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This volume contains selected and edited papers from the 7th European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM 7) held in Durham, UK on August 31-September 3 1993. The volume is organized as follows: - Invited Lectures, Pursuit and Co-Ordination, Saccade and Fixation Control, Oculomotor Physiology, Clinical and Medical Aspects of Eye Movements, Eye Movements and Cognition, Eye Movements and Language and finally, Displays and Applications
The pre-eminent 19th century British ethicist, Henry Sidgwick once
This book celebrates two triumphs in modern psychology: the
successful development and application of a solid measure of
general intelligence; and the personal courage and skills of the
man who made this possible - Arthur R. Jensen from Berkeley
Social and emotional aspects of schooling and the learning
environment can dramatically affect one's attention, understanding,
and memory for learning. This topic has been of increasing interest
in both psychology and education, leading to an entire section
being devoted to it in the third edition of the "International
Encyclopedia of Education."Thirty-three articles from the
Encyclopedia form this concise reference which focuses on such
topics as social and emotional development, anxiety in schools,
effects of mood on motivation, peer learning, and friendship and
Given medical advances and greater understanding of healthful
living habits, people are living longer lives. Proportionally
speaking, a greater percentage of the population is elderly.
Despite medical advances, there is still no cure for dementia, and
as elderly individuals succumb to Alzheimer's Disease or related
dementia, more and more people are having to care their elderly
parents and /or siblings. Profiles in Caregiving is practical
source of information for anyone who teaches caregiving, acts as a
caregiver, or studies caregiving.
Most students in training to become teachers, psychologists, physicians, and social workers as well as many practicing professionals in these disciplines do not get the opportunity to fully understand and appreciate the circumstances of children, parents, and teachers who have had to cope and adapt to childhood disorder. Most professionals in the field of childhood disorders are well trained in assessment and treatment methods and are aware of the clinical, theoretical, and empirical foundations of the work they do. In their training, they get some experience in diagnosing the educational, psychological, social, and medical problems of children through their supervised clinical internships. In their training and in their professional practice they get to interview, discuss, consult and collaborate with children and their families regarding developmental issues and treatment plans, however, they rarely get an opportunity to fully realize and understand what it is like to have a disorder and what it is like to be a mother, or father, or teacher of children with disorders.
This book provides an opportunity for students in training and
professionals in the field to gain some awareness of the life
journeys of some exceptional children, their families and their
Is it possible to ban unwanted thoughts from consciousness? According to the literature on thought suppression, the answer is no. In the 1980s, Wegner and colleges demonstrated that the average person cannot prevent a trivial thought like that of a polar bear from entering consciousness approximately seven times in a five minute period. This experimental finding was followed by a substantial number of replications. This book provides an up-to-date overview of the thought suppression literature. First, similarities and differences between suppression, repression, and dissociation are discussed. Methodological issues are then considered. Finally, the clinical applications of the thought suppression literature are discussed. Although there are numerous conditions to which the phenomenon of suppression can be applied, obsession and traumatic recollection are the main applications. In addition to offering an overview of the literature, this book links the thought suppression paradigm to other research fields, such as directed forgetting and repressive coping. Furthermore, it discusses the phenomenon of thought suppression in the light of broader theories such as the cognitive theory of obsession, and the ego depletion hypothesis. Clinical implications and directions for future research are offered.
Advances in the Study of Behavior, Volume 29 continues to serve
scientists across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Focusing on new
theories and research developments with respect to behavioral
ecology, evolutionary biology, and comparative psychology, these
volumes foster cooperation and communications in these dense
This collection of 14 original articles teaches readers how to
conduct qualitative research. Instead of characterizing and
justifying certain methods, the contributors show by means of
actual research studies what assumptions, procedures, and dilemmas
they encountered. Fischer's introduction, which emphasizes the
practical nature of qualitative research and the closing chapter,
which uses a question-and-answer format to investigate, among other
subjects, what is scientific about qualitative research, are
complemented by a glossary and other features that increase the
book's utility and value.
Historical analysis reveals that perceptual theories and models are doomed to relatively short lives. The most popular contemporary theories in perceptual science do not have as wide an acceptance among researchers as do some of those in other sciences. To understand these difficulties, the authors of the present volume explore the conceptual and philosophical foundations of perceptual science. Based on logical analyses of various problems, theories, and models, they offer a number of reasons for the current weakness of perceptual explanations. New theoretical approaches are also proposed. At the end of each chapter, dicussants contribute to the conclusions by critically examining the authors' ideas and analyses.
Time-to-contact is the visual information that observers use in fundamental tasks such as landing an airplane or hitting a ball. Time-to-contact has been a hot topic in perception and action for many years and although many articles have been published on this topic, a comprehensive overview or assessment of the theory does not yet exist. This book fills an important gap and will have appeal to the perception and action community. The book is divided into four sections. Section one covers the foundation of time-to-contact, Section two covers different behavioral approaches to time-to-contact estimation, Section three focuses on time-to-contact as perception and strategy, and Section four covers time-to-contact and action regulation.
