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The study of language has increasingly become an area of interdisciplinary interest. Not only is it studied by speech specialists and linguists, but by psychologists and neuroscientists as well, particularly in understanding how the brain processes meaning. This book is a comprehensive look at sentence processing as it pertains to the brain, with contributions from individuals in a wide array of backgrounds, covering everything from language acquisition to lexical and syntactic processing, speech pathology, memory, neuropsychology, and brain imaging.
How does a therapist go about starting a psychotherapy group? In
this practical guide the reader finds the elements, both
attitudinal and procedural, needed for starting a therapy group.
The processes of obtaining referrals, selecting clients, orienting
and educating clients, and preparing clients for psychotherapy are
covered in clear step-by-step procedures. Tables and charts are
provided for the necessary record keeping. The initial chapters
detail the important stages leading up to the first therapy
session. Eminent group therapists present special chapters on
various therapeutic approaches. The topics of terminating groups
and the role of the therapist close this pragmatic guide to therapy
The Psychoanalytic Study of Lives Over Time: Clinical and Research Perspectives on Children Who Return to Treatment in Adulthood is a landmark volume that addresses an essential clinical question: what is the nature of the process and outcome of clinical work with children? An internationally renowned group of analytic clinicians and clinician-researchers all comment on three fascinating child analytic situations where the patient returned to treatment in adulthood.
Psychologists receive several years of specialized study on the brain, behavior, and mental health, but despite the fact that over half ultimately end up in administrative or managerial roles, they receive no formalized training in the skills necessary to be successful in these roles. This book is the first of its kind to target the managerial and administrative skills necessary for the mental health professional. The book discusses practical information such as how to deal with personnel issues, how to set budgets and allocate resources, and how to document progress and maintain schedules in the domains of private practice, hospitals, government agencies, and universities. Chapter authors are well-known and successful psychologists within these settings and include Raymond Fowler, past president of the American Psychological Association.
Cocaine abuse remains a major public health problem and contributes
to many of our most disturbing social problems, including the
spread of infectious disease, crime, violence, and neonatal drug
exposure. Cocaine abuse results from a complex interplay of
behavioral, pharmacological, and neurobiological determinants.
While a complete understanding of cocaine abuse is currently beyond
us, significant progress has been made in preclinical research on
fundamental determinants of this disorder. These advances are
critically reviewed in the first section of this volume. Important
advances also have been made in characterizing the clinical
pharmacology of cocaine, and those advances have been extended to
understanding individual vulnerability to cocaine abuse,
development of effective treatments, and discussions of policy.
Those advances are critically reviewed in the third section of this
volume. Contributors to the book were selected because of their
status as internationally recognized leaders in their respective
areas of scientific expertise. Moreover, each is a proponent of the
importance of a rigorous, interdisciplinary scientific approach to
effectively addressing the problem of cocaine abuse. As such, this
volume offers a coherent, empirically-based conceptual framework
for addressing cocaine abuse that has continuity from the basic
research laboratory through the clinical and policy arenas. Each of
the specific chapters is sufficiently detailed, in-depth and
current to be valuable to informed readers with specific interests
while also offering a comprehensive overview for those who might be
less informed or have broader interests in cocaine abuse. This
blend of critical review within each chapter with an explicitly
conceptual continuity that spans all of the chapters makes this
volume a unique contribution to cocaine abuse in particular and
substance abuse in general.
The world within reach is characterised to a large extent by our
ability to sense objects through touch. Research into the sensation
of touch has a long history. However, it is only relatively
recently that significant advances have been made in understanding
how information about objects we touch is represented in both the
peripheral and central divisions of the nervous systems. This
volume draws together the increasing body of knowledge regarding
the mechanisms underlying tactile sensation and how they relate to
Authored by the foremost researchers in cognitive psychology, the handbook Memory is an outstanding reference tool for all cognitive psychologists and interested professionals. Memory provides an excellent synopsis of the research and literature in this field, including comprehensive chapters on basic theory. The text discusses storage and access of information in both short-term and long-term memory; how we control, monitor, and enhance memory; individual differences in mnemonic ability; and the processes of retrieval and retention, including eye-witness testimony, and training and instruction.
This book turns the tables on the way prejudice has been looked at
in the past. Almost all of the current information on prejudice
focuses on the person holding prejudiced beliefs. This book,
however, provides the first summary of research focusing on the
intended victims of prejudice. Divided into three sections, the
first part discusses how people identify prejudice, what types of
prejudice they encounter, and how people react to this prejudice in
interpersonal and intergroup settings. The second section discusses
the effect of prejudice on task performance, assessment of ones own
abilities, self-esteem, and stress. The final section examines how
people cope with prejudice, including a discussion of coping
mechanisms, reporting sexual harassment, and how identity is
related to effective coping.
