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Demonstrates how substitution of a variety of ligands can render
albumin a versatile targeting tool for selective drug accumulation
in various cell populations of the liver
This subvolume contains selected data on heats of mixing and solution of binary gaseous, liquid, near-critical, and supercritical fluid systems of nonelectrolytes, including aqueous-organic systems, in broad ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition. All the data are extracted from the original literature published from 1957 to 2005. The names of the authors, the titles of the publications, and the exact references are given. Estimated uncertainties are reported. The printed volume presents tables for 314 representative systems. The CD-ROM displays all these data, as well as 134 additional data files, in PDF format and in fully documented computer readable standard electronic files (SELF and ELDATA)t. Moreover, the ELBT-program includes a comprehensive bibliographical database on heats of mixing and solution measurements published in the period 1853-2005 for 10867 two- to six-component systems consisting of organic or inorganic electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, ionic liquids, alloys, fused salts, polymers and other materials. The ELBT-program allows the fast search of data according to property type, chemical system (substances, mixtures, and solutions), author(s), source and year of publication. The software on the CD-ROM allows the correlation of the numerical data with several equations and the display of the original data and of the correlated data in tabular and graphical form. In order to facilitate the storage, exchange and use of the data, the ELBT-program of this volume allows importation of the information of SELF and ELDATA files, as well as of the files containing the results of correlations into Spreadsheet ML documents.
One of the goals of An Introduction to Applied Statistical Thermodynamics is to introduce readers to the fundamental ideas and engineering uses of statistical thermodynamics, and the equilibrium part of the statistical mechanics. This text emphasises on nano and bio technologies, molecular level descriptions and understandings offered by statistical mechanics. It provides an introduction to the simplest forms of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation (albeit only for simple spherical molecules) and user-friendly MATLAB programs for doing such simulations, and also some other calculations. The purpose of this text is to provide a readable introduction to statistical thermodynamics, show its utility and the way the results obtained lead to useful generalisations for practical application. The text also illustrates the difficulties that arise in the statistical thermodynamics of dense fluids as seen in the discussion of liquids.
This volume documents developments in the study of catalysis relating to organic synthesis and its application in industrial processes. It surveys a wide range of homo- and heterogeneous catalysis for industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals. It covers enantioselective hydrogenation, catalyzed hydrogens and oxidation, carbonylation, hydroaminomethylation, and more.
Bioelectrochemistry is a fast growing field at the interface between electrochemistry and other sciences such as biochemistry, analytical chemistry and medicinal chemistry. In the recent years, the methods and the understanding of the fundamentals have seen significant progress, which has led to rapid development in the field. Here, the expert editors have carefully selected contributions to best reflect the latest developments in this hot and rapidly growing interdisciplinary topic. The resulting excellent and timely overview of this multifaceted field covers recent methodological advances, as well as a range of new applications for analytical detection, drug screening, tumor therapy, and for energy conversion in biofuel cells. This book is a must-have for all Electrochemists, Biochemists, Analytical Chemists, and Medicinal Chemists.
Clearly structured and written with advanced undergraduate,
graduate and PhD students in mind, this English edition of a
successful German textbook not only focuses on organic reactions,
but also on bio-relevant reactions. Important aspects of the
catalytic mechanisms are discussed in detail while much additional
information is also provided, such as industrial applications of
the processes covered.
Written to introduce readers to molecular descriptions of thermodynamics, chemical systems, and biomolecules, Statistical Thermodynamics discusses the aspects of statistical thermodynamics of most use and interest to chemistry students. Topics include: probability; energy and interactions; statistical mechanics; harmonic oscillators; ideal gas; imperfect gas; heat capacities of gas; rubber elasticity; conformation of polymers; surface adsorption; law of mass action; Ising model; and more. Rich with illustrations and tables to illuminate rather difficult concepts, the text equips students with the ability to apply the method to their own systems.
This book gives an extensive description of the state-of-the-art in research on excited-state hydrogen bonding and hydrogen transfer in recent years.
