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Nanotechnology, especially nanoparticle research, has played very important roles in many scientific discoveries, laying the foundation for their applications in many aspects of our life, such as healthcare, efficient energy and cleaner environments. The field is moving very quickly, with an increasing number of researchers. This Faraday Discussion focusses on one very fundamental issue of nanoparticle (NP) research: functionalization, relating specifically to biomedical applications. Without the right functionalisation, NPs will be rendered useless. So, how can NPs be synthesised with the desired functionality?
Fast pyrolysis and related catalytic pyrolysis are of increasing interest as pathways to advanced biofuels that closely mimic traditional petroleum products. Research has moved from empirical investigations to more fundamental studies of pyrolysis mechanisms. Theories on the chemical and physical pathways from plant polymers to pyrolysis products have proliferated as a result. This book brings together the latest developments in pyrolysis science and technology. It examines, reviews and challenges the unresolved and sometimes controversial questions about pyrolysis, helping advance the understanding of this important technology and stimulating discussion on the various competing theories of thermal deconstruction of plant polymers. Beginning with an introduction to the biomass-to-biofuels process via fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, chapters address prominent questions such as whether free radicals or concerted reactions dominate deconstruction reactions. Finally, the book concludes with an economic analysis of fast pyrolysis versus catalytic pyrolysis. This book will be of interest to advanced students and researchers interested in the science behind renewable fuel technology, and particularly the thermochemical processing of biomass.
Interfacial science impacts on our lives in diverse and surprising
ways. Without it, we would face bubble bath without the bubbles,
detergents which don't clean, cappuccinos without the froth. It has
also fuelled some of the most ground-breaking and
throught-provoking advances in research in recent times, from
biosciences to nanotechnology. Introduction to Interfacial Science
offers an engaging insight into the study of the physical and
chemical properties of interfaces, how they behave, why they behave
as they do, and how this behavior can be harnessed and exploited in
novel and exciting ways.
Online Resource Center
Computer Security as a discipline is challenged by increasing threat vectors targeting a dynamic technological environment. This publication establishes guidance addressing the challenge of applying computer security measures to instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear facilities. The measures are intended to protect these I&C systems throughout their entire lifecycles against malicious acts perpetrated by threat actors. The technical basis and methodologies for the application of these computer security measures are considered. The publication also addresses the application of such measures to the development, simulation and maintenance environments of these I&C systems. In addition, account is taken of developments in human factors engineering and nuclear safety. This Technical Guide references and takes into account other Safety Guides and IAEA Nuclear Security Series publications that provide guidance relating to I&C design.
Can one correlate the philosophical musings of one of the most famous football coaches in history with the best ACS Student Member Chapters? Yes! The link is in the excellence. Award-winning Student Member Chapters-several leaders of which have been kind enough to write a chapter in this volume-all have caught excellence in one or more facets of what they do. Mio and Benvenuto began this journey to capture the best of Student Member Chapters back in 2015, when they asked some of the best and most active organizations' leadership to put into words what they did that puts them at the top. The editors realized there is not one, specific answer to such questions, but found a wealth of information in what their chapter authors reported. There are more voices in this wonderful chorus, voices of leaders who have great ideas and who have figured out ways to make the fascination of chemistry communicable to our students and the general public. This volume represents some excellent input as to what makes a chapter award-winning, and what keeps its excellence sustainable.
The only text to cover both thermodynamic and statistical mechanics--allowing students to fully master thermodynamics at the macroscopic level. Presents essential ideas on critical phenomena developed over the last decade in simple, qualitative terms. This new edition maintains the simple structure of the first and puts new emphasis on pedagogical considerations. Thermostatistics is incorporated into the text without eclipsing macroscopic thermodynamics, and is integrated into the conceptual framework of physical theory.