This book takes as a starting point, John Dewey's article, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology," in which Dewey was calling for, in short, the utilisation of systems theories within psychology, theories of behaviour that capture its nature as a vastly-complex dynamic coordination of nested coordinations. This line of research was neglected as American psychology migrated towards behaviourism, where perception came to be thought of as being both a neural response to an external stimulus and a mediating neural stimulus leading to, or causing a muscular response. As such, perception becomes a question of how it is the perceiver creates neural representations of the physical world. Gestalt psychology, on the other hand, focused on perception itself, utilising the term Phenomenological Field; a term that elegantly nests perception and the organism within their respective, as well as relative, levels of organisation. With the development of servo-mechanisms during the second world war, systems theory began to take on momentum within psychology, and then in the 1970s William T Powers brought the notion of servo-control to perception in his book, "Behavior: The Control of Perception." Since then, scientists have come to see nature not as linear chain of contingent cause-effect relationships, but rather, as a non linear, unpredictable nesting of self referential, emergent coordinations, best described as Chaos theory. The implications for perception are astounding, while maintaining the double-aspect nature of perception espoused by the Gestalt psychologists. In short, system theories model perception within the context of a functioning organism, so that objects of experience come to be seen as scale-dependent, psychophysically-neutral, phenomenological transformations of energy structures, the dynamics of which are the result of evolution, and therefore, "a priori" to the individual case. This "a priori," homological unity among brain perception and world is revealed through the use of systems theories and represents the thrust of this book. All the authors are applying some sort of systems theory to the psychology of perception. However, unlike Dewey we have close to a century of technology we can bring to bear upon the issue. This book should be seen as a collection of such efforts.
This book aims to highlight the vigour, diversity and insight of the various cognitive science perspectives on personality and emotion. It aims also to emphasise the rigorous scientific basis for research to be found in the integration of experimental psychology with neuroscience, connectionism and the new evolutionary psychology. The contributors to this book provide a wide-ranging survey of leading-edge research topics. It is divided into three parts, on general frameworks for cognitive science, on perspectives from emotion research, and on perspectives from studies of personality traits.
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and
theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology,
ranging from classical and instrumental conditions to complex
learning and problem solving. This guest-edited special volume is
devoted to current research and discussion on associative versus
cognitive accounts of learning. Written by major investigators in
the field, topics include all aspects of causal learning in an open
forum in which different approaches are brought together.
The field of neuropsychology has grown rapidly in recently years.
New developments have been of interest across disciplines to
cognitive, clinical, and experimental psychologists as well as
How do animals learn? By what means can animals be conditioned? This volume of the acclaimed Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Second Edition, reviews such basic models as Pavlovian conditioning as well as more modern models of animal memory and social cognition. Sure to represent a benchmark of a vast literature from diverse disciplines, this reference work is a useful addition to any library devoted to animal learning, conditioning behavior, and interaction.
Correspondence analysis is a multivariate method for exploring cross-tabular data by converting such tables into graphical displays, called 'maps', and related numerical statistics. Since cross-tabulations are so often produced in the course of social science research, correspondence analysis is valuable in understanding the information contained in these tables. This book fills the gap in the literature between the theory and practice of this method. Various theoretical aspects are presented in a language accessible to both social scientists and statisticians and a wide variety of applications are given which demonstrate the versatility of the method to interpret tabular data in a unique graphical way. The first part of the book deals with basic concepts of correspondence analysis and related methods for analyzing cross-tabulations. It then looks at the multivariate case when there are several variables of interest, including the relationship to cluster analysis, factor analysis and reliability of measurement. Applications to longitudinal data: event history data, panel data and trend data are demonstrated. Finally, it examines further applications in the social sciences, including the analysis of textual data, lifestyle data and data on product descriptions in marketing research. Correspondence Analysis in the Social Sciences gives lecturers, researchers and students a detailed introduction to help them teach the method and apply it to their own research problems. Researchers in psychology, sociology, business, marketing and statistics will all find this book particularly useful.
The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together
elements of cognitive psychology, mathematics, perception,
linguistics, and artificial intelligence. Given this breadth,
textbooks have had difficulty providing balanced coverage-most
resort to disjointed edited treatises that prove difficult to
This work is for upper-level undergraduates, academics and professionals in neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.;It identifies how excitory and inhibitory messages in the human nervous system combine and coordinate to affect attention, cognition, memory, and language. Communication within the nervous systems involves the excitation and inhibition of neurons. How these processes interact to affect cognition and behavioral performance has been an area of ongoing investigation that is once again at the forefront of cognitive research. This volume brings together cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists to identify the neural evidence for inhibitory mechanisms in cognitive processing and discusses how these inhibitory mechanisms subsequently affect cognition and behavior.
