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The history of the grid, the world's largest interconnected power machine that is North America's electricity infrastructure. The North American power grid has been called the world's largest machine. The grid connects nearly every living soul on the continent; Americans rely utterly on the miracle of electrification. In this book, Julie Cohn tells the history of the grid, from early linkages in the 1890s through the grid's maturity as a networked infrastructure in the 1980s. She focuses on the strategies and technologies used to control power on the grid-in fact made up of four major networks of interconnected power systems-paying particular attention to the work of engineers and system operators who handled the everyday operations. To do so, she consulted sources that range from the pages of historical trade journals to corporate archives to the papers of her father, Nathan Cohn, who worked in the industry from 1927 to 1989-roughly the period of key power control innovations across North America. Cohn investigates major challenges and major breakthroughs but also the hidden aspects of our electricity infrastructure, both technical and human. She describes the origins of the grid and the growth of interconnection; emerging control issues, including difficulties in matching generation and demand on linked systems; collaboration and competition against the backdrop of economic depression and government infrastructure investment; the effects of World War II on electrification; postwar plans for a coast-to-coast grid; the northeast blackout of 1965 and the East-West closure of 1967; and renewed efforts at achieving stability and reliability after those two events.
This book is an all-in-one resource on the development and application of variable frequency transformers to power systems and smart grids. It introduces the main technical issues of variable frequency transformers (VFT) systematically, including its basic construction, theory equations, and simulation models. Readers will then gain an in-depth discussion of its control system, operation performance, low frequency power oscillation, and technical economics, before proceeding to practical implementation and future developments. The related concepts of energy revolution, third generation grids, and power system interconnection are discussed as well. The first, comprehensive introduction to variable frequency transformers (VFT) An in-depth look at the construction of VFT, with simulations and applications Demonstrates how to assess the control system and overall system performance Analyses future developments, energy revolution and power system interconnections Variable Frequency Transformers for Large Scale Power Systems is a timely overview of the state of the art for VFT as it is increasingly adopted in smart grids. It is intended for engineers and researchers specializing in power system planning and operation, as well as advanced students and industry professionals of power engineering.
When planning an industrial power supply plant, the specific
requirements of the individual production process are decisive for
the design and mode of operation of the network and for the
selection and design and ratings of the operational equipment.
Since the actual technical risks are often hidden in the profound
and complex planning task, planning decisions should be taken after
responsible and careful consideration because of their deep effects
on supply quality and energy efficiency.
This book aims to offer a thorough study and reference textbook on electrical machines and drives. The basic idea is to start from the pure electromagnetic principles to derive the equivalent circuits and steady-state equations of the most common electrical machines (in the first parts). Although the book mainly concentrates on rotating field machines, the first two chapters are devoted to transformers and DC commutator machines. The chapter on transformers is included as an introduction to induction and synchronous machines, their electromagnetics and equivalent circuits. Chapters three and four offer an in-depth study of induction and synchronous machines, respectively. Starting from their electromagnetics, steady-state equations and equivalent circuits are derived, from which their basic properties can be deduced. The second part discusses the main power-electronic supplies for electrical drives, for example rectifiers, choppers, cycloconverters and inverters. Much attention is paid to PWM techniques for inverters and the resulting harmonic content in the output waveform. In the third part, electrical drives are discussed, combining the traditional (rotating field and DC commutator) electrical machines treated in the first part and the power electronics of part two. Field orientation of induction and synchronous machines are discussed in detail, as well as direct torque control. In addition, also switched reluctance machines and stepping motors are discussed in the last chapters. Finally, part 4 is devoted to the dynamics of traditional electrical machines. Also for the dynamics of induction and synchronous machine drives, the electromagnetics are used as the starting point to derive the dynamic models. Throughout part 4, much attention is paid to the derivation of analytical models. But, of course, the basic dynamic properties and probable causes of instability of induction and synchronous machine drives are discussed in detail as well, with the derived models for stability in the small as starting point. In addition to the study of the stability in the small, a chapter is devoted to large-scale dynamics as well (e.g. sudden short-circuit of synchronous machines). The textbook is used as the course text for the Bachelor's and Master's programme in electrical and mechanical engineering at the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Ghent University. Parts 1 and 2 are taught in the basic course 'Fundamentals of Electric Drives' in the third bachelor. Part 3 is used for the course 'Controlled Electrical Drives' in the first master, while Part 4 is used in the specialised master on electrical energy.
