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This text discusses di-p-methane rearrangements via radical-cation intermediates, the photo-Fries rearrangement in organized media and of biologically active compounds, electron transfer leading to fragmentation, dimerization, and nucleophilic capture, and the characterization and reactivity of photochemically generated phenylene bis(diradical) species. The authors reveal experimental and computational techniques for the study of phenylene-linked carbenes and nitrenes. Brimming with over 900 references, Photochemistry of Organic Molecules in Isotropic and Anisotropic Media is crucial for professionals and students in photochemistry; chemical engineering; materials and semiconductor science; and organic, inorganic, and physical chemistry.
An exploration of high-throughput synthesis, this book presents a compilation of how-to methods, novel materials, and catalyst developments for creating a multitude of new compounds. Introductory sections are coupled with in-depth case studies clarifying theory through practice. The book emphasizes the potential for reproducing experiments in detail.
This text examines organic, physical and materials photochemistry. It reports the first example of a TiO2 sensitization with a fullerene-based donor-acceptor dyad, and covers halophenols, diflusinal photochemistry, hydroxystyrenes, acetylenes, and other related compounds. The volume also investigates whether c, d-alkenes influence the efficiency and course of light-induced reactions, and more
This textbook covers the spectrum from basic concepts of
photochemistry and photophysics to selected examples of current
applications and research.
This long-awaited, revised and updated reference/text combines a thorough description of the origin and application of fundamental chemical kinetics through an assessment of realistic reactor problems with an expanded discussion of kinetics and its relation to chemical thermodynamics. Provides exercises of gradiating difficulty that range from simple applications of equations and concepts developed in the text to open-ended situations drawing on creative thinking Adds a host of worked-out illustrations and a notation list after each chapter, reinforcing important concepts Retaining the careful organization and logical progression of ideas that characterized the first edition, the Second Edition of Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design clarifies chain and polymerization reactions in greater depth contains new material on microbial and enzyme kinetics and adsorption-desorption theory streamlines the presentation of the derivations arising from the kinetic theory of gases addresses transport effect in catalytic reactions explains gas-solid noncatalytic reactions covers the development of two-phase reactor theory based on plug flow, mixing cell, and dispersion models introduces theory and design of fluid slurry and trickle beds examines catalyst deactivation phenomena, ion exchange, and chromatographic reactors and more Including over 1450 equations for developing rational chemical reactor designs and analysis models, the Second Edition of Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design is an excellent reference for chemical, mechanical, petroleum, plant, process, civil, and design engineers, and an ideal text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
An examination of applications of electrochemical techniques to many organic and inorganic compounds that are either unstable or insoluble in water, Nonaqueous Electrochemistry focuses on the continuing drive toward miniaturization in electronics met by designs for high-energy density batteries which are based on nonaqueous systems. It addresses experimental considerations regarding the use and study of nonaqueous electrochemical systems; the chemical and electrochemical reactivity of nonaqueous solvents toward metallic lithium; the electrochemical behaviour of active metal electrodes in nonaqueous solutions; and applications to nonaqueous batteries, supercapacitators, highly sensitive reagents, and electroorganic and electroinorganic synthesis.
Revising, updating and expanding information on developments since the late 1980s, the second edition of this work presents practical, fundamental material on interfacial electric phenomena in acqueous and nonaqueous systems, as well as their relation to colloid stability. The book includes 15 additional chapters that reflect collaborative efforts with new experts in the field.
Discusses the laboratory and industrial synthesis of nonionic surfactants. Furnishes exhaustive coverage of the most recent advances in nonionic surfactant organic chemistry. Analyzes a novel class of catalysts for the production of surfactants with highly narrow distributions.
The field of quantum and molecular simulations has experienced strong growth since the time of the early software packages. A recent study, showed a large increase in the number of people publishing papers based on ab initio methods from about 3,000 in 1991 to roughly 20,000 in 2009, with particularly strong growth in East Asia. Looking to the future, the question remains as to how these methods can be further integrated into the R&D value chain, bridging the gap from engineering to manufacturing.
