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This book provides a noteworthy compilation of the groundbreaking methods of stereoselective synthesis, belonging to the repertoire of every modern practitioner of synthetic organic chemistry. The general principles underlying these processes are highlighted as they form the basis for the rapid and continuing developments in the field. The work also features illustrative examples of drug and natural product syntheses, resulting in a rich source of stimulating ideas for the efficient use of asymmetric reactions in the construction of stereochemically complex structures. From the contents: "Macrocyclic stereocontrol "Carbonyl addition reactions "alpha-Functionalization of enolates "Aldol and allylation reactions "Chiral acetals "Alkene hydroboration, reduction, and oxidation "Additions to C=N bonds and synthesis of amino acids "Conjugate additions "Chiral carbanions "Metal-catalyzed allylations "Cyclopropanations and CH-insertion reactions "Sigmatropic rearrangements "Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder reactions "[3+2]- and [2+2]-cycloaddition reactions
After the great success now in its 2nd Edition:This textbook covers all aspects of catalysis, including computational methods, industrial applications and green chemistry.
This unique monograph covers recent theoretical and experimental results on the complex character of f electrons in materials containing lanthanides (rare earths) or actinides, such as alpha-cerium and delta-plutonium. It answers the urgent need for a general presentation of the body of experimental and theoretical results presently available in this challenging domain. Some of the fast developing applications of lanthanide and actinide materials are mentioned. Materials containing atoms with an open f shell have electronic and crystalline properties that are controlled by the localized or delocalized character of the f electrons. This book gives a theoretical discussion of the various spectroscopic methods that shed light on the character of the f electrons and on the connection between their localization and the properties of these materials. Part 1 covers the characteristics of the f electrons in atoms and solids and includes a discussion of the properties of lanthanides and actinides in connection with the f electrons. Part 2 describes the various spectroscopic methods that are used to establish the electronic distributions and energies of the states. Examples involve the determination of f electron distributions by high energy spectroscopy methods with separate treatment of the valence and core electrons. Part 3 concentrates on the theoretical treatment of electronic transitions involving f electrons and simulations of the lanthanide spectra, including comparison with the available experimental data. Part 4 discusses the localized or delocalized character of the f electrons in actinides and their compounds, including comparison (analogies & differences) between the 4f and 5f electron materials. This monograph should be of great value for researchers, academics and engineers working in the fields of high energy spectroscopy, electronic and nuclear science and technology, as well as materials involving rare earths and radio-elements.
Organometallic chemistry explores the chemistry of the often bewildering variety of compounds featuring metal-carbon bonds. A field that has underpinned the development of new synthetic methods and materials, it is also central to our understanding of catalysis. In his text, Manfred Bochmann distils the extensive knowledge of the field into a succinct overview of essential concepts. The book is enriched throughout with examples that demonstrate how our understanding of organometallic chemistry has led to new applications in research and industry - not least in relation to catalysis - and an extensive reaction schemes and structures give added clarity to the concepts being explained. Striking just the right balance between breadth and depth - and with features throughout to support the learning process - Organometallics and Catalysis is the perfect introduction for undergraduate and graduate students who need a thorough grounding on the subject or are embarking on new research areas. Online Resource Centre: The Online Resource Centre to accompany Organometallics and Catalysis: An Introduction features: For registered adopters of the text: - Figures from the book in electronic format For everyone: - Curated links to relevant video materials on YouTube
A wonderful quotation advises students to listen carefully the moment they decide to take no more mathematics courses, as they might be able to "hear the sound of closing doors." This text, written by best-selling author Donald McQuarrie, is meant to keep doors open to undergraduate and even graduate chemistry students who need a quick review of the mathematical methods that are used throughout chemistry. It is the outgrowth of a collection of "MathChapters" from McQuarrie's famous texts, Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach and Quantum Chemistry Second Edition. These "MathChapters," now available to all, provide students with concise reviews of mathematical topics, discussing only the minimal amount that students need to know. By reading these reviews before the mathematics is applied to physical chemical problems, a student will be able to spend less time worrying about the math and more time learning the physical chemistry. This book can also be used as a supplement with any traditional textbook on physical or quantum chemistry. KEY FEATURES *Focuses on clear, mathematical descriptions, written by a chemist for chemists. *Includes 23 short chapters, with each one designed to be read in a single sitting. *Presents mathematical material at a practical level with an emphasis on applications to physical problems. *Contains examples to illustrate the techniques being discussed. *Features over 600 problems, most of which have answers at the end of the book.
