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This invaluable book provides an illustrated ecology of eastern seashore habitats, including the ocean and continental shelf, the intertidal zone, sand dunes and beaches, and salt marshes. Donald D. Cox uses nontechnical terminology in order to provide clear references for the general public as well as professional and amateur naturalists and students. He explores the origins of the oceans, tides, wind belts, and land plants and includes useful illustrations for aid in identification. Most significantly, this guide brings together a wide range of information relative to ocean and seashore ecosystems. Cox includes the types of plants that grow near the seashore; adaptations that help plants survive in seashore habitats; poisonous, medicinal, and edible plants of the ocean and seashore; seasonal changes in the seashore habitat; and methods of naming plants and the folklore of common names. The author also provides complete and accurate details for those readers who are interested in collecting plants and preserving plant collections. The final chapter offers non-technical investigations, activities, and projects. Conservation and habitat preservation are emphasized throughout the book.
This book concentrates on the group of plants showing the steepest decline among British flora over the past 25 years - plants that grow among the crops. Easy-to-use format is designed to enable people to take it into the field and to identify these species whether they are a beginner or an expert. The text covers the history of - and includes practical recommendations for managing - the places where these plants still occur 100 plant profiles include key identification features, flowering and germination times, and differences between similar species. Color distribution maps show where these plants have been seen in the past 25 years, while the accompanying text indicates their current location.
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
Plant remains can preserve a critical part of history of life on Earth. While telling the fascinating evolutionary story of plants and vegetation across the last 500 million years, this book also crucially offers non-specialists a practical guide to studying, dealing with and interpreting plant fossils. It shows how various techniques can be used to reveal the secrets of plant fossils and how to identify common types, such as compressions and impressions. Incorporating the concepts of evolutionary floras, this second edition includes revised data on all main plant groups, the latest approaches to naming plant fossils using fossil-taxa and techniques such as tomography. With extensive illustrations of plant fossils and living plants, the book encourages readers to think of fossils as once-living organisms. It is written for students on introductory or intermediate courses in palaeobotany, palaeontology, plant evolutionary biology and plant science, and for amateurs interested in studying plant fossils.
Historical ecology is a research framework which draws upon diverse evidence to trace complex, long-term relationships between humanity and Earth. With roots in anthropology, archaeology, ecology and paleoecology, geography, and landscape and heritage management, historical ecology applies a practical and holistic perspective to the study of change. Furthermore, it plays an important role in both fundamental research and in developing future strategies for integrated, equitable landscape management. The framework presented in this volume covers critical issues, including: practicing transdisciplinarity, the need for understanding interactions between human societies and ecosystem processes, the future of regions and the role of history and memory in a changing world. Including many examples of co-developed research, Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology provides a platform for collaboration across disciplines and aims to equip researchers, policy-makers, funders, and communities to make decisions that can help to construct an inclusive and resilient future for humanity.
The rate of species and natural habitat loss across our planet is steadily accelerating. This book argues that existing practises of plant conservation are inadequate and firmly supports the placement of ecological restoration at the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. The author unifies different aspects of conservation into one coherent concept, including natural area protection, ex situ conservation and in situ interventions through either population management or ecological restoration. Assisted colonization, experimentation, and utilization of threatened plant species are raised as crucial elements in restoration, with partly novel ecosystems being among its major target areas. Covering a wide spectrum of plant conservation examples, and offering practical methodologies alongside the theoretical context, this is a vital resource for students, research scientists and practitioners in conservation biology and restoration ecology.
The dazzling variation in plant chemistry is a primary mediator of trophic interactions, including herbivory, predation, parasitism, and disease. At the same time, such interactions feed back to influence spatial and temporal variation in the chemistry of plants. In this book, Mark Hunter provides a novel approach to linking the trophic interactions of organisms with the cycling of nutrients in ecosystems. Hunter introduces the concept of the "phytochemical landscape"--the shifting spatial and temporal mosaic of plant chemistry that serves as the nexus between trophic interactions and nutrient dynamics. He shows how plant chemistry is both a cause and consequence of trophic interactions, and how it also mediates ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Nutrients and organic molecules in plant tissues affect decomposition rates and the fluxes of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The availability of these same nutrients influences the chemistry of cells and tissues that plants produce. In combination, these feedback routes generate pathways by which trophic interactions influence nutrient dynamics and vice versa, mediated through plant chemistry. Hunter provides evidence from terrestrial and aquatic systems for each of these pathways, and describes how a focus on the phytochemical landscape enables us to better understand and manage the ecosystems in which we live. Essential reading for students and researchers alike, this book offers an integrated approach to population-, community-, and ecosystem-level ecological processes.
