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This book is unique in that it gives equal weight to the
psychological and neurological approaches to the study of cognitive
deficits in patients with brain lesions. The result is a balanced
and comprehensive analysis of cognitive skills and abilities that
departs from the more usual syndrome approach favored by
neurologists and the anti-localizationist perspective of cognitive
This volume is an historically based critical evaluation of Freud's personality theory. In it the observations Freud made are described and the theoretical ideas he put forward for explaining them are set out. The adequacy of Freud's explanations are judged against the logical and scientific standards of Freud's own time. The historical perspective will give the reader a sound basis on which to make a judgement about psycho-analysis as a method of investigation and a theory of personality as well as a sense of what Freud was about from Freud's own standpoint. Freud's endeavour is sited in the psychological and psychiatric context of the time, a period not previously given the critical attention it warrants. All of Freud's important assumptions and characteristic modes of thought are to be found in this formative period. The placement also brings out more clearly the basis of a number of the unresolved problems of contemporary psycho-analytic theory, such as the place of affect and the instinctual drives, the role of the ego, and the basis of treatment.
Many studies in cognitive psychology have provided evidence of systematic deviations in cognitive task performance relative to that dictated by optimality, rationality, or coherency. The texts in this volume present an account of research into the cognitive biases observed on various tasks: reasoning, categorization, evaluation, and probabilistic and confidence judgments. The authors have attempted to discern the contribution of the study of bias to our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in each case, rather than proposing an inventory of the different types of biases. A special section has been devoted to studies on the correction of biases and cognitive aids.
Left-handedness has been shown to be a possible marker for various psychological and physical abnormalities. This book presents evidence by a number of researchers who evaluate whether there are indeed differences between left- and right-handers which extend into the broader psychological and physiological realms. Several chapters show that left-handedness is found in unexpectedly high proportions in populations that suffer from various immune deficiency diseases, in alcoholics, dyslexics, mental retardates, psychopaths and other clinical groups. The book indicates why left-handedness should be a marker for such conditions. The genetic and environmental pressures on handedness are explored. A model for pathological left-handedness is presented, along with some interesting data which suggests that left-handedness may be associated with reduced life-span. Finally, several chapters discuss the implications of handedness patterns in non-clinical populations.
Since the end of the sixties, Piagetian general theory with its inherent power of unification has gradually given way to a multitude of more specific models which is in evidence today. In this volume the authors concentrate on three perspectives namely cognitive, perceptuo-motor and neuropsychological development and attempt to coordinate these traditionally separated views. Good illustrations of these theoretical connections can be found in different chapters although the persistent isolation of these three domains still remains. However the authors believe efforts in developmental psychology must continue in the direction of domain interaction, for theoretical concepts as well as methodological tools.
This book reviews current theories and research on adolescent development and their implications for education. It is organized around the theme of the adolescent as decision-maker, and covers areas of normal development that are crucial for the transition to independence. The issues raised by the thoughtful reviews will stimulate discussion and debate and will provide new perspectives on adolescence.
Individuals from diverse disciplines, including neurology, physiology, psychology, mathematics, and engineering have contributed to this volume. Their scientific investigations of volitional action are part of the resurgence of interest in the psychology and physiology of volition which has taken place in recent years. The book comprises a significant sample of their observations, both rational and empirical, which have new practical implications for our understanding of human conduct. The book was designed to serve a threefold purpose: a) to consolidate the gains of the various scholars, relatively isolated in their respective disciplines, b) to foster and help focus future research on conation and self-control and c) to provide practitioners in applied psychology with a broad-based tutorial.
A selection of 15 papers on choice modeling are presented in this volume. These papers result from research in the social and behavioral sciences and in economics. The models, some deterministic, some probabilistic, represent recent developments in the tradition of Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement, Coombs' unfolding theory and multidimensional scaling. The theoretical contributions and several applications to voting behaviour, consumer research and preference rankings show the important progress made in psychological choice modeling during the last few years.