Electric Cables Handbook provides a comprehensive and substantial coverage of all types of energy cables----from wiring and flexible cables for general use, to distribution, transmission and submarine cables. It includes information on materials, design principles, installation, operating experience and standards, and several appendices contain extensive data tables on commonly used cable types and their properties. Electric Cables Handbook is an extensive source of up--to--date and essential information for electrical engineers, contractors, supply authorities and cable manufacturers.
The safe operation of plants is of paramount importance in the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. Best practice in process and plant safety allows both the prevention of hazards and the mitigation of consequences. Safety Technology is continuously advancing to new levels and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already successfully established as a tool to ensure the safe operation of industrial plants. With CFD tools, a great amount of knowledge can be gained as both the necessary safety measures and the economic operation of plants can be simultaneously determined. Young academics, safety experts and safety managers in all parts of the industry will henceforth be forced to responsibly judge these new results from a safety perspective. This is the main challenge for the future of safety technology. This book serves as a guide to elaborating and determining the principles, assumptions, strengths, limitations and application areas of utilizing CFD in process and plant safety, and safety management. The book offers recommendations relating to guidelines, procedures, frameworks and technology for creating a higher level of safety for chemical and petrochemical plants. It includes modeling aids and concrete examples of industrial safety measures for hazard prevention.
With the KeystonePipelinedominating the news, and America's addiction to oil showing no signs of waning, it is more urgent than ever that we reconsider our energy needs in light of economic reality. In this New York Times bestseller, Jeremy Rifkin explores how Internet technology and renewable energy are merging to create a powerful new engine of economic growth, wherein hundreds of millions of people will produce their own green energy in their homes, offices, and factories and share it with each other in an "energy Internet." This process will usher in a fundamental reordering of human relationships, from hierarchical to lateral, that will impact the way we conduct commerce, govern society, educate our children, and engage in civic life. The Third Industrial Revolution is an insider's account of the next great economic era, including a look into the personalities and players - heads of state, global CEOs, social entrepreneurs, and NGOs - who are pioneering its implementation around the world.
This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of power electronics, focusing on the switched transformer concept and phasor transformation techniques as employed in the analysis and design of power electronic circuits. Phasor transformations, as introduced in this book, make the time-varying nature of a switching converter simple and easy to handle, transforming it into an equivalent time-invariant circuit. The book starts with an introduction to the philosophy and fundamental principles of power electronics. The switched transformer concept, which is applicable to any switching converter, is introduced, and it is shown how DC-DC converters analyses are then so straightforward that very little equational manipulation is needed. Then the phasor transformation techniques are comprehensively explained over three parts. Single phase and multi-phase AC systems are dealt with through the single phase phasor transformation and circuit DQ transformation, respectively. A general unified phasor transformation is then introduced for the static and dynamic cases. The final part of the book considers current and potential extensions of the technique in various fields of application, including wireless power transfer, signal processing, power systems and renewable energy. The book avoids the piece-wise linear circuit models used in other titles, with which the mathematical results become too complicated to be used in practice. No cumbersome equations or matrix manipulations are needed with the phasor transformation techniques introduced in this book. It will be a valuable reference source for engineering students and practising researchers in power electronics and related areas.
Power Grid Complexity introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems.
Shengwei Mei is a Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Tsinghua University, China. Xuemin Zhang is a Lecturer at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Tsinghua University, China. Ming Cao is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
The modern microprocessor based electronic equipment most vulnerable to Intentional Destructive Electromagnetic Interferences (IDEI) includes High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) in all substation equipment. However, power equipment and especially transformers are also subject to the influence of HEMP. The book discusses problems and solutions for both kinds of substation equipment. Separated into eight chapters, the book covers: Technological progress and its consequences; Intentional Destructive Electromagnetic Interferences (IDEI); Methods and means of Digital Protective Relay (DPR) protection from electromagnetic pulse; Passive methods and means of DPR protection from electromagnetic pulse; Active methods and means of DPR protection from electromagnetic pulse; Tests of DPR resistance to IDEI impacts; Organizational and technical measures to protect DPR from HEMP; and Protection of power equipment and transformers from HEMP. Key features: * Practical approach focusing on technical solutions for difficult problems. * Full data on electromagnetic threats and methods of their prevention are concentrated. * Addresses a gap in knowledge in the power system industry. This book emphasizes practical recommendations on protection of power substations' electric equipment from IDEI that intended for not only staff operating electric equipment, but also for manufacturers of this equipment, specialists of designing companies, managers of electric energy industry as well as for teachers and postgraduate students.