From their ability to use energy from sunlight to make their own food, to combating attacks from diseases and predators, plants have evolved an amazing range of life-sustaining strategies. Written with the non-specialist in mind, John King's lively natural history explains how plants function, from how they gain energy and nutrition to how they grow, develop and ultimately die. New to this edition is a section devoted to plants and the environment, exploring how problems created by human activities, such as global warming, pollution of land, water and air, and increasing ocean acidity, are impacting on the lives of plants. King's narrative provides a simple, highly readable introduction, with boxes in each chapter offering additional or more advanced material for readers seeking more detail. He concludes that despite the challenges posed by growing environmental perils, plants will continue to dominate our planet.
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
This field guide to the Restionaceae, or Cape reeds, commonly called restios, unpacks a unique family of fynbos plants found at the southern tip of South Africa. A hands-on, practical book, it allocates a generous double-page spread to most herbs.
Beautifully illustrated with photographs and over 400 colour images (scanned from living plants), this new edition of Els Dorrat-Haaksma's respected guide has now been revised, updated and freshly designed for greater ease of use. It will help demystify restios, a less known component of the fynbos – one that has in recent years become increasingly popular with gardeners and landscape designers as restios find their rightful place amongst the 'architectural' plants. It will be welcomed by all nature lovers, whether tourists, hikers, gardeners or botanists (both amateur and professional).
Mangroves and seagrasses form extensive and highly productive ecosystems that are both biologically diverse and economically valuable. This book, now in its third edition and fully updated throughout, continues to provide a current and comprehensive introduction to all aspects of the biology and ecology of mangroves and seagrasses. Using a global range of examples and case studies, it describes the unique adaptations of these plants to their exacting environments; the rich and diverse communities of organisms that depend on mangrove forests and seagrass meadows (including tree-climbing shrimps, synchronously flashing fireflies, and 'gardening' seacows); the links between mangrove, seagrass, and other habitats; and the evolution, biodiversity, and biogeography of mangroves and seagrasses. The economic value of mangroves and seagrasses is also discussed, including approaches to rational management of these vital resources and techniques for the restoration of degraded habitats. A final chapter, new to this edition, examines the potential effects of global climate change including sea level rise. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these fascinating aquatic ecosystems although pollution, conservation, and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible textbook assumes no previous knowledge of mangrove or seagrass ecology and is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional ecologists, conservation practitioners, and resource managers.
This volume sits at the cross-roads of a number of areas of scientific interest that, in the past, have largely kept themselves separate - agriculture, forestry, population genetics, ecology, conservation biology, genomics and the protection of plant genetic resources. Yet these areas also have a lot of common interests and increasingly these independent lines of inquiry are tending to coalesce into a more comprehensive view of the complexity of plant-pathogen associations and their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. This interdisciplinary source provides a comprehensive overview of this changing situation by identifying the role of pathogens in shaping plant populations, species and communities, tackling the issue of the increasing importance of invasive and newly emerging diseases and giving broader recognition to the fundamental importance of the influence of space and time (as manifest in the metapopulation concept) in driving epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories.