This book consists of over 422 problems and their acceptable answers on structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The central theme running through these questions is symmetry, bonding and structure: molecular or crystalline. A wide variety of topics are covered, including Electronic States and Configurations of Atoms and Molecules, Introductory Quantum Chemistry, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, Crystal Structure, Transition Metal Chemistry, Metal Clusters: Bonding and Reactivity, and Bioinorganic Chemistry. The questions collected here originate from the examination papers and take-home assignments arising from the teaching of courses in Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, and X-Ray Crystallography by the book's two senior authors over the past five decades. The questions have been tested by generations of students taking these courses. The questions in this volume cover essentially all the topics in a typical course in structural inorganic chemistry. The text may be used as a supplement for a variety of inorganic chemistry courses at the senior undergraduate level. It also serves as a problem text to accompany the book Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry, co-authored by W.-K. Li, G.-D. Zhou, and T. C. W. Mak (Oxford University Press, 2008).
In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the occurrence, uses and properties of cobalt. Topics discussed include the microwave and magnetic properties of cobalt-containing magnetophotonic crystals; promoted cobalt silica gel catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; cobalt and its compounds in oxidation-reduction processes of environmental catalysis; the nature of cobalt species in Co-zeolites used for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons; cobalt toxicity in Escherichia coli; cobalt speciation in aqueous solution and sorbents on the basis of natural dolomite for cobalt removal; the morphology, microstructure, structural and thermal properties of Co powder; comparison of cobalt and iron perovskite-based catalysts for WGSR; direct patterning of cobalt nanostructures using focused electron beam induced deposition; cobalt catalysts applied in ethanol reforming reactions; combustion synthesis of cobalt compounds; AB initio study of energetics and properties of cobalt interlayers in WC/Co alloys; anisotropic lattice distortion of composite materials of chiral Cu(II)-Co(III) or Cu(II) complexes and TiO2; and the chemical process of recovering cyanides as cyanide-bridged Cu(II)-Co(III)/Fe(III) bimetallic assemblies from preparation of semiconductors for solar cells.
Wormlike micelles are elongated flexible self-assembled structures created from the aggregation of amphiphiles and their resulting dynamic networks have gained attention for a number of uses, particularly in the oil industry. Written by experts, Wormlike Micelles describes the latest developments in the field providing an authoritative guide on the subject. The book starts with an introductory chapter giving an overview of the area and then looks at the three key topics of new wormlike micelle systems, characterization and applications. New systems covered in the first part include reverse wormlike micelles and stimuli-responsive wormlike micelles. The second part explores cutting-edge techniques that have led to advances in the understanding of their structure and dynamics, including direct imaging techniques and the combination of rheology with small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Finally, the book reviews their use in oil and gas well treatments as well as surfactant drag reducing solutions. Aimed at postgraduate students and researchers, this text is essential reading for anyone interested in soft matter systems.
Based on the premise that many, if not most, reactions in organic chemistry can be explained by variations of fundamental acid-base concepts, Organic Chemistry: An Acid-Base Approach provides a framework for understanding the subject that goes beyond mere memorization. Using several techniques to develop a relational understanding, it helps students fully grasp the essential concepts at the root of organic chemistry. This new edition was rewritten largely with the feedback of students in mind and is also based on the author's classroom experiences using the first edition. Highlights of the Second Edition Include: Reorganized chapters that improve the presentation of material Coverage of new topics, such as green chemistry Adding photographs to the lectures to illustrate and emphasize important concepts A downloadable solutions manual The second edition of Organic Chemistry: An Acid-Base Approach constitutes a significant improvement upon a unique introductory technique to organic chemistry. The reactions and mechanisms it covers are the most fundamental concepts in organic chemistry that are applied to industry, biological chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacy. Using an illustrated conceptual approach rather than presenting sets of principles and theories to memorize, it gives students a more concrete understanding of the material.
This book includes information about the modern experimental and theoretical analysis methods of particulate-filled nanocomposites structure, fibre reinforced antibacterial laminated nanostructured material for filtration of toxic particles, prediction of nanofibre diameter for optimisation of laminated nanostructured material for filtration of toxic particles, intensification desalting of the gas distillate in turbulent flows, theoretical analysis of macromolecular coil connectivity degree influence on autohesion strength, carbon nanotubes geometry and reinforcement degree of polymer nanocomposites, the structure of butadiene-nitrile rubbers: paramagnetic-probe study, the temperature dependence of autohesional bolding strength for miscible polymer pairs, nanostructured energy characteristics of hydrocarbon hydrogen containing fuels.
