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World-renowned primatologist, conservationist, and humanitarian Dr. Jane Goodall's account of her life among the wild chimpanzees of Gombe is one of the most enthralling stories of animal behavior ever written. Her adventure began when the famous anthropologist Dr. Louis Leakey suggested that a long-term study of chimpanzees in the wild might shed light on the behavior of our closest living relatives. Accompanied by only her mother and her African assistants, she set up camp in the remote Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve in Tanzania. For months the project seemed hopeless; out in the forest from dawn until dark, she had but fleeting glimpses of frightened animals. But gradually she won their trust and was able to record previously unknown behavior, such as the use--and even the making-- of tools, until then believed to be an exclusive skill of man. As she came to know the chimps as individuals, she began to understand their complicated social hierarchy and observed many extraordinary behaviors, which have forever changed our understanding of the profound connection between humans and chimpanzees. "In the Shadow of Man" is "one of the Western world's great scientific achievements" (Stephen Jay Gould) and a vivid, essential journey of discovery for each new generation of readers.
All humans share certain components of tooth structure, but show variation in size and morphology around this shared pattern. This book presents a worldwide synthesis of the global variation in tooth morphology in recent populations. Research has advanced on many fronts since the publication of the first edition, which has become a seminal work on the subject. This revised and updated edition introduces new ideas in dental genetics and ontogeny and summarizes major historical problems addressed by dental morphology. The detailed descriptions of 29 dental variables are fully updated with current data and include details of a new web-based application for using crown and root morphology to evaluate ancestry in forensic cases. A new chapter describes what constitutes a modern human dentition in the context of the hominin fossil record.
This book takes a new approach to understanding primate conservation research, adding a personal perspective to allow readers to learn what motivates those doing conservation work. When entering the field over a decade ago, many young primatologists were driven by evolutionary questions centered in behavioural ecology. However, given the current environment of cascading extinctions and increasing threats to primates we now need to ensure that primates remain in viable populations in the wild before we can simply engage in research in the context of pure behavioural ecology. This has changed the primary research aims of many primatologists and shifted our focus to conservation priorities, such as understanding the impacts of human activity, habitat conversion or climate change on primates. This book presents personal narratives alongside empirical research results and discussions of strategies used to stem the tide of extinction. It is a must-have for anyone interested in conservation research.
Reconstructing the paleobiology of fossil non-human primates, this book is intended as an exposition of non-human primate evolution that includes information about evolutionary theory and processes, paleobiology, paleoenvironment, how fossils are formed, how fossils illustrate evolutionary processes, the reconstruction of life from fossils, the formation of the primate fossil record, functional anatomy, and the genetic bases of anatomy. Throughout, the emphasis of the book is on the biology of fossil primates, not their taxonomic classification or systematics, or formal species descriptions. The author draws detailed pictures of the paleoenvironment of fossil primates, including contemporary animals and plants, and ancient primate communities, emphasizing our ability to reconstruct lifeways from fragmentary bones and teeth, using functional anatomy, stable isotopes from enamel and collagen, and high resolution CT-scans of the cranium. Fossil Primates will be essential reading for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in evolutionary anthropology, primatology and vertebrate paleobiology.
Living across Africa and the Caribbean, this widely dispersed primate population must adapt to different environmental challenges. How do members of the genus Chlorocebus live in desert-like conditions and in areas with freezing temperatures and snow in winter? This book examines the ways these primates adapt genetically, hormonally, physically and behaviourally to their changing landscapes. It features summary chapters for major topics such as behavioural ecology, life history, taxonomy, genetics and ethnoprimatology. Shorter essays supplement the work, with experts detailing their particular research on these primates. The combination of scholarship provides both a comprehensive view of this adaptable genus while enabling the reader to gain depth in specific topics. Developed from a symposium, this book combines decades of experience working with savanna monkeys into a tangible resource, for students and researchers in primatology as well as evolutionary and behavioural studies.