Winner of the PROSE Award for Chemistry & Physics 2010
Acknowledging the very best in professional and scholarly publishing, the annual PROSE Awards recognise publishers' and authors' commitment to pioneering works of research and for contributing to the conception, production, and design of landmark works in their fields. Judged by peer publishers, librarians, and medical professionals, Wiley are pleased to congratulate Professor Ian Fleming, winner of the PROSE Award in Chemistry and Physics for "Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions."
Molecular orbital theory is used by chemists to describe the arrangement of electrons in chemical structures. It is also a theory capable of giving some insight into the forces involved in the making and breaking of chemical bonds--the chemical reactions that are often the focus of an organic chemist's interest. Organic chemists with a serious interest in understanding and explaining their work usually express their ideas in molecular orbital terms, so much so that it is now an essential component of every organic chemist's skills to have some acquaintance with molecular orbital theory.
"Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions" is both a simplified account of molecular orbital theory and a review of its applications in organic chemistry; it provides a basic introduction to the subject and a wealth of illustrative examples. In this book molecular orbital theory is presented in a much simplified, and entirely non-mathematical language, accessible to every organic chemist, whether student or research worker, whether mathematically competent or not. Topics covered include:
- Molecular Orbital Theory
- Molecular Orbitals and the Structures of Organic Molecules
- Chemical Reactions -- How Far and How Fast
- Ionic Reactions -- Reactivity
- Ionic Reactions -- Stereochemistry
- Pericyclic Reactions
- Radical Reactions
- Photochemical Reactions
"Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions: Student Edition" is an invaluable first textbook on this important subject for students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry.
The Reference Edition edition takes the content and the same non-mathematical approach of the Student Edition, and adds extensive extra subject coverage, detail and over 1500 references. The additional material adds a deeper understanding of the models used, and includes a broader range of applications and case studies. Providing a complete in-depth reference for a more advanced audience, this edition will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers and advanced students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry. Further information can be viewed here.
""These books are the result of years of work, which began as an attempt to write a second edition of my 1976 book Frontier Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions. I wanted to give a rather more thorough introduction to molecular orbitals, while maintaining my focus on the organic chemist who did not want a mathematical account, but still wanted to understand organic chemistry at a physical level. I'm delighted to win this prize, and hope a new generation of chemists will benefit from these books." - Professor Ian Fleming"
The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science. The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics. Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned. Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students
This book presents the general concepts of self-organized spatio-temporal ordering processes. These concepts are demonstrated via prototypical examples of recent advances in materials science. Particular emphasis is on nano scale soft matter in physics, chemistry, biology and biomedicine. The questions addressed embrace a broad spectrum of complex nonlinear phenomena, ranging from self-assembling near the thermodynamical equilibrium to dissipative structure formation far from equilibrium. Their mutual interplay gives rise to increasing degrees of hierarchical order. Analogues are pointed out, differences characterized and efforts are made to reveal common features in the mechanistic description of those phenomena.
This monograph is the first easy-to-read-and-understand book on prion proteins' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and on prions' molecular modelling (MM) constructions. It enables researchers to see what is crucial to the conformational change from normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to diseased infectious prions (PrPSc), using MD and MM techniques. As we all know, prion diseases, caused by the body's own proteins, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases effecting humans and almost all animals for a major public health concern. Prion contains no nucleic acids and it is a misshapen or conformation-changed protein that acts like an infectious agent; thus prion diseases are called "protein structural conformational" diseases. PrPC is predominant in -helices but PrPSc are rich in -sheets in the form as amyloid fibrils; so very amenable to be studied by MD techniques. Through MD, studies on the protein structures and the structural conversion are very important for revealing secrets of prion diseases and for structure-based drug design or discovery. Rabbits, dogs, horses and buffaloes are reported to be the few low susceptibility species to prion diseases; this book's MD studies on these species are clearly helpful to understand the mechanism underlying the resistance to prion diseases. PrP(1-120) usually has no clear molecular structures; this book also studies this unstructured region through MD and especially MM techniques from the global optimization point of view. This book is ideal for practitioners in computing of biophysics, biochemistry, biomedicine, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, materials science and engineering, applied mathematics and theoretical physics, information technology, operations research, biostatistics, etc. As an accessible introduction to these fields, this book is also ideal as a teaching material for students.
