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Infrastructure development projects are set to continue into the next century as developing country governments seek to manage population growth, urbanization and industrialization. The contributions in this volume raise many questions about 'development' and 'progress' in the late twentieth century. What is revealed are the enormous problems and disastrous affects which continue to accompany displacement operations in many countries, which raise the ever more urgent question of whether the benefits of infrastructure development justify or outweigh the pain of the radical disruption of peoples lives, exacerbated by the fact that, with some notable exceptions, there has been a lack of official recognition on the part of governments and international agencies that development-induced displacement is a problem at all. This important volume addresses the issues and shows just how serious the situation is.
The career of Ol'ga Berggol'ts offers a case study in the complexities that faced Soviet writers in the Stalin era, and demonstrates that the borders between 'official' and 'unofficial' literature were permeable and shifting. This study draws on unpublished materials, including the poet's notebooks and diaries, to show how conflict and ambiguity functioned as a structuring principle in her work. The tensions of attempting to reconcile Party loyalty with personal and artistic integrity are revealed in her lyric poetry, her treatment of other genres, including prose, and in the intensively intra-textual nature of her writing. Dr Hodgson reassesses the cultural heritage of an era that can seem remote and impenetrable, but which is complex and intriguing.
Harnessing the Holocaust presents the compelling story of how the Nazi genocide of the Jews became an almost daily source of controversy in French politics. Joan Wolf argues that from the Six-Day War through the trial of Maurice Papon in 1997-98, the Holocaust developed from a Jewish trauma into a metaphor for oppression and a symbol of victimization on a wide scale. Using scholarship from a range of disciplines, Harnessing the Holocaust argues that the roots of Holocaust politics reside in the unresolved dilemmas of Jewish emancipation and the tensions inherent in the revolutionary notion of universalism. Ultimately, the book suggests, the Holocaust became a screen for debates about what it means to be French.
This book provides a brief but wide-ranging history of torture in Europe and America as well as an analysis of its return in the aftermath of the 'war on terror'. During the state of exception declared in the wake of 9/11 2001, the Bush administration judicially sanctioned interrogation techniques that violated the ban of torture in US and Public International Law. While Barack Obama promised to restore the torture ban and habeas corpus, these practices have in fact expanded under his administration. By which logic could torture, a practice associated with the autocratic regimes of medieval and early modern Europe and contemporary dictatorships be introduced in a liberal democratic system of justice? What were the roles of public officials, government lawyers, elected representatives, and professionals (psychiatrists, behavioural scientists, anthropologists, physicians, interrogators)? What do we know about those tortured? What does the return of torture entail for us who are not tortured? What does it mean for our political system and the future of global order?
This is the first book to tell the story of every man trapped in Guantanamo. In early 2006, the Pentagon released 7000 pages of transcripts from tribunals assessing the status of the 774 men illegally detained in Guantanamo Bay. Journalist Andy Worthington is the only person to have analyzed every page of these transcripts. This book weaves together the story of the prison and its inmates. For the first time, it brings to life the story of every man trapped in Guantanamo. Who are these men and why do they continue to be held without trial? This book goes at least some way towards answering the questions that the US has so far refused to engage with. It does not make for easy reading. Human rights abuses are commonplace under a system that allows for the arrest of any non-US citizen anywhere in the world. The book covers extensive detail on how each detainee was arrested. It includes evidence of mass killings of prisoners in Afghanistan, and people being picked up in Pakistan by bounty hunters for $5000 a head. Many men were clearly not enemy combatants. Some were involved in missionary work. Some where just in the wrong place at the wrong time. The book also includes extensive allegations of torture in US Afghan prisons, as well as within Guantanamo itself. Who will speak for the 774 men who still remain in Guantanamo? This passionate and brilliantly detailed book brings their stories to the world for the first time.
