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Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 31 discusses chidren's understanding of photographs as spatial and expressive representations, school relationships and their influence on behavior, literacy and the role of letter names, emotion, morality, and self, working memory in infancy, differentiated sense of the past and the future, cognitive flexibility and language abilities, understanding children with medical and physical disorders, bio-ecological environment and development, and early literacy.
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Each chapter provides a thoughtful integration of a body of work.
Increasingly, psychologists are becoming aware of sensitivity needs
with respect to treating patients from differing cultures. Culture
can play an important role both in what a patient discloses about
themselves, how likely they are to follow a therapist's advice, and
whether specific therapies are likely to be effective for them.
Following on the heels of Tseng's "Handbook of Cultural Psychiatry"
comes this "Clinical Application of Cultural Psychiatry."
The first title to be published in the "BRAT Series on Clinical Psychology", this book presents a critical analysis of the theories and empirical evidence to date regarding the origins of phobias and anxiety disorders, and the reasons why more women than men suffer from them. The book moves from a discussion of non-specific temperament to specific risk factors for each anxiety disorder, assuming a hierarchical aetiological model throughout. At each level of analysis, the issue of gender differences is addressed. For example, broad temperamental factors such as traits of negative affectivity and poor emotional regulation are reviewed in terms of their relevance to the group of disorders with which anxiety disorders tend to cluster, such as depression and substance abuse. Biological contributions are covered, along with early life experiences including parenting styles and expectations, and early stressors. The components of anxiety - hypervigilance, threat-laden belief systems and avoidant style - are presented as being common across the anxiety disorders and self-perpetuating. Types of ongoing life experiences that influence the development of one type of anxiety disorder over another are reviewed. Each anxiety disorder is then addressed in detail after considering general principles of fear acquisition and persistence.
The chapters in this collection address a variety of concerns in organizational theory, ranging from the evolution of organizations and cross-cultural analyses of managerial behavior to the micro-sociology of knowledge brokering within organizations and the etiology of organizational messes. Swaminathan, examines resource partitioning theory, an important theoretical perspective in population ecology. The next three chapters, broadly construed, address issues of organizational innovation, learning, and adaptation in complex environments. The next contribution, by John Carroll, Jenny Rudolph, and Sachi Hatakenaka examines how high-hazard organizations learn from experience. As with all organizations, high-hazard organizations such as nuclear power plants and chemical plants attempt to learn from experience in order to improve performance and, of course, to avoid catastrophic failure. Unlike many other kinds of organizations, however, failure to learn from prior experience-especially with respect to learning effectively from errors and mishaps-can prove extremely costly and even fatal. Hence, these organizations must balance between learning and control, and must do so under conditions of considerable oversight and scrutiny. provocative analysis of the role disorganization plays in organizational life. The two following chapters in this volume provide important overviews of theory and research on classic phenomena within organizational theory, followed by original theoretical syntheses. Robert Baron's chapter then undertakes a fresh and useful examination of the burgeoning literature on entrepreneurship and the two final chapters in the volume examine essential issues related to our understanding of organizations and the cultural environments in which they are embedded.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 30 discusses early recall memory, balance and motor learning, sexual selection, emotion-related regulation, maternal sensitivity and attachment, and influences of friends.
In 1998, approximately 30 million people worldwide were living with
HIV/AIDS, about 5 million of whom became infected that year. The
epidemic continues to expand, with an estimated doubling time of 10
years, making AIDS the leading infectious cause of death ahead of
tuberculosis and malaria. Even in the U.S.A. where the death rate
from AIDS is declining as a result of effective drug therapies, HIV
infection rates continue to climb in several population groups. The
prevalence of AIDS among people over the age of 50 is steadily
increasing, and most older people are unprepared to address it for
a number of reasons, including the widespread discomfort with
matters sexual and homosexual and the belief that elderly people
are not sexually active and therefore not at risk.