Spectroscopy is the study of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with solid, liquid, gas and plasma. It is one of the widely used analytical techniques to study the structure of atoms and molecules. The technique is also employed to obtain information about atoms and molecules as a result of their distinctive spectra. The fast-spreading field of spectroscopic applications has made a noteworthy influence on many disciplines, including energy research, chemical processing, environmental protection and medicine. This book aims to introduce students to the topic of spectroscopy. The author has avoided the mathematical aspects of the subject as far as possible; they appear in the text only when inevitable. Including topics such as time-dependent perturbation theory, laser action and applications of Group Theory in interpretation of spectra, the book offers a detailed coverage of the basic concepts and applications of spectroscopy.
Liquid crystals allow us to perform experiments that provide insight into fundamental problems of modern physics, such as phase transitions, frustration, elasticity, hydrodynamics, defects, growth phenomena, and optics. Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments is a result of personal research and of the graduate lectures given by the authors at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon and the University of Paris VII, respectively. The book examines lamellar (smectic) and columnar liquid crystals, which, in addition to orientational order, possess 1D, 2D or 3D positional order. This volume illustrates original physical concepts using methodically numerous experiments, theoretical developments, and diagrams. Topics include rheology and plasticity, ferroelectricity, analogies with superconductors, hexatic order and 2D-melting, equilibrium shapes, facetting, and the Mullins-Sekerka instability, as well as phase transitions in free films and membrane vibrations. Nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals are covered by the authors in a separate volume entitled Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments. Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals is an ideal introduction and a valuable source of reference for theoretical and experimental studies of advanced students and researchers in liquid crystals, condensed matter physics, and materials science.
This text examines in detail mathematical and physical modeling, computational methods and systems for obtaining and analyzing biological structures, using pioneering research cases as examples. As such, it emphasizes programming and problem-solving skills. It provides information on structure bioinformatics at various levels, with individual chapters covering introductory to advanced aspects, from fundamental methods and guidelines on acquiring and analyzing genomics and proteomics sequences, the structures of protein, DNA and RNA, to the basics of physical simulations and methods for conformation searches. This book will be of immense value to researchers and students in the fields of bioinformatics, computational biology and chemistry. Dr. Dongqing Wei is a Professor at the Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China. His research interest is in the general area of structural bioinformatics.
From the contents: Robert H Crabtree: Introduction and History. - Montserrat Di guez, Oscar P mies and Carmen Claver: Iridium-catalysed hydrogenation using phosphorous ligands. - David H. Woodmansee and Andreas Pfaltz: Iridium Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Olefins with Chiral N, P and C, N Ligands. - Ourida Saidi and Jonathan M J Williams: Iridium-catalyzed Hydrogen Transfer Reactions. - John F. Bower and Michael J. Krische: Formation of C-C Bonds via Iridium Catalyzed Hydrogenation and Transfer Hydrogenation. - Jongwook Choi, Alan S. Goldman: Ir-Catalyzed Functionalization of C H Bonds. - Mark P. Pouy and John F. Hartwig: Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution. - Daniel Carmona and Luis A. Oro: Iridium-catalyzed 1.3-dipolar cycloadditions.
Teaching the fundamental knowledge required for successful
dispersion of powders in a liquid, this book covers a host of
topics -- from recent advances to industrial applications.