Current dominant thinking and practice in the private and public sectors asserts that peoples' development needs are in conflict with, or mutually exclusive to, the need to conserve the biosphere on which we depend. Consequently, we are asked to either diminish development in the name of conservation or diminish conservation in the name of development. Efforts to identify complementary objectives, or mutually acceptable trade-offs and compromises indicate, however, that this does not always have to be the case. This first volume in the State of the Apes series draws attention to the evolving context within which great ape and gibbon habitats are increasingly interfacing with extractive industries. Intended for a broad range of policy makers, industry experts, decision makers, academics, researchers and NGOs, these publications aim to influence debate, practice and policy, seeking to reconcile ape conservation and welfare, and economic and social development, through objective and rigorous analysis.
Nearly half the world's primate species use flooded habitats at one time or another, from swamp-going Congo gorillas and mangrove-eating proboscis monkeys, to uacaris in Amazonian riverside forests. This first-ever volume on the subject brings together experts from around the world in a ground breaking volume spanning fossil history, current biology and future research and conservation priorities. Flooded habitats are a vital part of tropical biology, both for the diversity of the species they house, and the complexity of their ecological interactions, but are often completely overlooked. This book will set the stage for a new wave of research on primates in these extraordinarily productive and highly threatened areas, and is ideal for researchers and graduate students in primatology, zoology, ecology, and conservation.
As our closest primate relatives, chimpanzees offer tantalizing clues about the behavior of early human ancestors. This book provides a rich and detailed portrait of chimpanzee social life in the wild, synthesizing hundreds of thousands of hours of research at seven long-term field sites. Why are the social lives of males and females so different? Why do groups of males sometimes seek out and kill neighboring individuals? Do chimpanzees cooperate when they hunt monkeys? Is their vocal behaviour like human speech? Are there different chimpanzee 'cultures'? Addressing these questions and more, Adam Arcadi presents a fascinating introduction to the chimpanzee social universe and the challenges we face in trying to save this species from extinction. With extensive notes organized by field site and an appendix describing field methods, this book is indispensable for students, researchers, and anyone else interested in the remarkable and complex world of these intelligent apes.
Tucked into one of the most beautiful and conflicted regions of the world are the last of the mountain gorillas. These apes have survived centuries of human encroachment into their habitat and range and decades of intense conflict and violence. The remaining 720 mountain gorillas exist in a fragile habitat, nestled in an area torn by human interests and needs for land, water, and minerals.
With captivating photography and the most recent scientific research, Mountain Gorillas takes you deep into the montane rain forests of Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo to reveal the complex story of the mountain gorillas of the Virunga Volcanos and Bwindi. Gene Eckhart and Annette Lanjouw reveal how humankind affects the gorillas and their habitat, detail the innovative conservation and education efforts undertaken by governments and nongovernmental organizations, and explain how ecotourism and other conservation-focused enterprises support efforts to protect the two mountain gorilla populations.
This perfect blend of intimate photography, thought-provoking scholarship, and engaging stories demonstrates the inexorable ties among the animals, environment, and peoples of the region, and makes clear why the continued existence of the Virunga and Bwindi gorillas is so important. Mountain Gorillas features stunning photos and four appendices documenting key biological and ecological information, habitat vegetation, milestones in mountain gorilla conservation, and travel information.
The Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques holds a distinguished place in primatology as one of the longest continuously studied non-human primate populations in the world. The resulting long-term data provide a unique resource for researchers, allowing them to move beyond cross-sectional studies to tackle larger issues involving individual, matrilineal and group histories. This book presents an overview of the scope and magnitude of research topics and management efforts that have been conducted on this population for several decades, covering not only the original troop living around Kyoto, Japan, but also the two subgroups that were translocated to Texas, USA and Montreal, Canada. The chapters encompass topics including life history, sexual, social and cultural behaviour and ecology, giving an insight into the range of current primatological research. The contributors underscore the historic value of the Arashiyama macaques and showcase new and significant research findings that highlight their continuing importance to primatology.
Infrastructure development in Africa and Asia is expanding at breakneck speed, largely in biodiversity-rich developing nations. The trend reflects governments' efforts to promote economic growth in response to increasing populations, rising consumption rates and persistent inequalities. Large-scale infrastructure development is regularly touted as a way to meet the growing demand for energy, transport and food - and as a key to poverty alleviation. In practice, however, road networks, hydropower dams and 'development corridors' tend to have adverse effects on local populations, natural habitats and biodiversity. Such projects typically weaken the capacity of ecosystems to maintain ecological functions on which wildlife and human communities depend, particularly in the face of climate change. This title is also available as Open Access via Cambridge Core.