Written with the building owner or facility manager in mind, this plain English guide to use of energy management systems and direct digital control covers the full spectrum of hardware and software currently utilized to manage energy and control inside environments in all types of buildings and facilities. Topics include hardware and system components, system architecture, networking, communication protocol, operator/machine interface, estimating costs and savings, choosing the right system, system expansion, operation and maintenance, and operator training.
The book covers recent trends in the field of devices, wireless communication and networking. It presents the outcomes of the International Conference in Communication, Devices and Networking (ICCDN 2018), which was organized by the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim, India on 2-3 June, 2018. Gathering cutting-edge research papers prepared by researchers, engineers and industry professionals, it will help young and experienced scientists and developers alike to explore new perspectives, and offer them inspirations on addressing real-world problems in the field of electronics, communication, devices and networking.
This handbook offers all aspects of Overhead Transmission Lines as the backbone of networks of electrical power. The content of the book includes, after a historical flash-back: Planning and management concepts, electrical and mechanical considerations, influences of the weather, and on the environment, detailed design of all line components, construction and maintenance aspects, line optimization, and asset management, as well as a comparison between overhead lines and underground cables. The book was written by more than 50 experts and assembled through the Cigre study committee on Overhead Lines. This guarantees valuable exchange and dissemination of unbiased information for technical but also non-technical audiences.
This book presents the design methodology and electrical diagrams of symmetrical six-phase windings, the main elements of the six-phase that are being developed to help meet the demand for high power electric drive systems that are resilient and energy efficient. Chapters are fully illustrated and include detailed tables that provide a comprehensive analysis of energy exchange processes ranging from electrical to magnetic and reveal the advantages of such windings against analogical three-phase windings.
Best practices for the design and operation of energy systems
Written by a global expert with 50 years of experience in the field, "Energy Systems Design and Operation" presents a formal, unified, and universal method for conceiving, designing, and operating the most appropriate energy system in any given situation. This authoritative guide describes how to express the scientific, technical, and economic parameters of an energy system in universal terms, and then reliably conduct its engineering and evaluation in those terms. The book also includes the algorithm and functional specification of the computer program for the unified method, application techniques, and software examples with source code.
Learn how to: Develop a plan for adopting a unified method for energy systems Gather and process required information Formalize a procedure for the conversion, exchange, and storage of energy Extend the formal procedure to a unified method for the concept, design, and operation of energy systems Meet requirements for computing with a unified method Use and benefit from a unified method with real-world demonstrations of energy system operation and design Simulate and optimize energy systems with the unified method
THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO POWER QUALITY--UPDATED AND EXPANDED
"Electrical Power Systems Quality," Third Edition, is a complete, accessible, and up-to-date guide to identifying and preventing the causes of power quality problems. The information is presented without heavy-duty equations, making it practical and easily readable for utility engineers, industrial engineers, technicians, and equipment designers. This in-depth resource addresses the essentials of power quality and tested methods to improve compatibility among the power system, customer equipment, and processes.
Coverage includes: Standard terms and definitions for power quality phenomena Protecting against voltage sags and interruptions Harmonic phenomena and dealing with harmonic distortion Transient overvoltages Long-duration voltage variations Benchmarking power quality International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards Maintaining power quality in distributed generation systems Common wiring and grounding problems, along with solutions Site surveys and power quality monitoring
The book focuses on low-carbon issues and China's economy, which is analyzed from the perspective of electricity economics. It proposes the novel concept of an "economic gene" to reflect certain characteristics of the economy. The gene mapping of China's economy has been studied based on production functions with electricity. Economic mutations have also been studied with the aim of diagnosing problems in the economy. Two such mutations have occurred in China since 1978, the most recent being in 2012 and no further mutation is expected until 2025. The book describes the inherent quality of China's economy from 2012 to 2025, and how mechanism reforms would greatly improve marginal representative factor productivity in this period. The agents response equilibrium (ARE) approach to simulate national economy, based on multi-agent technology is proposed. Another cornerstone of the model is the input-output table. Simulated input-output tables from 2011 to 2025 are provided in the book. This book provides recommendations for policy makers and advisors, and is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of economics, public policies, low-carbon development, electricity and energy. It also provides insights into China's economic development.
Detect and Mitigate Transients in Electrical Systems
This practical guide explains how to identify the origin of disturbances in electrical systems and analyze them for effective mitigation and control. "Transients in Electrical Systems" considers all transient frequencies, ranging from 0.1 Hz to 50 MHz, and discusses transmission line and cable modeling as well as frequency dependent behavior. Results of EMTP simulations, solved examples, and detailed equations are included in this comprehensive resource.