The text is ideal for under and postgraduate students of biophysical chemistry and as a handy guide for researchers in industry and biotechnology. This text covers: The study of biological cell and its organisation Bioenergetics Statistical Mechanics in biopolymers Forces involved in biopolymer interactions Cell membrane and solute transport Biopolymers and their molecular weights Thermodynamics of biopolymer solutions Diffraction methods and study of macromolecules
High Temperature Gas Dynamics is a primer for scientists, engineers, and students who would like to have a basic understanding of the physics and the behavior of high-temperature gases. It is a valuable tool for astrophysicists as well. The first chapters treat the basic principles of quantum and statistical mechanics and how to derive thermophysical properties from them. Special topics are included that are rarely found in other textbooks, such as the thermophysical and transport properties of multi-temperature gases and a novel method to compute radiative transfer. Furthermore, collision processes between different particles are discussed. Separate chapters deal with the production of high-temperature gases and with electrical emission in plasmas, as well as related diagnostic techniques. This new edition adds over 100 pages and includes the following updates: several sections on radiative properties of high temperature gases and various radiation models, a section on shocks in magneto-gas-dynamics, a section on stability of 2D ionized gas flow, and additional practical examples, such as MGD generators, Hall and ion thrusters, and Faraday generators.
The series Topics in Current Chemistry presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemical research. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
CHEMISTRY STUDENT GUIDES. GUIDED BY STUDENTS For any student who has ever struggled with a mathematical understanding of chemistry, this book is for you. Mathematics is the essential tool for physical scientists. We know that confidence in using mathematics early on in a chemistry degree builds a solid foundation for further study. However, applying the abstract mathematics taught in schools to chemical phenomena is one of the biggest challenges that chemistry students face. In this book, we take a 'chemistry-first' approach. We link the mathematics to recognisable chemical concepts, building on high school chemistry, to facilitate deeper understanding. We cover the practical mathematical skills, including representation of data as tables and graphs, and give an overview of error handling in the physical sciences. More advanced mathematical concepts are introduced, using calculus to determine kinetic rate laws, intermolecular forces and in quantifying energetic change in thermodynamics. We also introduce the concept of the complex number and its role in considering quantum wave functions, widely used in computational chemistry. There are worked examples and problem sets to provide plenty of practise material to build proficiency. We also include insights from real students, which identify common problem areas and provide the prompts that helped them to overcome these. Chemistry Student Guides are written with current students involved at every stage, guiding the books towards the most challenging aspects of the topic.
The availability of synchrotron x-ray sources and the subsequent developments described in this book have led to substantial progress in our understanding of molecular ordering at liquid interfaces. This practical guide enables graduate students and researchers working in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science to understand and carry out experimental investigations into the basic physical and chemical properties of liquid surfaces and interfaces. The book examines the surfaces of bulk liquids, thin wetting films and buried liquid-liquid interfaces. It discusses experiments on simple and complex fluids, including pure water and organic liquids, liquid crystals, liquid metals, electrified liquid-liquid interfaces and interfacial monolayers of amphiphiles, nanoparticles, polymers and biomolecules. A detailed description of the apparatus and techniques required for these experiments is provided, and theoretical approaches to data analysis are described, including approximate methods such as the Master formula, the Born approximation, Parratt's algorithm and the Distorted Wave Approximation.
This book is devoted to the new development of zeolitic catalysts with an emphasis on new strategies for the preparation of zeolites, novel techniques for their characterization and emerging applications of zeolites as catalysts for sustainable chemistry, especially in the fields of energy, biomass conversion and environmental protection. Over the years, energy and the environment have become the most important global issues, while zeolitic catalysts play important roles in addressing them. With individual chapters written by leading experts, this book offers an essential reference work for researchers and professionals in both academia and industry. Feng-Shou Xiao is a Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China. Xiangju Meng is an Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China.
