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This book offers a comprehensive compilation of biotic and abiotic factors that affect lychee production and commercialization. It addresses disease management for a range of causal agents, including the leaf mite (Acerya litchi Keifer), leaf miner (Conopomorpha cramerella), fruit borers (Conopomorpha cramerella, Platypeplus aprobola Meyer and Dichocrosis sp.), leaf webber / roller (Platypepla aprobola Meyer), litchi bug (Tessarotoma javanica Thunb), bark-eating caterpillar (Indarbela quadrinotata) and shoot borer (Chlumetia transversa), etc. Specialized chapters highlight potential approaches to optimizing and increasing the scope of lychee export, as well as systematic research on the development and refinement of technologies for enhancing lychee productivity and quality. Further aspects addressed include post-harvest handling, processing and value addition, the development of tolerant varieties, high yield and processing. As such, 'Lychee Disease Management' offers a valuable resource dedicated to the global agriculture community, which is currently facing considerable production and commercialization problems.
This book focuses on multiple plant stresses and the molecular basis of adaptation, addressing the molecular mechanism and adaptation for both abiotic and biotic stresses. Ensuring the yield of crop plants grown under multiple individual and/or combined stresses is essential to sustaining productivity. In this regard, the development of broad-spectrum stress-tolerant plants is important. However, to date information has largely been compiled only on the individual stress tolerance mechanisms, and the mechanisms behind plants' tolerance to two or more individual or simultaneous stresses are not fully understood. Especially combinatorial stress, a new stress altogether, has only recently been made the object of systematic study. Now several research groups around the world have begun exploring the concurrent stress tolerance mechanisms under both biotic and abiotic stress combinations. This book presents contributions from various experts, highlighting the findings of their multiple individual and concurrent stress tolerance dissection studies.
Written primarily for 16-19 year old students, this primer aims to extend students' knowledge and inspire them to take their school-level learning further. It explores topics that are familiar from the curriculum and also introduces new ideas, giving students a first taste of the study of biology beyond school-level and demonstrating how concepts frequently encountered at school are relevant to and applied in current research. This is the ideal text to support students who are considering making the transition from studying biology at school to university. For many years, much of the human population has lived in ignorance of plant disease - yet the presence or absence of disease in a crop, or a forest, can mean the difference between economic success or disaster, and - even in the 21st century - the difference between life and death for millions of people. This primer raises the profile of plant infectious diseases, highlighting the scale of the problem, the risks to biosecurity, and the advances in science which are impacting on surveillance, diagnosis and prevention of disease. This text opens with an overview of the importance of plant disease in human history, before reviewing the structure and function of the main types of pathogens involved in plant infectious diseases (bacteria, viruses, fungi and fungi-like pathogens), focusing on unusual and interesting examples. It then explores how plant diseases can be accurately diagnosed, explaining a variety of ways in which specific pathogens can be identified including the most recent developments in molecular analysis as well as cultural and serological techniques. The primer then moves on to consider disease surveillance, which still relies heavily on traditional techniques based on human observation. It also considers emerging techniques involving epidemiological models, remote monitoring, the monitoring of air and water, satellite tracking and genetic modification of crops. Disease management - ways in which plant diseases can be controlled and their spread halted - is then discussed. This area encompasses techniques spanning chemical control of insect, fungal and bacterial pests to genetic modification of crops to introduce disease resistance. The final section of the primer explores plant biosecurity and how it can be maintained - an ever-more important issue given the continued globalisation of trade - and the impact of global warming on where both plants and plant pathogens can grow and thrive.
Essential for all gardeners, horticulturists and naturalists, this is a practical, highly-illustrated guide to dealing with disorders that affect fruit, vegetables, trees and ornamental garden plants. A revision of the highly acclaimed Collins Guide to Pests, Diseases and Disorders first published in 1981, the book now features completely updated text, the addition of several new pests and diseases that have become a threat in the last decade, and an impressive full colour plate section with over 600 photographs. The Introduction provides general information about garden hygiene and plant care and control, including an assessment of pesticides and chemicals. Special attention is given to the increasing importance of biological control in gardens. *The A-to-Z of Symptoms lists all the common garden plants, and describes likely causes of problems with leaves, shoots, flowers, fruit and buds, with cross-references to the detailed entries in the main section of the book. *Pests are arranged by groups of closely related organisms. Problems such as eelworms, slugs, snails, aphids and birds are all dealt with. *Diseases are organised on the basis of symptoms such as rusts, smuts, cankers and rots. *Disorders, like mineral deficiencies and genetic abnormalities, are grouped under the main factors causing them - mechanical, climatic, nutritional etc.