Thiscollection of 58 articles from therecently-published third
edition of the INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION focus on
learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation,
and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive
psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory,
categorization, etc. Most books in the area either focus on one
subtopic in-depth (e.g. an entire book on memory) or cover the
gamut of subjects in a series of long, technical handbook-like
chapters. This concise reference offers researchers and professors
teaching in the area a new take on the material that is
comprehensive in breadth, but lighter in depth - focusing on main
findings, established facts, and minimizing the amount of space
taken up by large, multi-volume references.
The book brings together research that investigates how people
experience products: durable, non-durable, or virtual. In contrast
to other books, the present book takes a very broad, possibly
all-inclusive perspective, on how people experience products. It
thereby bridges gaps between several areas within psychology (e.g.
perception, cognition, emotion) and links these areas to more
applied areas of science, such as product design, human-computer
interaction and marketing.
This book is a new interdisciplinary work which presents the
proceedings of the third international conference on Vision in
Vehicles, the aim of which was to provide an international forum
for the exchange of information on current work on all aspects of
vision and its relationship to vehicle design. This includes both
the internal and external design of the vehicle and its
environmental displays, as well as the perceptual and cognitive
capabilities of the vehicle controllers.
Autism spectrum disorder has received increasing research in recent
years, with more information on assessment and treatment than can
be readily assimilated from primary literature by clinicians.
Clinical Assessment and Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders
summarizes evidence-based assessments and intervention for Autism
across the life-span, providing clinicians with a practical
overview of how best to assess and treat this disorder. The book
begins with a discussion of what warrants a determination of being
"evidence based" and a description of the disorder from a life span
perspective. The book also provides a chapter on differential
diagnosis of autism relative to other disorders. What follows are
separate sections on assessment and intervention. These chapters
discuss first how to assess and then separately how to treat
behavioral problems, communication and social skills issues,
academic and vocational skills, and the use of pharmacology and an
assessment of possible pharmacological effects. Intended for
practitioners assessing and treating children with developmental
delays, the book provides clinicians with best practices for
assessing and treating delays associated with autism.
"Advances in the Study of Behavior" was initiated over 40 years ago to serve the increasing number of scientists engaged in the study of animal behavior. That number is still expanding. This thematic volume, "Vocal Communication in Birds and Mammals, "makes another important "contribution to the development of the field" by presenting theoretical ideas and research to those studying animal behavior and to their colleagues in neighboring fields.
This work offers information on recent advances in the psychology of learning and motivation. Among the topics covered are the deriving of categories to achieve goals, the application of category knowledge in unsupervised domains and spatial mental models.
The ABCs of Learning Disabilities, Second Edition, discusses major
research findings on learning disabilities in children, adolescents
and adults in language, memory, social skills, self-regulation,
reading, mathematics, and writing, with an additional chapter on
assessment. This concise primer is intended for use as an
undergraduate introductory text to the field. Written with an
evenness of tone, breadth, and depth, the conveys an engaging style
meant to encourage the beginning student to identify the big
picture and to be interested in conceptual issues as well as
Anomia is the inability to access spoken names for objects, most
often associated with the elderly or those with brain damage to the
left hemisphere. Anomia offers the state-of-the-art review of
disorders of naming, written by acknowledged experts from around
the world, approached from both clinical and theoretical
viewpoints. Goodglass, known around the world for his research in
aphasia and speech pathology, edits this first book devoted
exclusively to naming and its disorders. Wingfield is known for his
classic studies of lexical processing in aphasic and normal
speakers. The book includes comprehensive literature reviews, a
summary of relevant research data, as well as astudy of recent
advances in cognitive analysis and anatomic findings. Anomia is an
immensely useful work for all those involved in the study of
language, particularly those in cognitive neuroscience, neurology,
speech pathology, and linguistics.
The aim of Advances in the Study of Behavior is to serve scientists engaged in the study of animal behavior, including psychologists, neuroscientists, biologists, ethologists, pharmacologists, endocrinologists, ecologists, and geneticists. Articles in the series present critical reviews of significant research programs with theoretical syntheses, reformulation of persistent problems, and/or highlighting new and exciting research concepts. Volume 35 is an eclectic volume that includes the mechanisms and evolution of arthropod and anuran communal sexual displays, a functional analysis of feeding, the sexual behavior and breeding system of tufted capuchin monkeys, acoustic communication in noise, ethics and behavioral biology, prenatal sensory ecology and experience, conflict and cooperation in chimpanzees, and the tradeoffs in the adaptive use of social and asocial learning.
The objective of the series has always been to provide a forum in which leading contributors to an area can write about significant bodies of research in which they are involved. The operating procedure has been to invite contributions from interesting, active investigators, and then allow them essentially free rein to present their perspectives on important research problems. The result of such invitations over the past two decades has been collections of papers which consist of thoughtful integrations providing an overview of a particular scientific problem. The series has an excellent tradition of high quality papers and is widely read by researchers incognitive and experimental psychology. The volume presents research ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Topics covered fall within a wide range of disciplines from neuroscience to artificial intelligence.