This textbook is the second volume in the Theoretical Chemistry and Computational Modeling series and aims to explain the theoretical basis of magnetic interactions at a level that will be useful for master students in physical, inorganic and organic chemistry. The book gives a treatment of magnetic interactions in terms of the phenomenological spin Hamiltonians that have been such powerful tools for chemistry and physics in the past half century, starting from the simple Heisenberg and Ising Hamiltonians and ending with Hamiltonians that include biquadratic, cyclic or anisotropic exchange. On the other hand, it also explains how quantum chemical methods, reaching from simple mean field methods to accurate models that include the effects of electron correlation and spin-orbit coupling, can help to understand the magnetic properties. Connecting the two perspectives is an essential aspect of the book, since it leads to a deeper understanding of the relation between physical phenomena and basic properties. It also makes clear that in many cases one can derive magnetic coupling parameters not only from experiment, but also from accurate ab initio calculations. The book starts with introducing a selection of basic concepts and tools. Throughout the book the text is interlarded with exercises, stimulating the students to not only read but also verify the assertions and perform (parts of) the derivations by themselves. In addition, each chapter ends with a number of problems that can be used to check whether the material has been understood.
Humans first used carbon as chars from firewood in ritual paintings and primitive metallurgical processes. Natural forms of carbon have been known since antiquity, yet the knowledge of the carbon element in chemistry and its technical applications on a larger scale are a relatively recent development. The industrial revolution in Europe two centuries ago led the way to the numerous applications of these graphitic forms that are still used today. Graphite and Precursors features short tutorial articles on different topics related to the science and technology of carbons intended for engineers, students of Materials Science and scientists who are seeking a fundamental understanding without "reinventing the wheel." This first volume of the World of Carbon book series focuses on graphite and its precursors, including its origin and various implications. The basic properties of hexagonal graphite are developed, and several theoretical and experimental approaches explain why this crystalline solid is fascinating in solid state physics. Also featured are the numerous applications connected to thermal, mechanical and chemical graphites, as well as their various industrial uses in polycrystalline form. Finally, carbon precursors are introduced.
Adopts a completely original approach to the study of processes of
mass transfer. In contrast to the usual approach, based on the
concept of continuum media and the theory of heat and mass
transfer, the topic is considered from a new viewpoint, taking into
account the heterogeneous dispersal state of porous bodies. The
author bases his discussion on the theory of surface forces and
microhydrodynamic analysis of the processes of mass transport of
gases, liquids and vapors, providing the reader with a systematic
account of liquid/solid and gas/solid interfaces.
Surfactants... today you have probably eaten some, or rubbed others on your body. Plants, animals (including you) and microorganisms make them, and many everyday products (e.g. detergents, cosmetics, foodstuffs) contain them. Surfactant molecules have one part which is soluble in water and another which is not. This gives surfactant molecules two valuable properties: 1) they adsorb at surfaces (e.g. of an oil droplet in water), and 2) they stick together (aggregate) in water. The aggregates (micelles) are able to dissolve materials not soluble in water alone, and adsorbed surfactant layers, at the surfaces of particles or (say) oil droplets in water, stop the particles or drops sticking together. This is why stable emulsions such as milk do not separate into layers. This book treats the basic physical chemistry and physics underlying the behaviour of surfactant systems. In this book, you will first learn about some background material including hydrophobic hydration, interfacial tension and capillarity (Section I). Discussion of surfactant adsorption at liquid/fluid and solid/liquid interfaces is given in Section II, and includes thermodynamics of adsorption, dynamic and rheological aspects of liquid interfaces and the direct characterisation of surfactant monolayers. In Section III, a description is given of surfactant aggregation to give micelles, lyotropic liquid crystals, microemulsions and Winsor systems. There follows a discussion of surface forces and the way they confer stability on lyophobic colloids and thin liquid films (Section IV). Various dispersions stabilised by adsorbed surfactant or polymer (including solid in liquid dispersions, emulsions and foams) are considered in Section V. The wetting of solids and liquids is explored in Section VI. Like surfactants, small solid particles can adsorb at liquid/fluid interfaces, form monolayers and stabilise emulsions and foams. Such behaviour is covered in Section VII. It is assumed the reader has a knowledge of undergraduate physical chemistry, particularly chemical thermodynamics, and of simple physics. Mathematics (elementary algebra and calculus) is kept at a level consistent with the straightforward derivation of many of the equations presented.
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