Initial chapters present both the experimental and theoretical investigations on the excited-state hydrogen bonding structures and dynamics of many organic and biological chromophores. Following this, several chapters describe the influences of the excited-state hydrogen bonding on various photophysical processes and photochemical reactions, for example: hydrogen bonding effects on fluorescence emission behaviors and photoisomerization; the role of hydrogen bonding in photosynthetic water splitting; photoinduced electron transfer and solvation dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids; and hydrogen bonding barrier crossing dynamics at bio-mimicking surfaces. Finally, the book examines experimental and theoretical studies on the nature and control of excited-state hydrogen transfer in various systems.
"Hydrogen Bonding and Transfer in the Excited State" is an essential overview of this increasingly important field of study, surveying the entire field over 2 volumes, 40 chapters and 1200 pages. It will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers in photochemistry, photobiology, photophysics, physical chemistry and chemical physics.
The book addresses the interdisciplinary scientific approach for the systemic understanding of connections between major human diseases and their treatment regime by applying the tools and techniques of nanotechnology. It also highlights the interdisciplinary collaborative researches for innovation in Biomedical Sciences. The book is a first volume which presents collection of best papers presented in the First International Conference on Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine held during Dec. 15-18, 2012 in Kathmandu, Nepal. The book focuses mainly on the topics: emerging infectious diseases; antimicrobial agents, vaccines and immunity; drug design, drug delivery and tissue engineering and nanomaterials and biomedical materials.
The book provides a comprehensive understanding of the principles for operating lithium-ion supercapacitors (LISCs), their challenges, technological trends and perspectives. LISC technology has high potential to replace conventional rechargeable batteries such as lead-acid and nickel metal hydride batteries for automotive, portable electronics, and stationary applications. The book offers detailed analysis of LISCs at the material, component, and system levels to evaluate the different approaches to their integration. It also discusses economics, market, manufacture, and commercialization status of LISCs. It is an up-to-date study of an emerging field, written by experts, ideal for those in academia and industry who want a detailed explanation of the technology.
This book is about the importance of water in determining the structure, stability and responsive behavior of biological membranes. Water confers to lipid membranes unique features in terms of surface and mechanical properties. The analysis of the hydration forces, plasticiser effects, controlled hydration, formation of microdomains of confined water suggests that water is an active constituent in a water-lipid system. The chapters describe water organization at the lipid membrane-water interphase, the water penetration, the long range water structure in the presence of lipid membranes by means of X-ray and neutron scattering, general polarization, fluorescent probes, ATR-FTIR and near infrared spectroscopies, piezo electric methods, computer simulation and surface thermodynamics. Permeation, percolation, osmotic stress, polarization, protrusion, sorption, hydrophobicity, density fluctuations are treated in detail in self-assembled bilayers. Studies in lipid monolayers show the correlation of surface pressure with water activity and its role in peptide and enzyme interactions. The book concludes with a discussion on anhydrobiosis and the effect of water replacement in microdomains and its consequence for cell function. New definitions of lipid/water interphases consider water not only as a structural-making solvent but as a mediator in signalling metabolic activity, modulating protein insertion and enzymatic activity, triggering oscillatory reactions and functioning of membrane bound receptors. Since these effects occur at the molecular level, membrane hydration appears fundamental to understand the behavior of nano systems and confined environments mimicking biological systems. These insights in structural, thermodynamical and mechanical water properties give a base for new paradigms in membrane structure and function for those interested in biophysics, physical chemistry, biology, bio and nano medicine, biochemistry, biotechnology and nano sciences searching for biotechnological inputs in human health, food industry, plant growing and energy conversion.
Inorganic nanoparticles are among the most investigated objects nowadays, both in fundamental science and in various technical applications. In this book the physical properties of nanowires formed by nanoparticles with elongated shape, i.e. rod-like or wire-like, are described. The transition in the physical properties is analyzed for nanorods and nanowires consisting of spherical and rod-like nanoparticles. The physical properties of nanowires and elongated inorganic nanoparticles are reviewed too. The optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical and catalytic properties of nanowires consisting of semiconductors, noble and various other metals, metal oxides properties and metal alloys are presented. The applications of nanorods and nanowires are discussed in the book.