A dynamical system refers to any fluctuating system in which the elements interact in complex, often non-linear ways to form coherent patterns. Many systems once thought to be chaotic are in fact dynamical systems whose interaction of elements and feedback processes are only now beginning to be understood. Hence dynamical systems is sometimes referred to as "chaos theory." This metatheory has proved useful in understanding phenomenon in meteorology, population biology, chemistry, statistical mechanics, economics, and cosmology. The book demonstrates how the dynamical system perspective can be brought to bear on social psychological research in explaining such complex phenomenon as social relations, attitudes, social cognition, and interpersonal behavior.
This volume contains contributions illuminating much of the current research occurring in the area of visual perception. It encompasses all aspects of vision and its relationship to vehicle design, including both the internal and external design of the vehicle as well as the perceptual and cognitive limitations of the vehicle controller.
Issues specifically related to the vision of the driver are initially addressed and the problems of vehicle glazing and light transmission are considered. The major topics of visual perception and vehicle control are covered in three related chapters encompassing: collision avoidance, vehicle signalling systems and the acquisition of visual information. Moving on to the external environment and its relationship to vision, traffic signs are discussed. Approaches to the measurement and modelling of driver behaviour are dealt with and the area of telerobotic control of vehicles is considered. In-vehicle displays are covered in two related chapters addressing issues of visual workload and effects of display type.
It is hoped that the book, contributed to by experts from a diverse range of disciplines, including optometrists, psychologists, physiologists, human factors specialists and engineers, will stimulate the progression of research in this area, as effectively as the preceding volumes did.
It has become a truism that the frozen optical diagram representation of vision is the worst possible picture of the way in which we visually interact with the environment. Even apart from our reaction to moving targets by pursuit movements, our visual behaviour can be said to be characterised by eye movements. We sample from our environment in a series of relatively brief fixations which move from one point to another in a series of extremely rapid jerks known as saccades. Many questions arising from this characteristic of vision are explored within this volume, including the question of how our visual world maintains its perceptual stability despite the drastic changes in input associated with these eye movements.
Dementia diseases are the most common cause of severe mental deterioration in the world today, and expected changes in the population structure will inevitably result in a gradually increasing occurrence of dementia. One of the primary symptoms of dementia diseases is severe memory dysfunction. Knowledge about the ways in which dementia diseases affect memory increases our knowledge about the relationship between brain structures and memory functions, is imperative for early clinical diagnosis, and forms a basis for sound behavioral and pharmacological intervention. While the memory impairment in dementia has been known for more than 2000 years, the nature of this impairment is not yet completely understood. Research in this area has not, until quite recently, utilized theoretical and methodological advances from basic cognitive psychology. This volume gives a comprehensive treatment of this new and increasingly developing field of inquiry.
The study and application of spatial information systems have been
developed primarily from the use of computers in the geosciences.
These systems have the principle functions of capturing, storing,
representing, manipulating, and displaying data in 2-D and 3-D
worlds. This book approaches its subject from the perspectives of
informatics and geography, presenting methods of conceptual
modeling developed in computer science that provide valuable aids
for resolving spatial problems. This book is an essential textbook
for both students and practitioners. It is indispensable for
academic geographers, computer scientists, and the GIS
Considerable evidence exists that visual sensory information is analyzed simultaneously along two or more independent pathways. In the past two decades, researchers have extensively used the concept of parallel visual channels as a framework to direct their explorations of human vision. More recently, basic and clinical scientists have found such a dichotomy applicable to the way we organize our knowledge of visual development, higher order perception, and visual disorders, to name just a few. This volume attempts to provide a forum for gathering these different perspectives.
This collection of 33 papers represents the most current thinking and research on the study of cognitive processing in bilingual individuals. The contributors include well-known figures in the field and promising new scholars, representing four continents and work in dozens of languages. Instead of the social, political, or educational implications of bilingualism, the focus is on how bilingual people (mostly adults) think and process language.
This volume is sponsored by Division 9 of the American
Psychological Association: The Society for the Psychological Study
of Social Issues.****This is an essential reference book for any
social scientist or student who uses measuresof attitude or
personality in his or her research. The earlier version, published
twenty years ago, was to be found on the shelf of virtually
everyone who worked in the field.
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