Zuckerman received his Ph.D. in psychology from New York
University, Graduate School of Arts and Science in 1954 with a
specialization in clinical psychology. After graduation, he worked
for three years as a clinical psychologist in state hospitals in
Norwich, Connecticut and Indianapolis, Indiana. While in the latter
position the Institute for Psychiatric Research was opened in the
same medical center where he was working as a clinical
psychologist. He obtained a position there with a joint appointment
in the department of psychiatry. This was his first
interdisciplinary experience with other researchers in psychiatry,
biochemistry, psychopharmacology, and psychology.
His first research areas were personality assessment and the
relation between parental attitudes and psychopathology. During
this time, he developed the first real trait-state test for
affects, starting with the Affect Adjective Check List for anxiety
and then broadening it to a three-factor trait-state test including
anxiety, depression, and hostility (Multiple Affect Adjective Check
List). Later, positive affect scales were added.
Toward the end of his years at the institute, the first reports
of the effects of sensory deprivation appeared and he began his own
experiments in this field. These experiments, supported by grants
from NIMH, occupied him for the next 10 years during his time at
Brooklyn College, Adelphi University, and the research labs at
Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. This last job was
his second interdisciplinary experience working in close
collaboration with Harold Persky who added measures of hormonal
changes to the sensory deprivation experiments. He collaborated
with Persky in studies of hormonal changes during experimentally
(hypnotically) induced emotions.
During his time at Einstein, he established relationships with
other principal investigators in the area of sensory deprivation
and they collaborated on the book Sensory Deprivation: 15 years of
research edited by John Zubek (1969). His chapter on theoretical
constructs contained the idea of using individual differences in
optimal levels of stimulation and arousal as an explanation for
some of the variations in response to sensory deprivation. The
first sensation seeking scale (SSS) had been developed in the early
1960's based on these constructs.
At the time of his move to the University of Delaware in 1969,
he turned his full attention to the SSS as the operational measure
of the optimal level constructs. This was the time of the drug and
sexual revolutions on and off campuses and research relating
experience in these areas to the basic trait paid off and is
continuing to this day in many laboratories. Two books have been
written on this topic: Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level
of Arousal, 1979; Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of
Sensation Seeking, 1994. Research on sensation seeking in America
and countries around the world continues at an unabated level of
journal articles, several hundred appearing since the 1994 book on
The theoretical model of sensation seeking changed as a
consequence of research on the biological correlates of sensation
seeking which included biochemical as well as psychophysiological
variables. Genetic studies also indicated that sensation seeking
was a major trait with a strong genetic/ biological basis.
Zuckerman and his colleagues conducted research on the
psychophysiological correlates of sensation seeking. One of these
areas, augmenting/reducing of the cortical evoked potential, has
provided a well replicated model of brain functioning in high and
low sensation seekers, and Siegel has extended this into a model
for sensation seeking in cats and rats. This animal model provides
a link between sensation seeking and behavioral, genetic,
physiological, and biochemical bases for the trait in other
species. Investigators at other universities, Bardo at the
University of Kentucky and LeMoal and Simon at the University of
Bordeaux, have used the sensation seeking model to investigate the
psychobiological basis of novelty seeking in rats.
Zuckerman's interest in the biological basis of the trait of
sensation seeking broadened into a more general interest in the
biological bases of personality, culminating in his book:
"Psychobiology of Personality," 1991 and many book chapters and
articles on the subject. His perspective in the area was broadened
by sabbaticals spent with leaders in the field in England: Hans
Eysenck, Jeffrey Gray, and Robert Plomin.
More recent research attempted to place sensation seeking within the context of new structural models for personality traits. Factor analytic studies showed that a combined factor of impulsivity and sensation seeking formed one of five, robust and replicable factors of personality. Research on this new measure of the basic trait is ongoing.
This is a resource for professionals involved in determining the
driving capacity of individuals with neurological involvement and
or trauma. While much work has been completed in this new and
growing field, this is the first attempt to bring together clinical
work on assessing driving capacity for different clinical
populations and conditions. Specific topics include, traumatic
brain injury, stroke, dementia, normal aging, medications,
retraining, interventions, medical conditions, legal issues,
practical issues, assessment instruments, simulators, research and
epidemiology. Each chapter will address clinically relevant issues
specific to the clinical population. This comprehensive compilation
of driving assessment of cognitively compromised populations is the
first of its kind and Dr. Schultheis is regarded as a leader in the
For centuries, scholars have debated the causes of aggression and
the means to reduce its occurrence. Human Aggression brings
together internationally recognized experts discussing the most
current psychological research on the causes and prevention of
aggression. Scholars, policy makers, practitioners, and those
generally concerned with the growing issue of aggression find this
a much needed reference work. Topics include how aggression is
related to the usage of drugs, how temperature affects aggression,
the effect of the mass media on aggression, violence by men against
women, and the treatment of anger/aggression in clinical settings.
The book also provides a comprehensive review of theory and
methodology in the study of aggression.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 29 discusses working memory, parent-adolescent relationships, maternal responsiveness and early language acquisition, early knowledge acquisition, schooling as a cultural process, and pre-adolescent peer relations.
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