A concise introduction to key computing skills for biologists While biological data continues to grow exponentially in size and quality, many of today's biologists are not trained adequately in the computing skills necessary for leveraging this information deluge. In Computing Skills for Biologists, Stefano Allesina and Madlen Wilmes present a valuable toolbox for the effective analysis of biological data. Based on the authors' experiences teaching scientific computing at the University of Chicago, this textbook emphasizes the automation of repetitive tasks and the construction of pipelines for data organization, analysis, visualization, and publication. Stressing practice rather than theory, the book's examples and exercises are drawn from actual biological data and solve cogent problems spanning the entire breadth of biological disciplines, including ecology, genetics, microbiology, and molecular biology. Beginners will benefit from the many examples explained step-by-step, while more seasoned researchers will learn how to combine tools to make biological data analysis robust and reproducible. The book uses free software and code that can be run on any platform. Computing Skills for Biologists is ideal for scientists wanting to improve their technical skills and instructors looking to teach the main computing tools essential for biology research in the twenty-first century. Excellent resource for acquiring comprehensive computing skills Both novice and experienced scientists will increase efficiency by building automated and reproducible pipelines for biological data analysis Code examples based on published data spanning the breadth of biological disciplines Detailed solutions provided for exercises in each chapter Extensive companion website
This book explores the sustainability aspect of organic and conventional farming systems, which is commonly categorized into three sub-aspects: social, environmental and economic. The social structure of a given area, organic friendly technologies, soil properties, crop diversification and income are the elements chosen for comparison, and are analyzed using descriptive and statistical methods. In addition, the book assesses the current status of the local organic market in Nepal and field experiments involving the use of various organic means to achieve better production for selected vegetables. Determining the benefits and/or challenges of organic and conventional farming is important to determining the most viable type of farming in the long term, but can be greatly impacted by a given area's specific characteristics (social, environmental, political, etc.), which is why this study focuses on a specific location: the Chitwan district of Nepal, where group conversion to organic farming has existed alongside conventional farming for years. This book offers a useful guide for both practitioners and academic researchers who are interested in organic farming and food security, particularly in developing countries.
Allelopathy is an ecological phenomenon by which plants release organic chemicals (allelochemicals) into the environment influencing the growth and survival of other organisms. In this book, leading scientists in the field synthesize latest developments in allelopathy research with a special emphasis on its application in sustainable agriculture. The following topics are highlighted: Ecological implications, such as the role of allelopathy during the invasion of alien plant species; regional experiences with the application of allelopathy in agricultural systems and pest management; the use of microscopy for modeling allelopathy; allelopathy and abiotic stress tolerance; host allelopathy and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; allelopathic interaction with plant nutrition; and the molecular mechanisms of allelopathy. This book is an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students in the fields of plant physiology, agriculture, ecology, environmental sciences, and molecular biology.
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) such as terpenes and phenolic compounds are known to have numerous ecological roles, notably in defence against herbivores, pathogens and abiotic stresses and in interactions with competitors and mutualists. This book reviews recent developments in the field to provide a synthesis of the function, ecology and evolution of PSMs, revealing our increased awareness of their integrative role in connecting natural systems. It emphasises the multiple roles of secondary metabolites in mediating the interactions between organisms and their environment at a range of scales of ecological organisation, demonstrating how genes encoding for PSM biosynthetic enzymes can have effects from the cellular scale within individual plants all the way to global environmental processes. A range of recent methodological advances, including molecular, transgenic and metabolomic techniques, are illustrated and promising directions for future studies are identified, making this a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students in the field.
First published in 1992, Women's Employment and the Capitalist Family is an analysis of the contemporary political interest in the position of women. The author critically assesses much of the literature examining the rapidly changing lives of women and contributes to it by offering an explanation of women's labour-market participation. In particular, the book deals with the domestic labour market debate, the role of patriarchy theory, gender and labour-market theory, periodising the capitalist family and the specific position of working women in the British economy. Despite the theoretical stand-point, the book avoids technicalities and is accessible to a wide, interdisciplinary audience.
Ecologists traditionally regard time as part of the background against which ecological interactions play out. In this book, Eric Post argues that time should be treated as a resource used by organisms for growth, maintenance, and offspring production. Post uses insights from phenology--the study of the timing of life-cycle events--to present a theoretical framework of time in ecology that casts long-standing observations in the field in an entirely new light. Combining conceptual models with field data, he demonstrates how phenological advances, delays, and stasis, documented in an array of taxa, can all be viewed as adaptive components of an organism's strategic use of time. Post shows how the allocation of time by individual organisms to critical life history stages is not only a response to environmental cues but also an important driver of interactions at the population, species, and community levels. To demonstrate the applications of this exciting new conceptual framework, Time in Ecology uses meta-analyses of previous studies as well as Post's original data on the phenological dynamics of plants, caribou, and muskoxen in Greenland.
