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Drawing on the continued wealth of photochemical research, this volume combines reviews in the latest advances in the field with specific topical highlights. Starting with periodical reports of the literature from 2015-2016 on physical and inorganic aspects, light induced reactions in cryogenic matrices, triplet states on polymers and related materials, properties of transition-metal compounds and the exploitation of solar energy. Coverage continues with highlighted topics in the second part from photoredox systems for building C-C bonds from carbon dioxide, photochemistry in art, photoresponsive devices targeting nucleic acid structures, developments in photodynamic therapy devices and photocatalysis with donor-acceptor polymers. Providing critical analysis of the topics, this book is essential reading for anyone wanting to keep up to date with the literature on photochemistry and its applications.
This book provides a gentle introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics. The particular aim is to fill the needs of readers who wish to learn the subject without a solid background in classical and quantum mechanics. The approach is unique in that classical mechanical formulation takes center stage. The book will be of particular interest to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in engineering departments.
This book systematically reviews recent advances in the synthetic methods and applications of helicenes. The first part of this book introduces the nomenclature and structural features of helicenes. The second part reviews several classic and useful methods as well as recently-developed approaches for the preparation and functionalization of helicenes, including photocyclization and Diels-Alder reactions, which are two important breakthroughs in the syntheses of helicenes. In the last part, the applications of helicenes in asymmetric syntheses, molecular machines, molecular recognition, self-assembly and other fields are discussed. This book provides a useful reference source for researchers and graduate students working not only in the area of helicene chemistry, but also in other research areas including materials science, supramolecular chemistry, coordination chemistry, and physical organic chemistry. Chuan-Feng Chen is a Professor at the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
This book provides an overview of passive and interactive analytical techniques for nuclear materials. The book aims to update readers on new techniques available and provide an introduction for those who are new to the topic or are looking to move into actinides and nuclear materials science. The characterization of actinide species and radioactive materials is vital for understanding how these elements and radioactive isotopes are formed and behave and how these materials can be improved. The analysis of the actinides or radioactive materials goes beyond spent fuel science to the applicable complete fuel cycle and including analysis of reactor materials.
Introduction to the Technology of Explosives Paul W. Cooper and Stanley R. Kurowski Introduction to the Technology of Explosives is a clear and concise survey of the technologies and physical processes involved in explosive phenomena. The book is intended to provide the worker new to the field with sufficient background to understand problems that may arise and to interact intelligently with specialists in the field. The book covers the fundamentals of the chemistry of explosives; the mechanics of burning; sound, shock, and detonation; initiation and initiators; scaling in design and analysis; and off-the-shelf explosive devices. It provides the basic calculational skills needed to solve simple, first-order engineering design problems, and emphasizes the crucial importance of safety considerations. The book contains a broad range of data on explosive materials, and their properties and behavior, along with extensive lists of useful references. Example problems with solutions are provided in each technical area, as are descriptions and analysis of a wide variety of explosive devices. The book concludes with a thorough and comprehensive description of regulatory requirements for the classification, transportation, and storage of explosives, and an extensive guide to explosives safety in plant and test facilities. This book will be of interest to explosives technicians and engineers, government regulators, crime and accident scene investigators, and instructors in military, police, and FBI bomb schools.
Over the last decade, the area of homogeneous catalysis with transition metal has grown in great scientific interest and technological promise, with research in this area earning three Nobel Prizes and filing thousands of patents relating to metallocene and non-metallocene single site catalysts, asymmetric catalysis, carbon-carbon bond forming metathesis and cross coupling reactions. This text explains these new developments in a unified, cogent, and comprehensible manner while also detailing earlier discoveries and the fundamentals of homogeneous catalysis. Serving as a self-study guide for students and all chemists seeking to gain entry into this field, it can also be used by experienced researchers from both academia and industry for referring to leading state of the art review articles and patents, and also as a quick self-study manual in an area that is outside their immediate expertise. The book features: Topics including renewable feed stocks (biofuel, glycerol), carbon dioxide based processes (polycarbonates), fluorous solvents, ionic liquid, hydroformylation, polymerization, oxidation, asymmetric catalysis, and more Basic principles of organometallic chemistry, homogeneous catalysis, and relevant technological issues Problems and answers, industrial applications (case studies), and examples from proven industrial processes with clear discussions on environmental and techno-commercial issues Extensive references to cutting edge research with application potential and leading patents Tables and illustrations to help explain difficult concepts
Polymers belong to an essential material group with many applications not only for polymer manufacturers but also in physics, chemistry, medicine and engineering techniques. The presented volume is the first part of a book series connecting a complete data collection with short but precise descriptions of the different quantities and their significances. The experimental determination of the physical quantities is given as well as the influence to other physical quantities. This volume helps to choose the best material for all kinds of applications also for those which are not mentioned in polymer material books. It is focused on polymers in solutions and is intended for scientists and researchers who work on practical problems in the polymer field and who are in the need of numerical data on polymer properties.