This book includes the fundamental science and applications of carbon-based materials, in particular fused polycyclic hydrocarbon, fullerene, diamond, carbides, graphite and graphene etc. During the past decade, these carbon-based materials have attracted much interest from many scientists and engineers because of their exciting physical properties and potential application toward electronic and energy devices. In this book, the fundamental theory referring to these materials, their syntheses and characterizations, the physical properties (physics), and the applications are fully described, which will contribute to an advancement of not only basic science in this research field but also technology using these materials. The book's targets are researchers and engineers in the field and graduate school students who specialize in physics, chemistry, and materials science. Thus, this book addresses the physics and chemistry of the principal materials in the twenty-first century.
Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries.
The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the book will assess fundamental concepts and theoretical formulations, based on a unified methodological approach, and explore the insight in related scientific problems still opened for the research community.
This book presents new aspects of quantum electrodynamics (QED), a quantum theory of photons with electrons, from basic physics to physical chemistry with mathematical rigor. Topics covered include spin dynamics, chemical reactivity, the dual Cauchy problem, and more. Readers interested in modern applications of quantum field theory in nano-, bio-, and open systems will enjoy learning how the up-to-date quantum theory of radiation with matter works in the world of QED. In particular, chemical ideas restricted now to nonrelativistic quantum theory are shown to be unified and extended to relativistic quantum field theory that is basic to particle physics and cosmology: realization of the new-generation quantum theory. Readers are assumed to have a background equivalent to an undergraduate student's elementary knowledge in electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, chemistry, and mathematics.
This textbook is packaged with Navigate 2 Advantage Access which unlocks a complete eBook, Study Center, homework and Assessment Center, and a dashboard that reports actionable data. Experience Navigate 2 today at www.jblnavigate.com/2. Hazardous Materials Chemistry, Third Edition by Armando S. Bevelacqua and Laurie A. Norman explores basic chemical principles, nomenclature, and toxicology so that fire fighters and first responders can effectively identify hazards associated with specific chemicals and chemical families, determine the potential dangers present at a hazardous materials incident, and make safe and informed decisions. Each chapter presents scenarios that discuss real world problems as described within the context of that chapter's content. Practical applications of chemical reactions are described within the framework of case studies that focus on specific hazmat incidents, and the importance of understanding chemical reactions and how that knowledge can impact the result of a hazardous materials incident is highlighted. By learning the chemistry behind an incident, students understand how chemical reactions can impact an incident. Hazardous Materials Chemistry, Third Edition meets the course and learning objectives of the National Fire Academy's FESHE Model Curriculum for their Hazardous Materials Chemistry program and is appropriate for a fire department hazardous materials chemistry class.
Water dominates the surface of Earth and is vital to life on our planet. It is a remarkable liquid which shows anomalous behaviour. In this Very Short Introduction John Finney introduces the science of water, and explores how the structure of water molecules gives rise to its physical and chemical properties. Considering water in all three of its states as ice and steam as well as liquid, Finney explains the great importance of an understanding of its structure and behaviour to a range of fields including chemistry, astrophysics, and earth and environmental sciences. Finney describes the role of water in biology, and ends with a discussion of the outstanding controversies concerning water, and some of the 'magical' properties which have been claimed for it. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This book presents the major developments in hydrogen-related catalytic and electrocatalytic reactions over gold-based materials over the last decade, including many of the advances made by academic and industrial researchers. Gold-based catalysts with potentially exciting new applications in hydrogen technology (e.g. purification of hydrogen, anode/cathode electrodes) are being investigated at a much higher rate than even before. A variety of techniques to synthesize, characterize and evaluate these materials is being employed. The book will be of interest to all those working in catalysis/green chemistry, in particular, to advanced level researchers in catalysis using gold-based materials. It is hoped that specialists in one reaction will read with interest the chapters on the neighbouring expertise. The book is also meant for PhD-students and advanced students interested in this area.