In this book, plant biology is considered from the perspective of plants and their surrounding environment, including both biotic and abiotic interactions. The intended audience is undergraduate students in the middle or final phases of their programs of study. Topics are developed to provide a rudimentary understanding of how plant-environment interactions span multiple spatiotemporal scales, and how this rudimentary knowledge can be applied to understand the causes of ecosystem vulnerabilities in the face of global climate change and expansion of natural resource use by human societies. In all chapters connections are made from smaller to larger scales of ecological organization, providing a foundation for understanding plant ecology. Where relevant, environmental threats to ecological systems are identified and future research needs are discussed. As future generations take on the responsibility for managing ecosystem goods and services, one of the most effective resources that can be passed on is accumulated knowledge of how organisms, populations, species, communities and ecosystems function and interact across scales of organization. This book is intended to provide some of that knowledge, and hopefully provide those generations with the ability to avoid some of the catastrophic environmental mistakes that prior generations have made.
While a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture is important, it is equally essential for all those involved in agriculture to understand the functioning of the farming system as a whole and how it can be best managed. It is necessary to re-assess and understand rain-fed farming systems around the world and to find ways to improve the selection, design and operation of such systems for long term productivity, profitability and sustainability. The components of the system must operate together efficiently; yet many of the relationships and interactions are not clearly understood. Appreciation of these matters and how they are affected by external influences or inputs are important for decision making and for achieving desirable outcomes for the farm as a whole. This book analyses common rain-fed farming systems and defines the principles and practices important to their effective functioning and management."
This book focuses on the fundamentals of plant physiology for undergraduate and graduate students. It consists of 34 chapters divided into five major units. Unit I discusses the unique mechanisms of water and ion transport, while Unit II describes the various metabolic events essential for plant development that result from plants' ability to capture photons from sunlight, to convert inorganic forms of nutrition to organic forms and to synthesize high energy molecules, such as ATP. Light signal perception and transduction works in perfect coordination with a wide variety of plant growth regulators in regulating various plant developmental processes, and these aspects are explored in Unit III. Unit IV investigates plants' various structural and biochemical adaptive mechanisms to enable them to survive under a wide variety of abiotic stress conditions (salt, temperature, flooding, drought), pathogen and herbivore attack (biotic interactions). Lastly, Unit V addresses the large number of secondary metabolites produced by plants that are medicinally important for mankind and their applications in biotechnology and agriculture. Each topic is supported by illustrations, tables and information boxes, and a glossary of important terms in plant physiology is provided at the end.
Metacommunity ecology links smaller-scale processes that have been the provenance of population and community ecology--such as birth-death processes, species interactions, selection, and stochasticity--with larger-scale issues such as dispersal and habitat heterogeneity. Until now, the field has focused on evaluating the relative importance of distinct processes, with niche-based environmental sorting on one side and neutral-based ecological drift and dispersal limitation on the other. This book moves beyond these artificial categorizations, showing how environmental sorting, dispersal, ecological drift, and other processes influence metacommunity structure simultaneously. Mathew Leibold and Jonathan Chase argue that the relative importance of these processes depends on the characteristics of the organisms, the strengths and types of their interactions, the degree of habitat heterogeneity, the rates of dispersal, and the scale at which the system is observed. Using this synthetic perspective, they explore metacommunity patterns in time and space, including patterns of coexistence, distribution, and diversity. Leibold and Chase demonstrate how these processes and patterns are altered by micro- and macroevolution, traits and phylogenetic relationships, and food web interactions. They then use this scale-explicit perspective to illustrate how metacommunity processes are essential for understanding macroecological and biogeographical patterns as well as ecosystem-level processes. Moving seamlessly across scales and subdisciplines, Metacommunity Ecology is an invaluable reference, one that offers a more integrated approach to ecological patterns and processes.
Now in its eighth edition, this landmark textbook has helped to define introductory ecology courses for over four decades. With a dramatic transformation from previous editions, this text helps lecturers embrace the challenges and opportunities of teaching ecology in a contemporary lecture hall. The text maintains its signature evolutionary perspective and emphasis on the quantitative aspects of the field, but it has been completely rewritten for today's undergraduates. Modernised in a new streamlined format, from 27 to 23 chapters, it is manageable now for a one-term course. Chapters are organised around four to six key concepts that are repeated as major headings and repeated again in streamlined summaries. Ecology: The Economy of Nature is available with SaplingPlus. An online solution that combines an e-book of the text, Ricklefs' powerful multimedia resources, and the robust problem bank of Sapling Learning. Every problem entered by a student will be answered with targeted feedback, allowing your students to learn with every question they answer.
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