In this Festschrift dedicated to the 85th birthday of Professor Guosen Yan, selected researchers in theoretical chemistry present research highlights on major developments in the field. Originally published in the journal Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, these outstanding contributions are now available in a hardcover print format, as well as a special electronic edition. This volume provides valuable content for all researchers in theoretical chemistry, and will especially benefit those research groups and libraries with limited access to the journal.
For many processes and applications in science and technology a
basic knowledge of liquids and solutions is a must. Gaining a
better understanding of the behavior and properties of pure liquids
and solutions will help to improve many processes and to advance
research in many different areas. This book provides a
comprehensive, self-contained and integrated survey of this topic
and is a must-have for many chemists, chemical engineers and
material scientists, ranging from newcomers in the field to more
experienced researchers. The author
500 Ways to Achieve Your Best Grades
We want you to succeed on your physical chemistry midterm and final exams. That's why we've selected these 500 questions to help you study more effectively, use your preparation time wisely, and get your best grades. These questions and answers are similar to the ones you'll find on a typical college exam, so you will know what to expect on test day. Each question includes explanations for right and wrong answers for your full understanding of the concepts. Whether you have been studying all year or are doing a last-minute review, "McGraw-Hill's 500 Physical Chemistry Questions" will help you achieve the final grade you desire.
Sharpen your subject knowledge and build your test-taking confidence with: 500 essential physical chemistry questions with answers Explanations for every answer Coverage of physical chemistry from ethical theory to epistemology
Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for
properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings.
Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined
properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be
determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline
states. "Thermodynamics of Crystalline States" explores the roles
played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a
wholly new way.
Chemical modelling covers a wide range of disciplines and with the increase in volume, velocity and variety of information, researchers can find it difficult to keep up to date with the literature in this field. This book is the first stop for any materials scientist, biochemist, chemist or molecular physicist wishing to acquaint themselves with major developments in the applications and theory of chemical modelling. Containing both comprehensive and critical reviews, its coverage includes materials for energy storage, nanoflakes, chemical modelling of fluidics near surfaces and organic solar cells.
This book presents computer simulations using molecular dynamics techniques in statistical physics, with a focus on macromolecular systems. The numerical methods are introduced in the form of computer algorithms and can be implemented in computers using any desired computer programming language, such as Fortran 90, C/C++, and others. The book also explains how some of these numerical methods and their algorithms can be implemented in the existing computer programming software of macromolecular systems, such as the CHARMM program. In addition, it examines a number of advanced concepts of computer simulation techniques used in statistical physics as well as biological and physical systems. Discussing the molecular dynamics approach in detail to enhance readers understanding of the use of this method in statistical physics problems, it also describes the equations of motion in various statistical ensembles to mimic real-world experimental conditions. Intended for graduate students and research scientists working in the field of theoretical and computational biophysics, physics and chemistry, the book can also be used by postgraduate students of other disciplines, such as applied mathematics, computer sciences, and bioinformatics. Further, offering insights into fundamental theory, it as a valuable resource for expert practitioners and programmers and those new to the field.
In this book we explore new approaches to understanding the physical and chemical properties of emergent complex functional materials, revealing a close relationship between their structures and properties at the molecular level. The primary focus of this book is on the ability to synthesize materials with a controlled chemical composition, a crystallographic structure, and a well-defined morphology. Special attention is also given to the interplay of theory, simulation and experimental results, in order to interconnect theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches, which can reveal new scientific and technological directions in several fields, expanding the versatility to yield a variety of new complex materials with desirable applications and functions. Some of the challenges and opportunities in this field are also discussed, targeting the development of new emergent complex functional materials with tailored properties to solve problems related to renewable energy, health, and environmental sustainability. A more fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of new emergent complex functional materials is essential to achieving more substantial progress in a number of technological fields. With this goal in mind, the editors invited acknowledged specialists to contribute chapters covering a broad range of disciplines.