A brilliant examination of Robert Mugabe dictatorship and the nature of modern tyranny, written by an award winning novelist and journalist.Christopher Hope met his first dictator when he was 6 years old. Dr Henrik Verwoerd was a neighbour of the Hope family and went on to become the architect of apartheid. He was the first, but not the last. In this remarkable book, Christopher Hope searches out the unmistakable 'perfume' that marks out a tyrant, a tyrant like Robert Mugabe. Hope though the days of Verwoerd were gone until Robert Mugabe began to mimic the old Doctor. Hope dissects the person and presumption of Mugabe, the mixture of terror and comedy that makes up his dictatorship. Furthermore Perfume of a Tyrant describes the nature of modern tyranny, its wild paranoia, its murderous conviction of righteousness, its narrow depleted vocabulary and its inability to concede power, however small. Even though modern tyranny is not exclusively Zimbabwean, African or European, in Robert Mugabe is its leading exponent
Witch hunts are the products of intense fear and paranoia and the results are often terrible. The accused in three famous witchcraft cases - in Bamberg and Wurzburg, Germany, in Loudun, France, and in Salem, Massachusetts - were assumed to be guilty without proof. Secret accusations were accepted, evidence was falsified, and extreme pressures, including torture, were used. Arguing that fear was, and still is, a prerequisite to any witch hunt, Robert Rapley shows that the current hunt for terrorists mirrors the witch crazes of the past. Rapley analyses witch hunts in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and finds many of the same elements repeated in more recent miscarriages of justice - from the Dreyfus case for treason in late nineteenth-century France, to the persecution of the Scottsboro Boys in Alabama for the gang rape of two white girls in the 1930s, to the Guildford and Maguire terrorist prosecutions in Britain in the 1970s. All three cases took place during times of extreme fear and paranoia and in all cases the accused were innocent.Today, argues Rapley, the "witch" lives on in the "terrorist." He cites as evidence Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo, the first prisons created for "witches" since Salem. In Witch Hunts he makes a compelling case that, in the wake of 9/11, witch hunts threaten today's America.
Robben Island prison in South Africa held thousands of black political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela, who opposed apartheid.
This book tells the story of three Black men--Z. K. Matthews, Nelson Mandela, and Stephen Biko--who committed their lives to win freedom for all South Africans. Using a sociopsychological retrospective, Juckes interweaves accounts of the lives of these three men with sociopolitical developments to reveal the complex interaction that occurs between social processes and individual actors, revealing how leaders come into being and how their actions influence social developments. Each man's political character captured the demands of the time and used the available resources of his age in the quest for freedom; the pressure--over time--from the activities of these three men and the movements they supported made liberation inevitable.
The people of East Timor voted overwhelmingly in August 1999 for independence and an end to Indonesian occupation. In this updated and much expanded edition of Indonesia's Forgotten War: The Hidden History of East Timor (Zed Books, rev ed 1994), John Taylor tells the story of what happened following President Suharto's overthrow. The new government conceded the right of the United Nations to organise the long delayed referendum giving the East Timorese a choice between continued association with Indonesia or independence. At the very moment the historic vote was being counted, armed gangs organised by the Indonesian military plunged the island into an orgy of killing, burning and forced flight. John Taylor analyses the world's reaction to this new genocide of the East Timorese people, the despatch of a peacekeeping force, and the prospects of independence.
Craig Murray was the United Kingdom's Ambassador to Uzbekistan until he was removed from his post in October 2004 after exposing appalling human rights abuses by the US-funded regime of President Islam Karimov. In this candid and at times shocking memoir, he lays bare the dark and dirty underside of the War on Terror. In Uzbekistan, the land of Alexander the Great and Tamburlaine, lurks one of the most hideous tyrannies on earth - one founded on cotton slavery and brutal torture. As neighbouring 'liberated' Afghanistan produces record levels of heroin, the Uzbek rulers cash in on massive trafficking. They are even involved in trafficking their own women to prostitution in the West. But this did not prevent Karimov being viewed as a key US ally in the War on Terror. When Craig Murray arrived in Uzbekistan, he was a young Ambassador with a brilliant career and a taste for whisky and women. But after hearing accounts of dissident prisoners being boiled to death and innocent people being raped and murdered by agents of the state, he started to question both his role and that of his country in so-called 'democratising' states. When Murray decided to go public with his shocking findings, Washington and 10 Downing Street reached the conclusion that he had to go. But Uzbekistan had changed the high-living diplomat and there was no way he was going to go quietly.
Kenya's Anti-Terrorism Police Unit (ATPU) is charged with preventing terrorist attacks, but in carrying out its mission the ATPU has committed a wide array of human rights abuses that violate international, regional, and domestic law. This book documents specific extrajudicial killings and disappearances to illuminate a pattern of rights abuses by the ATPU, and make recommendations for reform. Jonathan Horowitz is an associate legal officer for the Open Society Justice Initiative's National Security and Counterterrorism program. He is the author of Counterterrorism and Human Rights Abuses in Kenya and Uganda: The World Cup Bombing and Beyond.