Using successful case studies as a framework, Industrial Applications of Molecular Simulations demonstrates the capability of molecular modeling to tackle problems of industrial relevance. This book presents a wide range of various modeling techniques, including methods based on quantum or classical mechanics, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, etc. It also explores a wide range of materials, from soft materials such as polymeric blends widely used in the chemical industry to hard or inorganic materials such as glasses and alumina.
Ultrasonic irradiation and the associated sonochemical and sonophysical effects are complementary techniques for driving more efficient chemical reactions and yields. Sonochemistry?the chemical effects and applications of ultrasonic waves?and sustainable (green) chemistry both aim to use less hazardous chemicals and solvents, reduce energy consumption, and increase product selectivity.
A comprehensive collection of knowledge, Handbook on Applications of Ultrasound covers the most relevant aspects linked to and linking green chemistry practices to environmental sustainability through the uses and applications of ultrasound-mediated and ultrasound-assisted biological, biochemical, chemical, and physical processes.
Chapters are presented in the areas of:
While the concepts of sonochemistry have been known for more than 80 years, in-depth understanding of this phenomenon continues to evolve. Through a review of the current status of chemical and physical science and engineering in developing more environmentally-friendly and less toxic synthetic processes, this book highlights many existing applications and enormous potential of ultrasound technology to upgrade present industrial, agricultural, and environmental processes.
Aiming to bridge the gap in understanding between professional electrochemists and hard-core semiconductor physicists and material scientists, this book examines the science and technology of semiconductor electrode-positioning. Summarizing state-of-the-art information concerning a wide variety of semiconductors, it reviews fundamental electrodeposition concepts and terminology.
This work covers topics ranging from fundamental studies of solubilization to practical technological applications of the phenomenon. It reviews the solubilization of organic materials into surfactant aggregates, including micelles, vesicles and admicelles. The book also details methods of measuring solubilization that utilize both classical and newer instrumental techniques. It is intended for physical, surface, colloid and surfactant chemists; chemical, environmental and civil engineers; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
This work delineates the effect of different reaction variables on the outcome of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, and explains how to optimize the product yield of specific compounds. Metal catalysis, simple and complex oxides, zeolites and clays are discussed, both as catalysts and as potential supports for catalytically active metals.
Adopting a didactic approach at an advanced, masters level, this concise textbook provides an array of questions & answers and features numerous industrial case studies and examples, with references for further, more detailed reading and to the latest peer-reviewed articles at the end of each chapter. A significant feature is the book's treatment of more recently developed catalytic processes and their applications in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries, with an indication of their present and future commercial impact. Written by a dedicated lecturer with a wealth of experience in industry, this is an invaluable tool for practicing chemical engineers and chemists who need to advance their education in this vibrant and expanding field.
The field of asymmetric catalysis is currently one of the hottest areas in chemistry. This unique book focuses on the mechanism of enantioselectivity in asymmetric catalysis, rather than asymmetric catalysis from the synthetic view. It describes reliable, experimentally and computationally supported mechanisms, and discusses the danger of so-called "plausible" or "accepted" mechanisms leading to wrong conclusions. It draws parallels to enzymatic catalysis in biochemistry, and examines in detail the physico-chemical aspects of enantioselective catalysis.
Phenomena associated with the adhesion interaction of surfaces have been a critical aspect of micro- and nanosystem development and performance since the first MicroElectroMechanicalSystems(MEMS) were fabricated. These phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and are present in all systems, however MEMS devices are particularly sensitive to their effects owing to their small size and limited actuation force that can be generated. Extension of MEMS technology concepts to the nanoscale and development of NanoElectroMechanicalSystems(NEMS) will result in systems even more strongly influenced by surface forces. The book is divided into five parts as follows: Part 1: Understanding Through Continuum Theory; Part 2: Computer Simulation of Interfaces; Part 3: Adhesion and Friction Measurements; Part 4: Adhesion in Practical Applications; and Part 5: Adhesion Mitigation Strategies. This compilation constitutes the first book on this extremely important topic in the burgeoning field of MEMS/NEMS. It is obvious from the topics covered in this book that bountiful information is contained here covering understanding of surface forces and adhesion as well as novel ways to mitigate adhesion in MEMS/NEMS. This book should be of great interest to anyone engaged in the wonderful and fascinating field of MEMS/NEMS, as it captures the current R&D activity.
Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the development of new functional materials in areas such as energy, catalysis and electronic materials. This revised edition of Basic Solid State Chemistry has been completely rewritten and expanded to present an up-to-date account of the essential topics and recent developments in this exciting field of inorganic chemistry. Each section commences with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing seamlessly to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. This new Student Edition includes the following updates and new features: * Expanded coverage of bonding in solids, including a new section on covalent bonding and more extensive treatment of metallic bonding. * Synthetic methods are covered extensively and new topics include microwave synthesis, combinatorial synthesis, mechano-synthesis, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis. * Revised coverage of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, with additional material on semiconductors, giant and colossal magnetoresistance, multiferroics, LEDs, fibre optics and solar cells, lasers, graphene and quasicrystals. * Extended chapters on crystal defects and characterisation techniques. * Published in full colour to aid comprehension. * Extensive coverage of crystal structures for important families of inorganic solids is complemented by access to CrystalMaker(R) visualization software, allowing readers to view and rotate over 100 crystal structures in three dimensions. * Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material are available online. Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is a must-have textbook for any undergraduate or new research worker studying solid state chemistry.
This is the long awaited sequel to Classics in Total Synthesis, a
book that has made its mark as a superb tool for educating students
and practitioners alike in the art of organic synthesis since its
introduction in 1996. In this highly welcomed new volume, K. C.
Nicolaou and Scott A. Snyder discuss in detail the most impressive
accomplishments in natural product total synthesis during the 1990s
and the first years of the 21st century. While all of the features
that made the first volume of Classics so popular and unique as a
teaching tool have been maintained, in this new treatise the
authors seek to present the latest techniques and advances in
organic synthesis as they beautifully describe the works of some of
the most renowned synthetic organic chemists of our time. Develops
domino reactions, cascade sequences, biomimetic strategies, and
asymmetric catalysis are systematically through the chosen
synthesis Discusses the latest synthetic technologies in terms of
mechanism and scope Includes new reactions, such as olefin
metathesis, in mini-review style Abundant references for further
reading CD with useful teaching material for lecturers is included
with hardback version (ISBN 3-527-30685-4) Graduate students,
educators, and researchers in the fields of synthetic and medicinal
chemistry will wish to have a copy of this book in their collection
as an indispensable companion that both augments and supplements
the original Classics in Total Synthesis.
.,." a volume, (..) which any chemist with an interest in
synthetic organic chemistry will wish to acquire."
.,."this superb book (..) will be an essential purchase formany
Cell adhesion comes into play in almost all domains of life. The range of situations in which it occurs, involving organisms, living tissues, microorganisms or single cells, is endless. Cell adhesion is involved in the binding of a cell to a surface, extracellular matrix, or another cell using cell adhesion molecules. It is crucial in the formation and maintenance of coherent multicellular structures. Cell surface adhesion molecules (integrins, for example) which transmit information from the extracellular matrix to the cell play vital roles in numerous cellular processes. Some of these include: cell growth, differentiation, embryogenesis, immune cell transmigration and response, and cancer metastasis. Also cell adhesion is involved in most of pathological situations. This book is divided into four parts as follows: Part 1: Fundamentals of Cell Adhesion; Part 2: Methods to Study Cell Adhesion; Part 3: Surface Treatments to Control Cell Adhesion and Behavior; and Part 4: Cell Adhesion in Medicine and Therapy. A bountiful information is covered in this book which represents the cumulative wisdom of many world-renowned researchers( physicists, materials scientists, chemists and biologists) engaged in unraveling the mechanisms of cell adhesion and how to mitigate or control it. It quite patent from the topics covered in this book that the subject of cell adhesion is truly interdisciplinary. This book should be of great interest and value to anyone interested in cell adhesion which is vitally important to human life.