The dwarf and mouse lemurs of Madagascar are two very species-rich lemur genera, yet there is a relative paucity of information on this primate family in published literature. In this first ever treatment of the Cheirogaleidae, international experts are brought together to review and integrate our current knowledge of the behaviour, physiology, ecology, genetics and biogeography of these species. A wide range of direct and indirect research methods that are currently used to study these cryptic nocturnal solitary foragers are described. By uniting often disparate research on captive and free-ranging taxa and synthesising recent methodological advances, this book provides new insights that will encourage further studies of this fascinating primate family. This synthesis will provide an incentive for more integrative studies of the Cheirogaleidae in captivity and in the wild, enabling the impacts of deforestation and other factors to be identified and directions for future conservation efforts to be established.
"Planet Without Apes" demands that we consider whether we can live with the consequences of wiping our closest relatives off the face of the Earth. Leading primatologist Craig Stanford warns that extinction of the great apes chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans threatens to become a reality within just a few human generations. We are on the verge of losing the last links to our evolutionary past, and to all the biological knowledge about ourselves that would die along with them. The crisis we face is tantamount to standing aside while our last extended family members vanish from the planet.
Stanford sees great apes as not only intelligent but also possessed of a culture: both toolmakers and social beings capable of passing cultural knowledge down through generations. Compelled by his field research to take up the cause of conservation, he is unequivocal about where responsibility for extinction of these species lies. Our extermination campaign against the great apes has been as brutal as the genocide we have long practiced on one another. Stanford shows how complicity is shared by people far removed from apes shrinking habitats. We learn about extinction s complex links with cell phones, European meat eaters, and ecotourism, along with the effects of Ebola virus, poverty, and political instability.
Even the most environmentally concerned observers are unaware of many specific threats faced by great apes. Stanford fills us in, and then tells us how we can redirect the course of an otherwise bleak future."
Gorillas explores the fascinating world of primates. The title includes information about classification, habitats, adaptations, food chains, behavior, and intelligence. Readers will also learn about the threats these creatures face, how they can help protect them and their habitats, and what the future holds for them.
On July 12, 1969, Ruth Davis, a young American volunteer at Dr. Jane Goodall's famous chimpanzee research camp in the Gombe Stream National Park of Tanzania, East Africa, walked out of camp to follow a chimpanzee into the forest. Six days later, her body was found floating in a pool at the base of a high waterfall. With careful detail, The Ghosts of Gombe reveals for the first time the full story of day-to-day life in Goodall's wilderness camp--the people and the animals, the stresses and excitements, the social conflicts and cultural alignments, and the astonishing friendships that developed between three of the researchers and some of the chimpanzees--during the months preceding that tragic event. Was Ruth's death an accident? Did she jump? Was she pushed? In an extended act of literary forensics, Goodall biographer Dale Peterson examines how Ruth's death might have happened and explores some of the painful sequelae that haunted two of the survivors for the rest of their lives.
A unique, beautifully illustrated exploration of our fascination with our closest primate relatives, and the development of primatology as a discipline This insightful work is a compact but wide-ranging survey of humankind's relationship to the great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans), from antiquity to the present. Replete with fascinating historical details and anecdotes, it traces twists and turns in our construction of primate knowledge over five hundred years. Chris Herzfeld outlines the development of primatology and its key players and events, including well-known long-term field studies, notably the pioneering work by women such as Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, and Birute Galdikas. Herzfeld seeks to heighten our understanding of great apes and the many ways they are like us. The reader will encounter apes living in human families, painting apes, apes who use American Sign Language, and chimpanzees who travelled in space. A philosopher and historian specializing in primatology, Herzfeld offers thought-provoking insights about our perceptions of apes, as well as the boundary between "human" and "ape" and what it means to be either.
The first edition of Frans de Waal's "Chimpanzee Politics" was acclaimed not only by primatologists for its scientific achievement but also by politicians, business leaders, and social psychologists for its remarkable insights into the most basic human needs and behaviors. Twenty-five years later, this book is considered a classic. Featuring a new preface that includes recent insights from the author, this anniversary edition is a detailed and thoroughly engrossing account of rivalries and coalitions--actions governed by intelligence rather than instinct. As we watch the chimpanzees of Arnhem behave in ways we recognize from Machiavelli (and from the nightly news), de Waal reminds us again that the roots of politics are older than humanity.