This text provides an overview of the literature on bilingual sentence processing from a psycholinguistic and linguistic perspective. Research focuses on both the visual and spoken modalities, including specific areas of research interest including an integrated review of methods and the utility of those methods which allows readers to have the appropriate background and context for the chapters that follow. Next, issues surrounding acquisition and pragmatic usage are covered with a focus on code-switching and the actual parsing of sentence material both within and between languages. Third, issues regarding memory, placing language in a broader context, are explored as the connection between language, memory, and perception is reviewed for bilingual speakers. Finally, all of this work has direct implications for educational settings-specifically issues surrounding the assessment of proficiency, the development and nature of dominance, and the acquisition of reading skills and reading comprehension for bilingual speakers.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 29 discusses working memory, parent-adolescent relationships, maternal responsiveness and early language acquisition, early knowledge acquisition, schooling as a cultural process, and pre-adolescent peer relations.
This book discusses research and theory on how motivation changes
as children progress through school, gender differences in
motivation, and motivational differences as an aspect of ethnicity.
Motivation is discussed within the context of school achievement as
well as athletic and musical performance.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has perplexed clinicians and researchers for many years. Despite recent advances in our understanding of and ability to treat this debilitating problem, many people with OCD do not benefit or benefit only marginally from existing treatments. Newer approaches and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of OCD are needed. One such approach that has shown considerable promise in recent years is cognitive therapy. Recent studies have found cognitive therapy to be an effective treatment for OCD, and research on cognitive theory for OCD is rapidly expanding. This volume assembles nearly all of the major investigators responsible for the development of cognitive therapy (and theory) for OCD, as well as other major researchers in the field to write about cognitive phenomenology, assessment, treatment, and theory related to OCD. Each chapter of the book is written by an expert in the area. The first section of the book describes the domains of cognition in OCD and the subsequent section outlines measurement strategies where the efforts of an international working group of scholars to develop measures of OCD cognition are described. Reviews of OCD cognitions in OCD spectrum disorders and in specific populations (for example, the elderly and children) are reviewed in following sections. Finally, the role of these cognitions and cognitive processes in treatment is described.
This 23rd volume of Research in Organizational Behavior presents papers on a variety of topics in the field of organizational behaviour, with the twin goals of consolidating prior research and breaking new theoretical ground.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 28 discusses variability in reasoning, dual processes in memory, reasoning, and cognitive neuroscience, language and cognition, and adolescent depression.
Healthcare is now practiced in a different financial and delivery
system than it was two decades ago. Currently managed care defines
what is treated, how, by whom and for what reimbursement. Mental
health professionals have been greatly impacted by these changes to
their practice, and yet, there is little understanding of exactly
what it is and where it is going. The present volume explores these
issues, prospects and opportunities from the vantage of mental
health /medical professionals and managed care executives who are
in the very process of implementing changes to the existing system
of managed care. Behavioral healthcare will be integrated into
medical practice in the future for sound clinical and economic
reasons. The present volume, edited by four prominent mental health
professionals provides a roadmap of the emerging directions
integrated behavioral healthcare is taking and lays out the steps
the mental health professional needs to take--in training, and
modifying her/his clinical practice--to adapt to the new system of
Innovations in Adolescent Substance Abuse Interventions focuses on developmentally appropriate approaches to the assessment, prevention, or treatment of substance use problems among adolescents. Organized into 16 chapters, this book begins with an assessment of adolescent substance use; theory, methods, and effectiveness of a drug abuse prevention approach; and problem behavior prevention programming for schools and community groups. Some chapters follow on the community-, family- and school-based interventions for adolescents with substance use problems. Other chapters explain psychopharmacological therapy; the assertive aftercare protocol for adolescent substance abusers; and twelve-step-based interventions for adolescents.
The Handbook of Cultural Health Psychology discusses the influence
of cultural beliefs, norms and values on illness, health and health
care. The major health problems that are confronting the global
village are discussed from a cultural perspective. These include
heart disease, cancer, HIV/AIDS, pain, and suicide. The cultural
beliefs and practices of several cultural groups and the unique
health issues confronting them are also presented. The cultural
groups discussed include Latinos, Aboriginal peoples, people of
African heritage, and South Asians. The handbook contributes to
increased personal awareness of the role of culture in health and
illness behavior, and to the delivery of culturally relevant health
The Disorders is a derivative volume of articles pulled from the
award-winning Encyclopedia of Mental Health, providing A-to-Z
coverage of the many disorders afflicting mental health patients,
including alcohol problems, Alzheimer's disease, depression,
epilepsy, gambling, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias, and
"I know that I am doing therapy correctly and well, so why aren't
some of my clients changing?" "Why do I feel anxious when I think
about my next session with that difficult client?" When
psychotherapy stalls, it's time to try new ideas. The authors'
experience with difficult clients -- uncooperative, hostile,
uncommitted to change -- gave them a new perspective on working
with therapeutic impasses. Papers describing Cognitive Appraisal
Therapy have appeared in many books and journals, and now for the
first time these ideas are compiled into a single volume. Heavily
influenced by the psychotherapy integration movement and in a
radical departure from conventional cognitive-behavior therapy,
they see motivation in terms of affect and attachment rather than
cognitive schemas, and resistance and setbacks as the result of
emotional setpoints. Practitioners from all corners of the
psychotherapy landscape will be able to integrate Cognitive
Appraisal Therapy into their therapeutic approaches to help them
work successfully and confidently with difficult clients as
individuals, as couples and in groups.