A valuable reference presenting many processes that facilitate lipid extraction from micro-organisms. Amongst the techniques included are Folch, Bligh and Dyer methods, and the Soxhlet technique as well as intensified green processes (ultrasound, microwave, supercritical fluid extraction, agro-solvent, accelerated solvent extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, instant controlled pressure drop, pulse electric field). In addition to a section featuring the analysis of fatty acids by Gas Chromatography and lipids by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), this brief contains a valuable bibliography on microorganisms (classes, structures) and their applications as a source of value added oils and compounds for food and non-food applications such as biojet fuel.
This book discusses recent progress in endohedral fullerenes - their production and separation techniques, as well as their characterization and properties. Furthermore, the book delves into the all-important issue of stability by investigating electron transfer between the encapsulated metal species and the carbon cage. It also reviews spin-based phenomena caused by the shielding of endohedral spin by the fullerene, and analyzes formation of the spin states by charge transfer as studied by electron spin resonance. Tuning of charge states of endohedral species and of spin states of both the cage and the cluster are explained. Finally, the book considers the recent discovery of magnetism in some endohedral fullerenes, and the potential for quantum computing.
When the first volume of this compilation was published in 2000 (subvolume B of volume 14 of the Physical Chemistry, Group IV, of Landolt-Boernstein) we knew of 130 framework-type codes approved by the Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association. At that point we had identified and collected in our databank Zeobase more than 1800 sets of individual crystal structure data concerning zeolites. We expected it would take three volumes to cover all this ground. As of this writing there are 186 known framework-type codes and the number of individual entries is close to 4900. That means that on average close to 400 new crystal structure determinations or refinements of zeolites have been published annually since the year 2000. This, fourth, subvolume E contains information on the 30 framework-type codes from RON to STI, encompassing 1100 individual entries, of which 949 are for the SOD-type alone. With 152 pages the SOD-chapter comprises more than a third of this volume. It is the most studied zeolite framework and is exceedingly complex in terms of its varied chemistry and especially in the richness of the various space group symmetries in which it has been found to occur. At least 27 different space groups have been used to describe the SOD-types known so far. No other zeolite-type displays such variety. Possibly this is due to the collapsibility and flexibility of its simple framework.
The series Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry presents critical reviews on present and future trends in the research of heterocyclic compounds. Overall the scope is to cover topics dealing with all areas within heterocyclic chemistry, both experimental and theoretical, of interest to the general heterocyclic chemistry community. The series consists of topic related volumes edited by renowned editors with contributions of experts in the field. All chapters from Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry are published Online First with an individual DOI. In references, Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry is abbreviated as Top Heterocycl Chem and cited as a journal
Hannah Minges focuses on the investigation of two different FAD-dependent halogenases in order to analyze and improve their applicability for chemoenzymatic approaches in chemistry. Owing to beneficial features, like high selectivity and benign reaction conditions, nature's toolkit for halogenation provides several advantages, whereas conventional chemical strategies require hazardous reagents and suffer from low selectivity. Therefore, enzymatic halogenation arises as promising alternative in the synthesis of valuable chemicals. One project focuses on the generation of a thermostable variant of the tryptophan halogenase Thal by means of directed evolution. The second project deals with the investigation of the marine halogenase Bmp5. This enzyme is of synthetic interest because it preferably introduces bromine into phenol compounds, whereas chlorination cannot take place.
This book describes state-of-the-art borylation chemistry using copper(I) catalysis. Enantioselective reactions are included to afford a variety of functionalized, complex organoboronate esters, which will find wide application in asymmetric synthesis, drug discovery, and material science. Organoboron compounds are recognized as useful reagents in organic synthesis; therefore, great effort has been devoted to the development of a simple, mild, and efficient method for their preparation in the past several years. However, the synthesis of functionalized organoboron compounds remains a challenging issue because known reactions often require the use of highly reactive organometallic carbon nucleophiles. This book focuses on conceptually new, formal nucleophilic copper(I)-catalyzed borylation reactions with diboron compounds that show high selectivity and excellent functional group compatibility. Theoretical studies based on density functional theory calculations to understand the reaction mechanisms have also been described. Advances in this novel borylation chemistry will allow the rapid and efficient synthesis of complex molecules with potentially interesting properties in combination with the boron functionalization process.