The autonomous province of Vojvodina in Serbia is little-known in the English-speaking world, even though it is a territory of high significance for the development of Serbian national identity. Vojvodina's multi-ethnic composition and historical experience has also encouraged the formation of a distinct regional identity. This book analyses the evolution of Vojvodina's identity over time and the unique pattern of ethnic relations in the province. Although approximately 25 ethnic communities live in Vojvodina, it is by no means a divided society. Intercultural cohabitation has been a living reality in the province for centuries and this largely accounts for the lack of ethnic conflict. Vassilis Petsinis explores Vojvodina's intercultural society and shows how this has facilitated the introduction of flexible and regionalized legal models for the management of ethnic relations in Serbia since the 2000s. He also discusses recent developments in the region, most notably the arrival of refugees from Syria and Iraq, and measures the impact that these changes have had on social stability and inter-group relations in the province.
Stephen Haliczer has mined rich documentary sources to produce the most comprehensive and enlightening picture yet of the Inquisition in Spain. The kingdom of Valencia occupies a uniquely important place in the history of the Spanish Inquisition because of its large Muslim and Jewish populations and because it was a Catalan kingdom, more or less "occupied" by the despised Castilians who introduced the Inquisition. Haliczer underscores the intensely regional nature of the Valencian tribunal. He shows how the prosecution of religious deviants, the recruitment and professional activity of Inquisitors and officials, and the relations between the Inquisition and the majority Old Christian population all clearly reflect the place and the society. A great series of pogroms swept over Spain during the summer of 1391. Jewish communities were attacked and the Jews either massacred or forced to convert. More than ninety percent of the victims of the Valencian Inquisition a century later were descendants of those who chose conversion, the conversos. Haliczer argues convincingly against those who see all the conversos as "secret Jews." He finds, on the contrary, that a wide range of religious beliefs and practices existed among them and that some were even able to assimilate into Old Christian society by becoming familiares of the Inquisition itself. Nevertheless, it was controversy over the sincerity of the converted which spawned the first proposals for the establishment of a Spanish national Inquisition. That very same controversy, persisting in the writings of history, may be resolved by Haliczer's stimulating discoveries. Inquisition and Society in the Kingdom of Valencia is a major contribution to the lively field of Inquisition studies, combining institutional history of the tribunal with socioreligious history of the kingdom. The many case histories included in the narrative give both Valencian society and the Inquisition very human faces. This title is part of UC Press's Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press's mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1990.
This study explores how Japan's reputation for humanitarianism rests on the generous behaviour accorded to 70,000 Russian prisoners of war in Japan, during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), and contrasts with the brutality displayed during the Pacific War (1941-45) towards 200,000 Allied prisoners of war.;The power of the state to coerce the people, by using the reverence felt for the Emperor, enabled the Japanese to switch humanitarianism on, or off, apparently at will. This volte-face is explored in this book. Olive Checkland is the author of "Britain's Encounter with Meiji Japan".
This is an exploration of state violence which shows how the psychological and social trauma caused by violations of basic rights can be healed. The authors develop a model of trauma and healing under state terrorism based on their fieldwork with the Chilean human rights movement. It is characterized by a powerful spirit of survivor resilience and a "healing" approach which in both theory and practice understands individual suffering in a political perspective.
During and after World War II, millions of people in Central and Eastern Europe were uprooted and deported from their ancestral homelands in an unprecedented series of ethnic cleansings. The expulsion of minorities created more homogenous states than had previously existed in the region but caused massive social and psychological problems that lasted for generations. These nine case studies, written by Russian, German and Austrian scholars and based on archival findings, should shed new light on deportations and resettlement in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Germany. The introduction places forced migration throughout the region in a broad historical context.
This book proposes a new theoretical framework for the study of immigration. It examines four major issues informing current sociological studies of immigration: mechanisms and effects of international migration, processes of immigrants assimilation and transnational engagements, and the adaptation patterns of the second generation.
This important new study is an inquiry into the origins and purposes of downwardly directed violence by economic and political elites in Brazil-violence that has led to the invention and tacit approval of contemporary death squads.
Edward Alwood, a former news correspondent, traces how journalists became radicalised during the Depression era, only to become targets of Senator Joseph McCarthy and like-minded anti-Communist crusaders during the 1950s.