This volume sits at the cross-roads of a number of areas of scientific interest that, in the past, have largely kept themselves separate - agriculture, forestry, population genetics, ecology, conservation biology, genomics and the protection of plant genetic resources. Yet these areas also have a lot of common interests and increasingly these independent lines of inquiry are tending to coalesce into a more comprehensive view of the complexity of plant-pathogen associations and their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. This interdisciplinary source provides a comprehensive overview of this changing situation by identifying the role of pathogens in shaping plant populations, species and communities, tackling the issue of the increasing importance of invasive and newly emerging diseases and giving broader recognition to the fundamental importance of the influence of space and time (as manifest in the metapopulation concept) in driving epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories.
Plant diseases can have an enormous impact on our lives. In a world where total crop failure can quickly lead to human misery and starvation, accurate diagnostics play a key role in keeping plants free from pathogens. In Plant Pathology: Techniques and Protocols, expert researchers provide methods which are vital to the diagnosis of plant diseases across the globe, addressing all three categories of plant pathology techniques: traditional, serological, and nucleic acid. Chapters examine recent and developing issues with crop identity and authenticity, allowing workers to genotype samples from two major food groups. Composed in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, each chapter contains a brief introduction, step-by-step methods, a list of necessary materials, and a Notes section which shares tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and reader-friendly, Plant Pathology: Techniques and Protocols is an incredible guide which will soon prove to be indispensable, both to novices and expert researchers alike.
The book illustrates the use of putative microbial agents which provide good protection to the plant from biotic pathogens attack. An up to date knowledge on plant-microbiome interaction strategies in terms of improved sustainability has been discussed. Information from experts across the globe on the application of microbes for providing amicable solution in sustainable agriculture has been gathered. In addition, information related to microbes mediated resistance levels leading to enhanced plant health has been well presented. The chapters have emphasised the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and other potential biocontrol agents/antagonists in the management of plant diseases which provide extensive information to the readers. Literature on microbial root colonization, plant growth promotions, and also on the protection of plants from attack of various soil borne pathogens have been presented in a coherent way. Information on the application of potential strain of the bio-control fungi, endophytes, actinomycetes strengthening the plants ability which rescue the plant from pathogens attack leading to improved plant health has also been underpinned.
Presents an exhaustive study of economic zoology. All kinds of animal pathogens - such as protozoans, helminths, nematodes, mites and ticks and household insects, directly or indirectly causing diseases in other animals including humans - are described in detail, covering every aspect of their life history along with the symptoms appearing on the hosts, and their prevention, control and cure. Furthermore, along with the animal pathogens mentioned above, plant pathogens, such as insects, acting as pests of a variety of crops are also described in detail.Key features:Chapters enriched with photomicrographs present a realistic description.Exclusive life cycle diagrams of pathogens.Exhaustive coverage of the subject matter helps students to understand the concepts.Chapter-end review questions help students to prepare for examinations and assess their knowledge.
The book is a compilation of research work carried out on plant viruses during past 100 years in India. Plant viruses are important constraints in Indian agriculture. Tropical and sub-tropical environments and intensive crop cultivation practices ideally favours perpetuation of numerous plant viruses and their vectors in India, which often cause wide spread crop losses. Of all the plant pathogens, studies of plant viruses have received a special attention as they are difficult to manage. A large body of literature has been published on the plant virus research from India during past 100 years; however the information is so far not available in one place. This book provides comprehensive information on the biology, molecular biology, epidemics, crop losses, diagnosis and management of viruses and viroids occurring in India. Description of properties of the viruses are provided in the chapters comprising of different genera such as Allexivirus, Begomovirus, Babuvirus, Badnavirus, Carlavirus, Carmovirus, Cucumovirus, Closterovirus, Ilavirus, Mandrivirus, Potyvirus, Tospovirus, Tungrovirus and Sobemovirus. Virus-vector research related to aphid, thrips and whitefly is discussed. The work on the management aspects of plant viral diseases has been described with reference to the conventional, antiviral and transgenic approaches. Further, the quarantine mechanism developed in India for the exclusion of viruses and vectors has also been included. The book also provides useful information about the capacity building on the research and education on Plant Virology in India. Overall, the book covers a wide range of accounts of research findings and innovations in Plant Virology in India during past 100 years. The book will be a resourceful reference to the students, scientists, agricultural professionals and policy makers.