This thesis describes improvements to and control of the electrical conductance in single-molecule junctions (SMJs), which have potential applications in molecular electronics, with a focus on the bonding between the metal and molecule. In order to improve the electrical conductance, the orbital of the molecule is directly bonded to the metal orbital, because anchoring groups, which were typically used in other studies to bind molecule with metal electrodes, became resistive spacers. Using this direct -binding, the author has successfully demonstrated highly conductive SMJs involving benzene, endohedral metallofullerene Ce@C82, and nitrogen. Subsequently, the author investigated control of the electrical conductance of SMJs using pyrazine. The nitrogen atom in the -conjugated system of pyrazine was expected to function as an anchoring point, and two bonding states were expected. One originates primarily from the orbital, while the other originates primarily from an n state of the nitrogen. Measurements of conductance and dI/dV spectra coupled with theoretical calculations revealed that the pyrazine SMJ has bistable conductance states, in which the pyrazine axis is either tilted or parallel with respect to the junction axis. The bistable states were switched by changing the gap size between the metal electrodes using an external force. Notably, it is difficult to change the electrical properties of bulk-state materials using mechanical force. The findings reveal that the electron transport properties of a SMJ can be controlled by designing a proper metal-molecule interface, which has considerable potential for molecular electronics. Moreover, this thesis will serve as a guideline for every step of SMJ research: design, fabrication, evaluation, and control.
`Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications' builds from basic principles to advanced techniques, and covers the major phenomena, methods, and results of time-dependent systems. It is a pedagogic introduction, a comprehensive reference manual, and an original research monograph. Uniquely, the book treats time-dependent systems by close analogy with their static counterparts, with most of the familiar results of equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics being generalized and applied to the non-equilibrium case. The book is notable for its unified treatment of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, stochastic processes, and statistical mechanics, for its self-contained, coherent derivation of a variety of non-equilibrium theorems, and for its quantitative tests against experimental measurements and computer simulations. Systems that evolve in time are more common than static systems, and yet until recently they lacked any over-arching theory. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is unique in its unified presentation of the theory of non-equilibrium systems, which has now reached the stage of quantitative experimental and computational verification. The novel perspective and deep understanding that this book brings offers the opportunity for new direction and growth in the study of time-dependent phenomena. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is an invaluable reference manual for experts already working in the field. Research scientists from different disciplines will find the overview of time-dependent systems stimulating and thought-provoking. Lecturers in physics and chemistry will be excited by many fresh ideas and topics, insightful explanations, and new approaches. Graduate students will benefit from its lucid reasoning and its coherent approach, as well as from the chem12physof mathematical techniques, derivations, and computer algorithms.
The newest volume in the authoritative Inorganic Syntheses book series provides users of inorganic substances with detailed and foolproof procedures for the preparation of important and timely inorganic and organometallic compounds that can be used in reactions to develop new materials, drug targets, and bio-inspired chemical entities.
This book outlines methods to improve functioning of these polymer based devices - in particular, the multi-faceted cognition of these materials. In situ electrochemical techniques are studied to elucidate redox switching between non-conducting and conducting states. The book examines the advantages of combinations of in situ electrochemical techniques in a hyphenated mode for analyzing conducting polymers.
This outstanding thesis describes a detailed investigation into the use of low-oxidation-state group 14 complexes in catalysis, developed at the cutting edge of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. It includes the preparation of a number of landmark compounds, some of which challenge our current understanding of metal-metal bonding and low-oxidation-state main group chemistry. Among the many highlights of this thesis, the standout result is the development of the first well-defined, low- oxidation-state main group hydride systems as highly efficient catalysts in the hydroboration of carbonyl substrates, including carbon dioxide, which are as efficient as those observed in more traditional, transition-metal catalyses. These results essentially define a new subdiscipline of chemistry.
This new edition describes the state of the art regarding molecular catalysts such as MN4 metal complexes, like porphyrins and phthalocyanines. This volume focuses on the particular case of the electrocatalysis of the reduction of O2 for practical applications in fuel cells and air batteries. Indeed, active and stable materials have been developed in the last 5 years where MN4 catalytic systems can be obtained by the pyrolysis of starting materials that do not necessarily involve MN4 complexes. These latter systems constitute a new class of stable and highly active non-precious metal catalysts for ORR that can replace expensive Platinum containing electrodes. The book also offers future projections and points out new fields of research and development of these non-precious metal catalysts.
