory of amorphousness. He unravels the scientific mysteries surrounding the topic, replacing rather vague notions of amorphous materials as disordered crystalline solids with the well-founded concept of ideal amorphous solids. A classification of amorphous materials into inorganic glasses, organic glasses, glassy metallic alloys, and thin films sets the scene for the development of the model of ideal amorphous solids, based on topology- and statistics-governed rules of three-dimensional sphere packing, which leads to structures with no short, mid or long-range order. This general model is then concretized to the description of specific compounds in the four fundamental classes of amorphous solids, as well as amorphous polyethylene and poly(methyl)methacrylate, emphasizing its versatility and descriptive power. Finally, he includes example applications to indicate the abundance of amorphous materials in modern-day technology, thus illustrating the importance of a better understanding of their structure and properties. Equally ideal as supplementary reading in courses on crystallography, mineralogy, solid state physics, and materials science where amorphous materials have played only a minor role until now.
This book provides details of the calculation of the interaction between two neutral polarizable atoms or molecules using molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED). To better understand the origin of this force, it briefly outlines molecular QED theory, the well-known van der Waals dispersion potential first evaluated by Casimir and Polder, who accounted for retardation effects. It presents different calculation schemes for the evaluation of the dispersion potential and also discusses energy shifts involving electric quadrupole and octupole moments, along with discriminatory dispersion potentials. Further, it explores in detail non-additive dispersion interaction energies between three-bodies, as well as the effects of higher multipole moment correction terms, and provides results for specific geometries such as collinear and equilateral triangles. Lastly, it computes near and far-zone asymptotic limits for both pair and many-body potentials, with the former shown to agree with less rigorous semi-classical calculations.
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