A former Soviet scientist and political prisoner now living in America, Yuri Tarnopolsky tells the story of his quest to understand Russia. In 1983 he was tried on charges of defaming the Soviet system: he had become a refusenik activist who defended the right to emigrate. He spent the Orwellian year of 1984 in a Siberian labor camp, and he compares Orwell's predictions with reality. As a scientist, Tarnopolsky is interested in broader facts and generalizations. He supports the view that Soviet communism was a natural continuation of Russian history. Tarnopolsky describes the pyramidal structure of Soviet society, its origin, and gives his own interpretation of the fall of the Soviet empire and the current Russian crossroads. Scenes of life in a labor camp alternate with memories of the past, essays on the totalitarian society, Russian mentality, modern Jewish problems, references to current American reality, psychology of isolation, ideology, moral choices, freedom, social and individual evolution, order and chaos, and complexity. This book is the first memoir of its kind ever to be written originally in English and addressed to the Western reader. Also being published by University Press of America, Unfinished Journey is Nancy Rosenfeld's personal story of her involvement with the campaign to free Yuri.
These essays on war, resistance and counter resistance represent an original approach to understanding how political constraints on human behavior, and the resistance movements to which these restrictions give rise, produce counter-resistant forces which represent new constraints, which in turn often generate new and innovative behaviors which sometimes create new crystallizations of cultural expression and occasionally influence institutions and traditions. This new anthology offers a unique analysis of the important role political constraints play in the production of creative thinking and the development of systematic projects aimed at human liberation. In the preface, Francis Feeley clearly states the purpose of this book, which is to demonstrate how resistance movements have often given birth to counter-resistance measures employed mostly by state agencies aimed at stifling the self-realization of certain groups and promoting the self-realization of other organized interests. The following essays are a composite of writings by political activists, poets, and academic scholars. The introduction offers a brief description of major resistance movements in the United States. This historical overview presents a context for the appearance of the 20th- century resistance movements described in the following chapters. We are alerted from the start that one of the unifying themes of these essays is the dialectical relationship between social movements and political institutions, "producing democracy within American institutions"; another theme will be how these social contradictions which generate the growth of democracy have proven time and again to operate beyond the control of capitalist interests both in France and within the United States, thereby giving rise to many species of democratic expression...Gilles Vachon's description of his childhood impressions of Paris under the German occupation offers new insights into micro-resistance at the level of alternative perceptions and subliminal communications. George Brown's contribution to the thesis of this book, although first published in 1978, is his self-conscious description of one man entering into a dialectical relationship with prison reforms, which pushed him into a deeper understanding of the injustices that he had suffered as a child and young adult growing up Black in the United States. In the third chapter of this book Francis Feeley uncovers the economic interests behind the production of political repression. His analysis of the Homeland Security Act, and the growth of surveillance and security industry that it gave rise to, supports the main thesis of this book, namely that the contradictions which generate democracy exist beyond the control, and very often beyond the apprehension, of the society in which they are created. Patrick Litsangou's essay in chapter 4 contributes to our understanding of the dialectical relationship between the mainstream media and the alternative media, in the period of the U.S. military invasion of Iraq. He illustrates in this essay how the demise of mainstream medias independence gave rise to the extraordinary success of the alternative media, as large numbers of people living within the United States vigorously struggled to stay informed, in order to understand the palpable contradictions in their lives. In the fifth chapter, Peterson Nnajiofor recounts the histories of resistance and counter resistance around the aggressive activities of US petroleum companies in the Niger Delta, where class warfare has produced strategies and counter tactics that have been evolving for decades in the relationships between the inhabitants of the region and the transnational corporations which control their political economy to the almost unimaginable detriment of the environment. The last chapter of this book is an excerpt from Professor Anthony Wilden's classic work, "Man and Woman, War and Peace, the Strategists Companion" (New York, 1987). Despite having been published more than two decades ago, this theoretical study stands as a contemporary statement on the epistemology of strategic thought. The indirect approach, described here by Wilden complements Professor Feeley's thesis that the forces of resistance and the forces of counter resistance are intimately related; that from this interrelationship new cultural expressions are created, some of which have long-term effects on the society in which they occur. The formation of a revolutionary counterculture is but one example of the effects of this power interface. As professor Wilden notes, no confrontation occurs without some structural modification taking place. The forces of order are never the same after they successfully repress the forces of change, and guerrilla warfare tactics are constantly evolving, adapting to new conditions. Professor Feeley concludes this anthology by attempting to synthesize the main ideas presented in the seven essays in this book. The main thread running through these chapters is the idea that cultural order cannot be reduced to the natural order. This idea is clearly expressed in each of the essays found in this book, and the conclusion convincingly states the view that social science, like all other cultural expressions, exists beyond "being," in the realm of "becoming."
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