This book contains a number of chapters on the control and execution of skilled movements, as well as more general chapters on theoretical issues in skilled performance. The contributors have summarised their most recent research, and general themes and issues are presented in discussion chapters at the end of each section, thus providing a good general summary of the kind of research and theoretical frameworks developing in this area. The first section is concerned with the theoretical issues of programming and co-ordination. Issues raised in the second section are basic to much of the research reviewed in the volume. This section summarises the various theoretical positions in the recent debates on the role of cognitive processes in motor control and the usefulness of the ``psychomotor'' approach, and contains chapters based on individual papers which present relevant empirical findings. The third section deals with the learning and performance of skilled movements, containing papers with practical implications for everyday skills. The final section contains chapters on cognitive processes in skilled performance.
How is existing knowledge reconciled with new information in the
mind of a young child, as compared to that of a more sophisticated
The major focus of this book is on the differences between ecological approaches to action (`action theories'), and theories on motor control and learning couched in terms of information processing (`motor theories'). Proponents of both approaches express their views in Part 1 and the differences between the approaches are further analysed. Part 2 presents empirical studies, while in Part 3, methodological, philosophical and scientific implications are discussed and the possibility of a solution is considered.
Real advances are not made in blind alleys (or culs-de-sac). In Social Psychology, as in every branch of science, the paths which appear to offer progress do not always result in theoretical elegance. Certain basic problems persistently defy final solution. This volume surveys the foundations and methods of Social Psychology with the aim of identifying ways out of the research maze. It examines the history and traditions of the field, looks at methodology and conceptual schemes, and discusses the actual research methods used.
This volume is the outcome of an international symposium held in Berlin, FRG, which brought together researchers in the field of infant development. The contributors are from Europe and North America, and have as their primary professional interest either pediatrics, biology or psychology. These fields, in spite of common involvement and large overlap, still have to overcome communication problems and differences in scientific approaches. The emphasis of this book is on the efforts of the participants towards reaching a mutual understanding. In spite of disciplinary diversity, the papers in this book complement each other, and set the scene for future multidisciplinary research and exchange in the field of infant development.
Spatial Neglect is one of the few areas in Neuropsychology where clinicians, psychologists and animal experimenters have succeeded in adopting a common language. The result of interaction between these three approaches has been some important new advances, which are presented in this volume. Apart from its clinical significance in neuropsychology, Spatial Neglect raises important questions in the field of behavioral neurosciences. In this volume, three aspects are examined: a) normal subjects, where new findings on spatial behavior are described. b) brain-lesioned subjects, where the classical studies on neglect are reconsidered in the light of new findings. c) animals, where new experimental situations allow a deeper understanding of the neural substrate.
The main purpose of this book is to address the statistical issues
for integrating independent studies. There exist a number of papers
and books that discuss the mechanics of collecting, coding, and
preparing data for a meta-analysis, and we do not deal with these.
Volume 38 of the "Advances in Child Development and Behavior"
series is concerned with the development of memory in the first
years of life. It covers an introduction to normative development
of memory during this period andan introduction of a means of
assessing memory in preverbal infants--namely, elicited
imitation.Three chapters each concern a special population in which
we have reason to believe the development of memory will be
affected due to compromised hippocampal development as a result of
maternal gestational diabetes, preterm birth, early deprivation
resulting from institutional (orphanage) care, and abuse and/or
neglect by the caregiver.
"Advances in Experimental Social Psychology "continues to be one of
the most sought after and most often cited series in this field.
Containing contributions of major empirical and theoretical
interest, this series represents the best and the brightest in new
research, theory, and practice in social psychology.
This scholarly work is the most comprehensive existing resource on human physical appearance-how people s outer physical characteristics and their inner perceptions and attitudes about their own appearance (body image) affect their lives. The encyclopedia s 117 full-length chapters are composed and edited by the world s experts from a range of disciplines-social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. The extensive topical coverage in this valuable reference work includes: (1) Important theories, perspectives, and concepts for understanding body image and appearance; (2) Scientific measurement of body image and physical attributes (anthropometry); (3) The development and determinants of human appearance and body image over the lifespan: (4) How culture and society influences the meanings of human appearance; (5) The psychosocial effects of appearance-altering disease, damage, and visible differences; (6) Appearance self-change and self-management; (7) The prevention and treatment of body image problems, including psychosocial and medical interventions. Chapters are written in a manner that is accessible and informative to a wide audience, including the educated public, college and graduate students, and scientists and clinical practitioners. Each well-organized chapter provides a glossary of definitions of any technical terms and a Further Reading section of recommended sources for continued learning about the topic.