Wood adhesives are of tremendous industrial importance, as more than two-thirds of wood products in the world today are completely or partially bonded together using a variety of adhesives. Adhesive bonding offers many advantages over other joining methods for wood components, and there has been a great deal of R& D activity in devising new wood adhesives or improving the existing ones. The modern mantra in all industrial sectors is: "think green, go green," which has attracted much attention in the wood adhesive industry. Therefore, there is also a lot of research activity in synthesizing environmentally benign and human-friendly wood adhesives. This book is divided into four parts: Part 1: Fundamental Adhesion Aspects in Wood Bonding; Part 2: Synthetic Adhesives; Part 3: Environment-friendly adhesives; and Part 4: Wood Welding and General Paper. It addresses many different types of wood adhesives, as well as bonding (welding) of wood components without adhesives, a more recent development. The information contained in this book is valuable for individuals engaged in all aspects of wood adhesion and adhesives and, hopefully, will inspire new ideas in wood adhesives, a topic of vital industrial importance.
The study of electronic structure of materials is at a momentous stage, with new computational methods and advances in basic theory. Many properties of materials can be determined from the fundamental equations, and electronic structure theory is now an integral part of research in physics, chemistry, materials science and other fields. This book provides a unified exposition of the theory and methods, with emphasis on understanding each essential component. New in the second edition are recent advances in density functional theory, an introduction to Berry phases and topological insulators explained in terms of elementary band theory, and many new examples of applications. Graduate students and research scientists will find careful explanations with references to original papers, pertinent reviews, and accessible books. Each chapter includes a short list of the most relevant works and exercises that reveal salient points and challenge the reader.
Written by two of the world's leading researchers in the field,
this is a systematic introduction to the fundamental principles of
coherent control, and to the underlying physics and
Chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience.
This book provides a noteworthy compilation of the groundbreaking methods of stereoselective synthesis, belonging to the repertoire of every modern practitioner of synthetic organic chemistry. The general principles underlying these processes are highlighted as they form the basis for the rapid and continuing developments in the field. The work also features illustrative examples of drug and natural product syntheses, resulting in a rich source of stimulating ideas for the efficient use of asymmetric reactions in the construction of stereochemically complex structures. From the contents: "Macrocyclic stereocontrol "Carbonyl addition reactions "alpha-Functionalization of enolates "Aldol and allylation reactions "Chiral acetals "Alkene hydroboration, reduction, and oxidation "Additions to C=N bonds and synthesis of amino acids "Conjugate additions "Chiral carbanions "Metal-catalyzed allylations "Cyclopropanations and CH-insertion reactions "Sigmatropic rearrangements "Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder reactions "[3+2]- and [2+2]-cycloaddition reactions
Connects fundamental knowledge of multivalent interactions with current practice and state-of-the-art applications Multivalency is a widespread phenomenon, with applications spanning supramolecular chemistry, materials chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry and biochemistry. This advanced textbook provides students and junior scientists with an excellent introduction to the fundamentals of multivalent interactions, whilst expanding the knowledge of experienced researchers in the field. Multivalency: Concepts, Research & Applications is divided into three parts. Part one provides background knowledge on various aspects of multivalency and cooperativity and presents practical methods for their study. Fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, kinetics and the principle of effective molarity are described, and characterisation methods, experimental methodologies and data treatment methods are also discussed. Parts two and three provide an overview of current systems in which multivalency plays an important role in chemistry and biology, with a focus on the design rules, underlying chemistry and the fundamental principles of multivalency. The systems covered range from chemical/materials-based ones such as dendrimers and sensors, to biological systems including cell recognition and protein binding. Examples and case studies from biochemistry/bioorganic chemistry as well as synthetic systems feature throughout the book. Introduces students and young scientists to the field of multivalent interactions and assists experienced researchers utilising the methodologies in their work Features examples and case studies from biochemistry/bioorganic chemistry, as well as synthetic systems throughout the book Edited by leading experts in the field with contributions from established scientists Multivalency: Concepts, Research & Applications is recommended for graduate students and junior scientists in supramolecular chemistry and related fields, looking for an introduction to multivalent interactions. It is also highly useful to experienced academics and scientists in industry working on research relating to multivalent and cooperative systems in supramolecular chemistry, organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry, materials science and nanotechnology.
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