Dramatic progress in molecular biology and genetic engineering has recently produced an unparalleled wealth of information on the mechanisms of plant and pathogen interactions at the cellular and molecular levels. Completely revised and expanded, Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops: Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition offers fresh insight into the interplay of signaling systems in plant and pathogen interactions. The book delineates the battle between plant and fungal pathogen and the complex signaling systems involved. See what's new in the Second Edition: -Chapter on the role of disease resistance genes in signal perception and emission -Chapter on cell death signaling in disease susceptibility and resistance -Revised material on phytoalexins, toxins, and signal perception and transduction in fungal pathogenesis -17 additional families of pathogenesis-related proteins and antifungal proteins The book describes the weapons used by fungal pathogens to evade or suppress the host defense mechanisms. It covers each fungal infection process from initial contact and penetration to the subsequent invasion and symptom development. The author explains complex signaling systems in the plant-pathogen interface with flow charts and provides drawings elucidating the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. He includes figures that highlight cutting-edge breakthroughs in molecular science and tables documenting important findings in the field of molecular plant pathology. These features and more make this book not only the most up to date resource in the field, but also the most important.
This book sheds new light on ways to alleviate biotic and abiotic stress in plants, using signaling molecules of plant growth promotory rhizobacteria. Further, it elaborates on the different types of stress and strategies used by plants under various stress conditions. The respective sections describe the importance of the microbiome for the overall health of plants and how exploring plant-microbe communication and signaling pathways could offer a promising avenue for future research. The book also discusses how rhizobacteria could be exploited in stress alleviation and sustainable agriculture, and addresses omics strategies for stress response and mitigation. Thanks to clearly annotated references, the book also supports and encourages readers to further explore the topics discussed.
Just like humans, animals and plants suffer from infectious diseases, which can critically threaten biodiversity. This book describes key studies that have driven our understanding of the ecology and evolution of wildlife diseases. Each chapter introduces the host and disease, and explains how that system has aided our general understanding of the evolution and spread of wildlife diseases, through the development and testing of important epidemiological and evolutionary theories. Questions addressed include: How do hosts and parasites co-evolve? What determines how fast a disease spreads through a population? How do co-infecting parasites interact? Why do hosts vary in parasite burden? Which factors determine parasite virulence and host resistance? How do parasites influence the spread of invasive species? How do we control infectious diseases in wildlife? This book will provide a valuable introduction to students new to the topic, and novel insights to researchers, professionals and policymakers working in the field.
This book is an outcome of the keynote/lead papers presented by the experts from different disciplines in the Indian Ecological Society International Conference 2016 on "Natural Resource Management: Ecological Perspectives", organized at the Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India. The book captures the essence of natural resource management from the intra and interdisciplinary perspectives of agricultural sciences (entomology, plant pathology, plant breeding and genetics, agronomy and soil sciences), social sciences (resource economics, agricultural extension education), medical sciences, and environmental sciences to stimulate discussion on the ecological perspectives of natural resource management. Wide-ranging topics on land and water resources, biodiversity, integrated farming system, role of microbes in agriculture, climate change and its impact on human health and crop pests, exploiting chemical ecology for pest management, human disease-causing pesticides, beneficial insects like lac insects, integrated pest management, resistance management in insect pests and Bt cotton , and diffusion and adoption of ecologically sustainable technologies at individual and organizational level are covered in the book.. The book will serve the professionals, researchers, academia, government, industry and students.
Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect current and emerging practices, this book explores modern methods of disease control in field and glasshouse crops. It outlines the major crop diseases, with a particular emphasis on those features of symptomology and life cycle that are most relevant to the development of control measures. Modern diagnostic techniques are considered, focusing on developments in nucleic acid and immunological based procedures and their use in plant quarantine and certification schemes. The potential impact of these advances in molecular technology on plant breeding and disease resistance is also covered. Fungicides are a central part of disease control in the EU and, as such, a comprehensive account of their use forms an important part of the text, along with strategies to minimise the incidence of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. Looking to the future, the book also addresses legislative, environmental and food safety concerns.
Environmental pollution resulting from widespread pesticide application has become a serious worldwide problem. Plant Pathogenesis and Disease Control is an important new reference that addresses this problem by exploring the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of plant pathogenesis and emphasizing the use of "pest control agents" rather than "pesticides" for plant disease control. Topics examined include pathogenicity, the resistance of plants against pathogens, the offensive and defensive struggle between hosts and parasites, methods for using natural defense mechanisms to develop environmentally sound disease control agents, and the use of modern biotechnology for plant disease control. The book will be an essential reference for phytopathologists, plant biochemists, pesticide chemists, mycologists, plant cell technologists, and agricultural researchers.