This book is about using the Internet as a teaching tool. It starts
with the psychology of the learner and looks at how best to fit
technology to the student, rather than the other way around. The
authors include leading authorities in many areas of psychology,
and the book takes a broad look at learners as people. Thus, it
includes a wide range of materials from how the eye "reads" moving
graphs on a Web page to how people who have never met face-to-face
can interact on the Internet and create "communities" of learners.
The book considers many Internet technologies, but focuses on the
World Wide Web and new "hybrid" technologies that integrate the Web
with other communications technologies. This book is essential to
researchers is psychology and education who are interested in
learning. It is also used in college and graduate courses in
departments of psychology and educational psychology. Teachers and
trainers at any level who are using technology in their teaching
(or thinking about it) find this book very useful.
Educators and educational psychologists recognize transfer of
learning as perhaps the most significant issue in all fields of
instruction. Transfer of learning cuts across all educational
domains, curricula, and methods. Despite its importance, research
and experience clearly show that significant transfer of learning
in either the classroom or in everyday life seldom occurs. Simply
put, transfer of learning is illustrated by the phrases "It reminds
me of..." or "It's like..." or "It's the same as...." This book
addresses the fundamental problem of how past or current learning
is applied and adapted to similar and/or new situations. Based on a
review of the applied educational and cognitive research, as well
as on the author's teaching experience with transfer of learning,
this book presents a new framework for understanding and achieving
transfer of learning.
Treating Adult Children of Alcoholics showcases the first
collection of treatment chapters devoted entirely to a systematic
behavioral analysis of drinking and nondrinking offspring of
alcoholic families. The author identifies the functional and
behavioral characteristics that make up the adult children of
alcoholics (ACOA) syndrome. This compendium combines current
innovations in behavioral medicine with multi-componential
interventions shown effective with the variety of disorders evident
in this patient population. This handbook for practitioners is
richly laced with case examples and addresses the needs of
therapists seeking fast, effective and proven treatments for
longstanding clinical symptoms of children of alcoholics.
Volume 22 of Research in Organizational Behavior continues the tradition of innovation and theoretical development with eight diverse papers. Most of these papers present theory and propositions that make linkages between different levels of analysis.
There has been a major shift in the way we conceptualize and
provide services to children and adolescents with mental health
needs. We are moving away from the traditional disorder-oriented
model of treatment to a child-centered, family-focused service
delivery system that mandates mental health services in the context
of the child's family and social ecology. This new system of care
has spawned many variations of the model, including wraparound
services, multisystemic treatment (MST), futures planning, and
Hope has previously been a construct more of interest to philosophy
and religion than in psychology. New research has shown, however,
that hope is closely related to optimism, feelings of control, and
motivation toward achieving one's goals. The Handbook of Hope
presents a comprehensive overview of the psychological inquiry into
hope, including its measurement, its development in children, how
its loss is associated with specific clinical disorders, and
therapeutic approaches that can help instill hope in those who have
lost theirs. A final section discusses hope in occupational
applications: how the use of hope can make one a better coach,
teacher, or parent.
The study of language has increasingly become an area of interdisciplinary interest. Not only is it studied by speech specialists and linguists, but by psychologists and neuroscientists as well, particularly in understanding how the brain processes meaning. This book is a comprehensive look at sentence processing as it pertains to the brain, with contributions from individuals in a wide array of backgrounds, covering everything from language acquisition to lexical and syntactic processing, speech pathology, memory, neuropsychology, and brain imaging.
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