Nanobioelectrochemistry covers the modern aspects of bioelectrochemistry, nanoscience and materials science. The combination of nanostructured materials and biological molecules enables the development of biodevices capable to detect specific substances. Furthermore, by using the bioelectrochemistry approach, the interaction between bio-systems and nanostructured materials can be studied at the molecular level, where several mechanisms of molecular behavior are elucidate from redox reactions. The combination of biological molecules and novel nanomaterials components is of great importance in the process of developing new nanoscale devices for future biological, medical and electronic applications. This book describes some of the different electrochemical techniques that can be used to study new strategies for patterning electrode surfaces with enzymes, organelles, cells and biomimetic systems. Also, it focuses on how enzymes and microorganisms can be used as biological catalysts in fuel cells for green power generation. By bringing together these different aspects of nanobioelectrochemistry, this book provides a valuable source of information for many students and scientists.
A Thorough But Understandable Introduction To Molecular Symmetry And Group Theory As Applied To Chemical Problems! In a friendly, easy-to-understand style, this new book invites the reader to discover by example the power of symmetry arguments for understanding theoretical problems in chemistry. The author shows the evolution of ideas and demonstrates the centrality of symmetry and group theory to a complete understanding of the theory of structure and bonding. Plus, the book offers explicit demonstrations of the most effective techniques for applying group theory to chemical problems, including the tabular method of reducing representations and the use of group-subgroup relationships for dealing with infinite-order groups. Also Available From Wiley:
Leading graphene research theorist Mikhail I. Katsnelson systematically presents the basic concepts of graphene physics in this fully revised second edition. The author illustrates and explains basic concepts such as Berry phase, scaling, Zitterbewegung, Kubo, Landauer and Mori formalisms in quantum kinetics, chirality, plasmons, commensurate-incommensurate transitions and many others. Open issues and unsolved problems introduce the reader to the latest developments in the field. New achievements and topics presented include the basic concepts of Van der Waals heterostructures, many-body physics of graphene, electronic optics of Dirac electrons, hydrodynamics of electron liquid and the mechanical properties of one atom-thick membranes. Building on an undergraduate-level knowledge of quantum and statistical physics and solid-state theory, this is an important graduate textbook for students in nanoscience, nanotechnology and condensed matter. For physicists and material scientists working in related areas, this is an excellent introduction to the fast-growing field of graphene science.
This book introduces the reader to the state of the art in nanostructured anode and cathode electrocatalysts for low-temperature acid and alkaline fuel cells. It explores the electrocatalysis of anode (oxidation of organic molecules) and cathode (oxygen reduction) reactions. It also offers insights into metal-carbon interactions, correlating them with the catalytic activity of the electrochemical reactions. The book explores the electrocatalytic behaviour of materials based on noble metals and their alloys, as well as metal-metal oxides and metal-free nanostructures. It also discusses the surface and structural modification of carbon supports to enhance the catalytic activity of electrocatalysts for fuel-cell reactions.
The 3-volume set highlights the behavior of radionuclides in the environment and focusing on the development of related fields of study, including microbiology and nanoscience. In this context, it discusses the behavior of radionuclides released in areas of Lake Karachai in Ural, and those released as a result of Chernobyl accident (1986), and in Fukushima (2011). Volume I presents the experiences gained in South Urals ("Mayak" plant, Lake Karachai), providing a scientific basis for more precise understanding of the behavior of radionuclides in complex subsurface environments. On the basis of monitoring data, it examines the pathways of radionuclide migration and the influence of the geological environment and groundwater on the migration, with a particular focus on particles from the nanoscale to microscale. It also discusses the function of microbes and microscale particles, from their direct interaction with radionuclides to their ecological role in changing the physic-chemical condition of a given environment. Lastly, the protective properties of geological media are also characterized, and mathematical modeling of contaminant migration in the area of Lake Karachai is used to provide information regarding the migration of radionuclides.
There are two main disciplines in catalysis research -- homogeneous
and heterogeneous catalysis. This is due to the fact that the
catalyst is either in the same phase (homogeneous catalysis) as the
reaction being catalyzed or in a different phase (heterogeneous
catalysis). Over the past decade, various approaches have been
implemented to combine the advantages of homogeneous catalysis
(efficiency, selectivity) with those of heterogeneous catalysis
(stability, recovery) by the heterogenization of homogeneous
catalysts or by carrying out homogeneous reactions under
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