The small grain cereals wheat, barley, oats and rye are cultivated worldwide. They form the foundation of most agricultural systems and are essential in the manufacture of staple products such as bread, pasta and fermented beverages. Reflecting the global and economic importance of cereal crops, this book aims to make identification of diseases afflicting them easier. Covering 40-50 of the most important pathogens in Europe, North America, Japan and Australia, the handbook contains superb color photographs accompanied by clear, concise descriptions of diseases with advice on their control and is of use to plant health professionals, growers, farmers, and students of agriculture. Diseases are illustrated at varying stages of development and entries follow an easy-to-use format. First the pathogens involved and their symptoms are described; next information on the disease cycle is given, covering epidemiological features and the form taken by the pathogen in different climates. The section on economic significance deals with effects on yield and the ecosystem, while that on control advises growers on measures and techniques to combat the outbreak of disease, including the latest chemical treatments. For each disease, detailed references provide a key to further reading.
Healthy seeds and propagules are the basic requirement for producing good grains, fruits and vegetables needed for human survival and perpetuation. Dispersal of microbial plant pathogens via seeds and propagules has assumed more importance than other modes of dispersal, as infected seeds and propagules have the potential to become the primary sources of carrying pathogen inoculum for subsequent crops. Several diseases transmitted through seeds and propagules have been shown to have the potential to damage economies as a result of huge quantitative and qualitative losses in numerous crops. Hence, it is essential to rapidly detect, identify and differentiate the microbial plant pathogens present in seeds and propagules precisely and reliably, using sensitive techniques. Microbial Plant Pathogens: Detection and Management in Seeds and Propagules provides a comprehensive resource on seed-borne and propagule-borne pathogens. Information on the biology of microbial pathogens, including genetic diversity, infection process and survival mechanisms of pathogens and epidemiology of diseases caused by them, are discussed critically and in detail to highlight weak links in the life cycles of the pathogens. Development of effective disease management systems, based on the principles of exclusion and eradication of pathogens and immunization of crop plants to enhance the levels of resistance of cultivars to diseases, has been effective to keep the pathogens at bay. The need for production of disease-free seeds/propagules has been emphasized to prevent the carryover of the inoculum to the next crop or introduction of the pathogens to other locations. Effectiveness of adopting simple cultural practices and development of cultivars resistant to diseases through traditional breeding methods or biotechnological approach have resulted in reducing the pathogen inoculum and disease incidence. Although application of different chemicals may reduce the disease incidence effectively, biological management of crop diseases, employing potential biological control agents have to be preferred to preserve the agroecosystems. Greater efforts have to be made to integrate compatible strategies to enhance the effectiveness of diseases management systems. Protocols appended at the end of relevant chapters form a unique feature of this book to enable the researchers to fine-tune their projects. This 2 volume set provides comprehensive and updated information about the economically-important groups of microbial plant pathogens carried by seed and propagules. Graduate students, researchers and teachers of plant pathology, plant protection, microbiology, plant breeding and genetics, agriculture and horticulture, as well as certification and quarantine personnel will find the information presented in this book useful.
Research in recent years has increasingly shifted away from purely academic research, and into applied aspects of the discipline, including climate change research, conservation, and sustainable development. It has by now widely been recognized that "traditional" knowledge is always in flux and adapting to a quickly changing environment. Trends of globalization, especially the globalization of plant markets, have greatly influenced how plant resources are managed nowadays. While ethnobotanical studies are now available from many regions of the world, no comprehensive encyclopedic series focusing on the worlds mountain regions is available in the market. Scholars in plant sciences worldwide will be interested in this dynamic content. The field (and thus the market) of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology has grown considerably in recent years. Student interest is on the rise, attendance at professional conferences has grown steadily, and the number of professionals calling themselves ethnobotanists has increased significantly. Various societies of such professionals include the Society for Economic Botany, the International Society of Ethnopharmacology, the Society of Ethnobiology, the International Society for Ethnobiology, and many regional and national societies in the field that currently have thousands of members. Growth has been most robust in BRIC countries. The objective of this new MRW on Ethnobotany of Mountain Regions is to take advantage of the increasing international interest and scholarship in the field of mountain research. We anticipate including the best and latest research on a full range of descriptive, methodological, theoretical, and applied research on the most important plants for each region. Each contribution will be scientifically rigorous and contribute to the overall field of study.
Handbook of Major Palm Pests: Biology and Management contains the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on the red palm weevil and the palm borer moth, two newly emergent invasive palm pests which are adversely affecting palm trees around the world. It provides state-of-the-art scientific information on the ecology, biology, and management of palm pests from a global group of experts in the field. An essential compendium for anyone working with or studying palms, it is dedicated to the detection, eradication, and containment of these invasive species, which threaten the health and very existence of global palm crops.