"Transients in Electrical Systems" covers: Transients in lumped circuits Control systems Lightning strokes, shielding, and backflashovers Transients of shunt capacitor banks Switching transients and temporary overvoltages Current interruption in AC circuits Symmetrical and unsymmetrical short-circuit currents Transient behavior of synchronous generators, induction and synchronous motors, and transformers Power electronic equipment Flicker, bus, transfer, and torsional vibrations Insulation coordination Gas insulated substations Transients in low-voltage and grounding systems Surge arresters DC systems, short-circuits, distributions, and HVDC Smart grids and wind power generation
This book presents comprehensive coverage of current and emerging multiple access, random access, and waveform design techniques for 5G wireless networks and beyond. A definitive reference for researchers in these fields, the book describes recent research from academia, industry, and standardization bodies. The book is an all-encompassing treatment of these areas addressing orthogonal multiple access and waveform design, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) via power, code, and other domains, and orthogonal, non-orthogonal, and grant-free random access. The book builds its foundations on state of the art research papers, measurements, and experimental results from a variety of sources.
The purpose of this book is to familiarize the reader with all aspects of electrical drives. It contains a comprehensive user-friendly introductory text.
If you want top grades and excellent understanding of electric power systems, this powerful study tool is the best tutor you can have! It takes you step-by-step through the subject and gives you accompanying related problems with fully worked solutions. You also get hundreds of additional problems to solve on your own, working at your own speed. This superb Outline clearly presents every aspect of real-world power system calculation and implementation. Famous for their clarity, wealth of illustrations and examples, and lack of dreary minutia, SchaumÕs Outlines have sold more than 30 million copies worldwide. Compatible with any textbook, this Outline is also perfect for standardized test or professional exam review.
Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Sustainable Power Systems Jose Luis Rueda-Torres, TU Delft, The Netherlands Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Loughborough University, UK Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: * Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. * Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability assessment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. * Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protection and control, controlled islanding, model predictive control, multi-agent and distributed control systems * Illustrates implementation in smart grid and self-healing applications with examples and real-world experience from the WAMPAC (Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control) scheme. * Supplementary material, including Matlab codes, available through the companion website: www.wiley.com/go/rueda-torres/dynamic Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Power Systems is a valuable reference for postgraduate students and researchers in power system stability as well as practicing engineers working in power system dynamics, control, and network operation and planning.
This SpringerBrief discusses the rise of the smart grid from the perspective of computing and communications. It explains how current and next-generation network technology and methodologies help recognize the potential that the smart grid initiative promises. Chapters provide context on the smart grid before exploring specific challenges related to communication control and energy management. Topics include control in heterogeneous power supply, solutions for backhaul and wide area networks, home energy management systems, and technologies for smart energy management systems. Designed for researchers and professionals working on the smart grid, Communication Challenges and Solutions in the Smart Grid offers context and applications for the common issues of this developing technology. Advanced-level students interested in networking and communications engineering will also find the brief valuable.
This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic mechanisms for dynamic channel redistribution. Since designing a completely secure mechanism is extremely expensive or impossible in most of distributed autonomous systems, it is more beneficial to study misbehavior of the nodes and develop light-weighted game-theoretic channel allocation mechanisms. With a mix of theoretical and hands-on information, the brief traces the concepts of game theory, the current state of spectrum allocation in wireless networks and future competition for resources. Thorough yet accessible, the content is ideal for researchers and practitioners working on spectrum redistribution. It is also a helpful resource for researchers and advanced-level students interested in game theory and wireless communications.
Power electronics and variable frequency drives are continuously developing multidisciplinary fields in electrical engineering and it is practically not possible to write a book covering the entire area by one individual specialist. Especially by taking account the recent fast development in the neighboring fields like control theory, computational intelligence and signal processing, which all strongly influence new solutions in control of power electronics and drives. Therefore, this book is written by individual key specialist working on the area of modern advanced control methods which penetrates current implementation of power converters and drives. Although some of the presented methods are still not adopted by industry, they create new solutions with high further research and application potential.
The material of the book is presented in the following three parts:
Part I: Advanced Power Electronic Control in Renewable Energy Sources (Chapters 1-4),
Part II: Predictive Control of Power Converters and Drives (5-7),
Part III: Neurocontrol and Nonlinear Control of Power Converters and Drives (8-11).
The book is intended for engineers, researchers and students in the field of power electronics and drives who are interested in the use of advanced control methods and also for specialists from the control theory area who like to explore new area of applications.
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