Available online via ScienceDirect or in a limited-release print
The Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance is a unique
reference for a growing area of scientific inquiry. It brings together in one source the research from
experts in a variety of fields examining this psychological and sociological phenomenon. The breadth of
topics covered, and the current fascination with this subject area ensure this reference will be of interest
to researchers and a lay audience alike."
The book includes an examination of sources of law important to
addiction and its treatment. The foundations for forensic work in
professional legal testimony is explored (e.g., legal system, case
law precedent, statutes governing addictions, civil and criminal
procedures). The science of addiction is featured including the
biology of addiction, addiction as a brain disease, responsibility
vs. loss of control, development of addictions, and the role of
genetics and environment. Drug testing, its uses with forensic
populations, what the tests show and do not show, controversies in
using tests in the general population also receives extensive
treatment. Addiction and mental illness in forensic populations is
highlighted for addiction treatment and continuing care. Case
studies and landmark cases illustrate the role of alcohol, drug
use, and addictions in legal decisions.
This book is divided into five sections dealing with various fundamental issues in current research: attention, information processing and eye movement control; the role of phonology in reading; syntax and discourse processing and computational models and simulations. Control and measurement of eye movements form a prominent theme in the book. A full understanding of the where and when of eye movement control is a prerequisite of any complete theory of reading, since it is precisely at this point that perceptual and cognitive processes interact.
Amongst the 'hot topics' included are the relation between
parafoveal and foveal visual processing of linguistic information,
the role of phonology in fluent reading and the emergence of
statistical 'tuning' approaches to sentence parsing.
Also discussed in the book are three attempts to develop
quantitative models of reading which represent a significant
departure in theory-building and a quantum step in the maturation
of reading research.
Much of the work reported in the book was first presented at the
5th European Workshop on Language Comprehension organised in April
1998 which was held at the CNRS Luminy Campus, near Marseilles. All
contributions summarise the state-of-the-art in the relevant areas
of reading research.
This serial was established under the editorship of Dr. Norman R. Ellis in 1966. As a result of his editorial effort and the contributions of many authors, the serial is now recognized as the area's best source of reviews of behavioral research on mental retardation. From its inception, active research scientists and graduate students in mental retardation have looked to this serial as a major source of critical reviews of research and theory in the area.
Morality in context is a timely topic. A debate between
philosophers and social scientists is a good way to approach it.
Why is there such a booming interest in morality and why does it
focus on context? One starting point is the change in the
sociostructural and sociocultural conditions of modern societies.
This involves change in the empirical conditions of moral action
and in the social demand on morality.
Volume 34 of the Advances in Child Development and Behavior series
is divided into eight components that highlight some of the most
recent research in developmental and educational psychology.
What factors affect creativity and the generation of creative images? What factors affect the ability to reinterpret those images? Research described in this book indicates that expectations constrain both of these attributes of creativity. Characteristics of the imagined pattern, such as cohesiveness or its psychological goodness, also affect image generation and reinterpretation. Other evidence indicates that images can be combined mentally to yield new, manipulable composites. Cognitive models encompass the research and extend it to fields as diverse as architecture, music, and problem solving.
Each chapter in this book is written by, and devoted to the original work of a leading researcher in his or her own field. The book presents an integrative approach to the psychological study of time in an attempt to bring to light similarities between bodies of research which have been developed independently within different theoretical frameworks - from Piaget's structuralist-organismic model, to information processing approaches. The chapters are organized in a life-span perspective, with different chapters focusing on different age-levels. It includes analyses of time perception in infancy, temporal systems in the developing language, time conception, time measurement and time reading in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as various models of time perception in the adult, both normal and abnormal. A rich concept such as time sheds light on a wide variety of major topics in psychology; the book will be of value to cognitive, developmental and educational psychologists, as well as to psycholinguists.
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