The book will address selected topics in postharvest pathology aiming at highlighting recent development in the science, technology and control strategies of postharvest diseases to reduce losses and enhance safety of harvested agricultural products. Topics will include: 1) Introduction: Perspectives and challenges in postharvest pathology 2) Elucidating host-pathogen interactions 3) Next generation technologies for management and detection of postharvest pathogens 4) Food safety in postharvest pathology 5) Alternative postharvest diseases control strategies 6) Chemical control of postharvest diseases
Praise for the First Edition: Association of American Publishers Professional and Scholarly Division Award Winner (Life Sciences)"One of the ten best horticultural books of the century." The Washington Post"Diseases of Trees and Shrubs is by far the best book currently available for the horticulturist, arborist, or forester who wishes to identify disorders of forest and shade trees and woody ornamentals." The Public Garden"It may be used by anyone with knowledge of general biology as well as by someone with specialized plant knowledge for diagnosing plant disease problems. Highly recommended." Library Journal"This book is a remarkable contribution to the literature on tree pathology, providing a valuable source of reference on tree disease for all with an interest in the subject. It must surely be almost obligatory reading for the specialist tree pathologist, and will prove of great value to all tree care professionals. . . . It will fascinate any tree lovers who wish to find out more about the diseases and disorders that may afflict trees." Arboricultural Journal"It is well written and it is illustrated with photographs of such high quality that in this respect it could be described as a 'coffee table' book of forest pathology." ForestryFirst published in 1987, Diseases of Trees and Shrubs has become a standard reference for plant health specialists, plant diagnosticians, horticulturists, arborists, foresters, and their students. Now thoroughly revised, fully updated, and illustrated with more than 2200 digitally optimized color images in 261 full-color plates and more than 350 black-and-white photographs and drawings, the second edition is an unrivalled survey of the diseases of forest and shade trees and woody ornamental plants in the United States and Canada. The book is both an authoritative reference book and a powerful diagnostic tool. Organized according to type of disease-inducing agent, the second edition is also designed to be helpful in classroom and field instruction. Symptoms, signs, and cycles of hundreds of diseases are described and microscopic features of many pathogens are depicted in photos and line drawings. A searchable CD-ROM included with the book contains bibliographic entries for more than 4500 works that readers can consult for additional information or images. This remarkable scholarly work praised as one of the best horticultural books of the twentieth century lays claim to the same accolade for the twenty-first century."
Phytoplasma-associated diseases are a major limiting factor in the context of the quality and productivity of many ornamental, horticultural and other economically important agricultural crops worldwide. Annual losses due to phytoplasma diseases vary, but under pathogen-favorable conditions they have disastrous consequences for the farming community. As there is no effective cure for these diseases, the management options focus on their exclusion, minimizing their spread by insect vectors and propagation materials and on the development of host plant resistance. This book discusses the latest information on the epidemiology and management of phytoplasma-associated diseases, providing a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of distribution, occurrence and identification of the phytoplasmas, recent diagnostics approaches, transmission, losses and geographical distribution as well as management aspects.
The book is a comprehensive compilation of the most recent advances in the practical approach of the use of microbial probiotics for agriculture. Unlike the rest of the publications about biofertilizers, this book bridges the gap between the lab studies (molecular, physiological, omics, etc.) and the agronomic application.
This volume reviews our current knowledge and novel research areas on Pochonia chlamydosporia, a cosmopolitan fungus occurring in soils as a saprophyte yet capable of colonizing the rhizosphere of crops as an endophyte and behaving as a parasite of eggs of plant-parasitic nematodes. The book is divided into six sections containing 18 chapters, starting with a historical background chapter, followed by 16 chapters, each contributed by experts, concerning those key aspects necessary to work with this biocontrol agent in a multidisciplinary treatise. Topics covered include systematics, biology, nematode-fungus interactions, nematode management strategies, secondary metabolites, and other methods including more novel research areas such as molecular, -omics, plant growth enhancement and endophytic abilities of P. chlamydosporia. The final chapter deals with the future perspectives of P. chlamydosporia research.
Sucking pests are most notorious group of pests for agricultural crops. Unlike most pests with chewing mouth parts, sucking pests cause more severe damage to the crops and are complex to get identified until advanced stages of infection. Not only is this late detection detrimental to their effective control, sucking pests also often cause fungal growth and virus transmission. The book emphasizes on sucking pests of most major crops of India. It aims to reflect Indian scenario before the international readership. This book complies comprehensive information on sucking pests of crops and brings the attention of the readers to this multiple damage causing insect complex. The chapters are contributed by highly experienced Indigenous experts from Universities & ICAR institutes, and book collates useful content for students and young researchers in plant pathology, entomology and agriculture.
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