This manageably sized dictionary covers theory, experiment,
industrial practice and applications for nanotechnology, colloid,
and interface science, as well as much of what is now termed
materials science. The comprehensive information is presented in
several sections and formats: dictionary of terms, classification
tables on colloid and nanomaterial types, and sub-term glossaries
for specific phenomena, properties and methods. It offers both
newly-coined as well as older terms whose meanings have changed,
providing acronyms, synonyms, famous names, selected abbreviations,
and cross-references. It also contains a historical overview, units
and symbols, and a separate literature section for further reading
and following-up on specific topics.
This thesis focuses on the theoretical description of electro-osmosis of polymer solutions. In particular, it emphasizes the importance of considering non-uniform profiles of the solution viscosity and polymer concentration near a solid surface. The thesis begins with an introduction to fundamental theories and experimental observations for beginners in this field, concerning electrolyte solutions, electric double layers, and electrokinetics. In Chapter 2, the author discusses the linear response of electro-osmotic flow with respect to applied electric fields in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions, and predicts a possibility of flow reversal caused by oppositely charged polyelectrolytes adsorbed on a charged surface. In Chapter 3, the author extends the discussion to non-linear electro-osmotic flow driven by applied electric fields in neutral polymer solutions. The dynamics of polymers are modeled and simulated using Brownian dynamics and kinetic theory. Finally, the thesis is summarized in Chapter 4. The introduction provides a comprehensive review of electrokinetics for graduate students and researchers interested in soft matter physics. An additional attraction is that readers can effectively learn various theoretical approaches to electro-osmosis.
Molecular modeling encompasses applied theoretical approaches and computational techniques to model structures and properties of molecular compounds and materials in order to predict and / or interpret their properties. The modeling covered in this book ranges from methods for small chemical to large biological molecules and materials. With its comprehensive coverage of important research fields in molecular and materials science, this is a must-have for all organic, inorganic and biochemists as well as materials scientists interested in applied theoretical and computational chemistry. The 28 chapters, written by an international group of experienced theoretically oriented chemists, are grouped into four parts: Theory and Concepts; Applications in Homogeneous Catalysis; Applications in Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry; and Applications in Main Group, Organic and Organometallic Chemistry. The various chapters include concept papers, tutorials, and research reports.
This thesis focuses on NHC-catalyzed annulation of nitroalkenes, enals and , -unsaturated carboxylic acids. (1) NHCs were found to be efficient catalysts for the [4+2] annulation of -substituted nitroalkenes. The scope of Rauhut-Currier reaction was successfully extended to the most challenging -substituted alkenes by this method; (2) Enals were successfully used for [4+2] annulations with azodicarboxylates catalyzed by NHC via -addition. Highly enantiopure tetrahydropyridazinones and -amino acid derivatives could be easily prepared by subsequent transformations of the resulting dihydropyridazinones. (4) The readily available , -unsaturated carboxylic acids were first successfully employed to generate the , -unsaturated acyl azolium intermediates by using NHC for the enantioselective [3+2] and [3+3] annulations.
This thesis considers molecular orientation in thin films and introduces an optical model describing this orientation as applied to organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). It also describes the electronic structure of intermolecular charge transfer excitons correlated to molecular orientation in solids. It has long been known that molecular orientation influences the electrical and optical properties of molecular films. One notable example is in liquid crystals where rigid rod or disk shaped molecules are commonly used. Understanding the origin of the molecular orientation and its control by surface treatment and electric field resulted in the development of liquid crystal displays. The same thing has happened in organic electronics, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding and controlling molecular orientation in solid films to improve charge carrier mobility and light absorption, ultimately to improve the performance of organic solar cells and thin film transistors. In contrast, less attention has been paid to molecular orientation and its influence on the characteristics of OLEDs, probably because of the use of amorphous films rather than micro-crystalline films, and it is only in recent years that some molecular films are known to have preferred orientation. This thesis addresses this topic, focusing on OLEDs, describing the origin and control of the orientation of phosphorescent Ir complexes possessing spherical shape rather than rod or disk shape, the simulation of the optical characteristics of OLEDs influenced by preferred molecular orientation, and finally the orientation of intermolecular charge transfer excitons and its correlation to electronic structures in thin films.
This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties have yet to be developed. The book gives guidance to tailor oxide surfaces by controlling the nature and concentration of defects. The importance of defects in the physics and chemistry of metal oxide surfaces is presented in this book together with the prominent role of oxides in common life. The book contains contributions from leaders in the field. It serves as a reference for experts and beginners in the field.
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