This volume presents the latest developments in the use of organometallic catalysis for the formation of bulk chemicals and the production of energy, via green processes including efficient utilization of waste feedstocks from industry. The chemistry of carbon dioxide relating to its hydrogenation into methanol -an eco-friendly energy storage strategy- and its uses as C1 synthon for the formation of important building-blocks for fine chemicals industry are covered. Catalytic hydrogenations of various functional groups and hydrogen transfer reactions including the use of first row metal catalysts are presented as well as the conversion of alcohols to carboxylates via hydrogen transfer with a zero-waste strategy using water. Transformation of renewable or bio-based raw materials is surveyed through alkene metathesis and C-O bond activations and functionalizations. A green aspect for selective formation of C-C, C-O and C-N bonds involves direct regioselective C-H bond activations and functionalizations. These transformations can now be promoted under mild reaction conditions due to the use photoredox catalyts. C-H bond oxidation using visible light leads mainly to the formation of C-O and C-N bonds, whereas cross-coupled C-C bonds can be formed through the radical additions on (hetero) arenes using photoredox assisted mechanism.
This volume, Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Volume 5: Research Methodologies in Modern Chemistry and Applied Science, is designed to fulfill the requirements of scientists and engineers who wish to be able to carry out experimental research in chemistry and applied science using modern methods. Each chapter describes the principle of the respective method, as well as the detailed procedures of experiments with examples of actual applications. Thus, readers will be able to apply the concepts as described in the book to their own experiments. This book traces the progress made in this field and its sub-fields and also highlight some of the key theories and their applications and will be a valuable resource for chemical engineers in Materials Science and others.
This volume represents one of the two edited by inviting a selection of young researchers participating to the European Young Chemist Award 2010. The other volume concerns the area of Nanotechnology/Material Science and is titled: Molecules at Work. This book contains the contributions of selected young chemists from the field of synthetic chemistry. The contributions are grouped under the three following umbrella topics: Synthetic Methods Catalysis Combinatorial and Chemical Biology This volume is an indispensable read for all organic and inorganic chemists, biochemists, chemists working with/on organometallics, and Ph.D. students in chemistry interested in seeing what tomorrow's chemistry will look like.
The present subvolume IV/19B5 forms the first supplement of IV/19B1 through IV/19B4 and contains evaluated data for binary alloy systems from Ag-B to W-Zr appearing in alphabetical order of the elements in the chemical formula. The volume is accompanied by a CD-ROM, which allows computer calculation of a range of solution properties for selected temperature and phase composition ranges for the systems presented.
This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacitors with various applications in power electronics, automotive engineering and as energy storage elements in portable electric devices. This book will be indispensable for materials scientists, electrochemists, physical chemists, solid state physicists, and those working in the electrotechnical industry.
This book presents current research on reactive oxygen species in joint physiology, including possible mechanism of maintaining hypoxia to protect chondrocytes from oxygen excess via synovial fluid hyaluronan peroxidation; radical degradation of high-molar-mass hyaluronan induced by ascorbate plus cupric ions testing of arbutin in the function of antioxidant and free-radicals degradation of high-molar-mass hyaluronan induced by ascorbate plus cupric ions. This book also explores anti-oxidative properties of the piestany-spa curative waters from healing peloid and maturation pool; potentiometric study on the interactions between divalent cations and sodium carboxylates in aqueous solution and diffusion of electrolytes and non-electrolytes in aqueous solutions.
With development of implants and in vivo detection devices comes the complication of the interaction between the materials used in the devices and biological fluids. This book examines these interactions causing fouling in biosensors and the serious issue of thrombus formation. The chemistry of surface-protein and surface-cell interactions is considered, the coatings and strategies re the avoidance of fouling are compared and the expert contributors provide a comprehensive look at the physical chemistry of the implant surface and the fouling problem. Finishing with a discussion of the future for surface modified biosensors in point-of-care devices and microfluidic technologies, this book provides an important addition to the literature suitable for professional researchers in academia and industry and postgraduate students.
The present volume in the New Series of Landolt-B rnstein provides critically evaluated data on phase diagrams, and crystallographic and thermodynamic data of ternary alloy systems. The data for each ternary system are provided in a standard format with text, tables and diagrams. The volume is a standard reference book with selected and easily retrievable data from the fields of physics and chemistry collected by acknowledged international scientists.
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