Primates communicate with each other using a wide range of signals: olfactory signals to mark territories, screams to recruit help while fighting, gestures to request food and facial expressions to initiate play. Primate Communication brings together research on all forms of interchange and discusses what we know about primate communication via vocal, gestural, facial, olfactory and integrated multimodal signals in relation to a number of central topics. It explores the morphological, neural and cognitive foundations of primate communication through discussion of cutting-edge research. By considering signals from multiple modalities and taking a unified multimodal approach, the authors offer a uniquely holistic overview of primate communication, discussing what we know, what we don't know and what we may currently misunderstand about communication across these different forms. It is essential reading for researchers interested in primate behaviour, communication and cognition, as well as students of primatology, psychology, anthropology and cognitive sciences.
The contributors to this volume present research concerning the
cognitive structures and development of nonhuman primates from a
cognitive psychological perspective. The authors and researchers
come to this project from the study of humans and apply their
knowledge to research on nonhumans. For professional, researchers,
and students in cognitive, developmental, and experimental
Monkey see, monkey do or does he? Can the behavior of non-human primates their sociality, their intelligence, their communication really be chalked up to simple mimicry? Emphatically, absolutely: no. And as famed primatologist Julia Fischer reveals, the human bias inherent in this oft-uttered adage is our loss, for it is only through the study of our primate brethren that we may begin to understand ourselves. An eye-opening blend of storytelling, memoir, and science, Monkeytalk takes us into the field and the world's primate labs to investigate the intricacies of primate social mores through the lens of communication. After first detailing the social interactions of key species from her fieldwork from baby-wielding male Barbary macaques, who use infants as social accessories in a variety of interactions, to aggression among the chacma baboons of southern Africa and male-male tolerance among the Guinea baboons of Senegal Fischer explores the role of social living in the rise of primate intelligence and communication, ultimately asking what the ways in which other primates communicate can teach us about the evolution of human language. Funny and fascinating, Fischer's tale roams from a dinner in the field shared with lionesses to insights gleaned from Rico, a border collie with an astonishing vocabulary, but its message is clear: it is humans who are the evolutionary mimics. The primate heritage visible in our species is far more striking than the reverse, and it is the monkeys who deserve to be seen. "The social life of macaques and baboons is a magnificent opera," Fischer writes. "Allow me now to raise the curtain on it."
Lemurs explores the fascinating world of primates. The title includes information about classification, habitats, adaptations, food chains, behavior, and intelligence. Readers will also learn about the threats these creatures face, how they can help protect them and their habitats, and what the future holds for them.
The theme of this book is our primate biology, or who we are as a continuum of our animal ancestors. Professor Sharpes first uses comparative animal studies and recent finds in archaeology to outline this argument and theme, and thus provides evidence for human animal origins. He then reveals how our emotions and behaviors influence our lives as demonstrated through the major social sciences - the philosophy of our cognitive functioning, our psychology, and our religious beliefs as consumers (the economy), as national citizens (political science, government), and as world citizens (climate change). The idea is to examine the human condition from more than one discipline, and to synthesise research studies that analyse human behavior that is socially similar to other primate behavior. What makes this book unique is its interdisciplinary investigation of human primates from the variety of the social sciences. He has conducted similar research in two previous books, The Evolution of the Social Sciences (2009) and Outcast and Heretics, Profiles in Independent Thought and Courage (2007). The target audience is the articulate and literate community in the broad field of the social sciences, a book appropriate for a general audience, and students in all the social science specialties, including interdisciplinary studies such as courses in evolution, climate change, politics, anthropology, psychology and the life sciences.
Spider monkeys are one of the most widespread New World primate genera, ranging from southern Mexico to Bolivia. Although they are common in zoos, spider monkeys are traditionally very difficult to study in the wild, because they are fast moving, live high in the canopy and are almost always found in small subgroups that vary in size and composition throughout the day. The past decade has seen an expansion in research being carried out on this genus and this book is an assimilation of both published and previously unpublished research. It is a comprehensive source of information for academic researchers and graduate students interested in primatology, evolutionary anthropology and behavioral ecology and covers topics such as taxonomy, diet, sexuality and reproduction, and conservation.
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