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Perceptual and Cognitive Development illustrates how the
developmental approach yields fundamental contributions to our
understanding of perception and cognition as a whole. The book
discusses how to relate developmental, comparative, and
neurological considerations to early learning and development, and
it presents fundamental problems in cognition and language, such as
the acquisition of a coherent, organized, and shared understanding
of concepts and language. Discussions of learning, memory,
attention, and problem solving are embedded within specific
accounts of the neurological status of developing minds and the
nature of knowledge.
The Third Edition builds upon the previous edition to provide a comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date introduction to the area of thought processes in normal human adults. The major topics covered are: thinking directed at solving well-defined problems, and less directed forms of thinking, such as daydreaming, and creative thinking. These topics are predominantly discussed from an information processing approach, which is currently dominant in cognitive psychology. Also included in this text are historical background, progress achieved within the information processing approach to thinking, and promising directions for future research.
Cognitive Ecology identifies the richness of input to our sensory evaluations, from our cultural heritage and philosophies of aesthetics to perceptual cognition and judgment. Integrating the arts, humanities, and sciences, Cognitive Ecology investigates the relationship of perception and cognition to wider issues of how science is conducted, and how the questions we ask about perception influence the answers we find. Part One discusses how issues of the human mind are inseparable from the culture from which the investigations arise, how mind and environment co-define experience and actions, and how culture otherwise influences cognitive function. Part Two outlines how philosophical themes of aesthetics have guided psychological research, and discuss the physical and aesthetic perception of music, film, and art. Part Three presents an overview of how the senses interact for sensory evaluation.
Recently, studies on aging processes and age-related changes in behavior have been expanding considerably, probably due to the dramatic changes observed in the demographics. This increase in the overall age and proportion of elderly people has heightened the severity of problems associated with the safety and well-being of elderly persons in everyday life. Many researchers working on motor control have thus focused more intensely on the effects of age on motor control. This new avenue of research has led to programs for alleviating or delaying the specific sensory-motor limitations encountered by the elderly (e.g. falls) in an attempt to make the elderly more autonomous.
The aggregation of studies from different perspectives is often fascinating, especially when the same field can serve as a common ground between researchers. Nearly all contributors to this book work on sensory-motor aging; they represent a large range of affiliations and backgrounds including psychology, neurobiology, cognitive sciences, kinesiology, neuropsychology, neuropharmacology, motor performance, physical therapy, exercise science, and human development. Addressing age-related behavioral changes can also furnish some crucial reflections in the debate about motor coordination: aging is the product of both maturational and environmental processes, and studies on aging must determine how the intricate interrelationships between these processes evolve. The study of aging makes it possible to determine how compensatory mechanisms, operating on different subsystems and each aging at its own rate, compensate for biological degenerations and changing external demands. This volume will contribute to demonstrating that the study of the aging process raises important theoretical questions.
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and
theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology,
ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex
learning and problem solving. Each chapter provides a thoughtful
integration of a body of work. Volume 33 includes in its coverage
early symbol understanding and its use, word identification reflex,
and prospective memory.
Given medical advances and greater understanding of healthful
living habits, people are living longer lives. Proportionally
speaking, a greater percentage of the population is elderly.
Despite medical advances, there is still no cure for dementia, and
as elderly individuals succumb to Alzheimer's Disease or related
dementia, more and more people are having to care their elderly
parents and /or siblings. Profiles in Caregiving is practical
source of information for anyone who teaches caregiving, acts as a
caregiver, or studies caregiving.
Component cognitive processes have played a critical role in the development of experimental aging research and theory in psychology as attested by articles published on this theme. However, in the last five to ten years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of articles attempting to isolate a single factor (or small subset of factors) responsible for age differences in information processing. This view of aging is frequently termed the complexity model of the generalized slowing model, the primary assumption being that age differences in cognition are due simply to a relatively larger performance decrement on the part of older adults (compared to younger adults) as task complexity increases. Because generalized complexity theorists have questioned the utility of using component cognitive processes as theoretical constructs, the editors feel it is time to restate why component cognitive processes are critical to any thorough understanding of age differences in cognition. Thus the present edited volume represents an attempt to demonstrate the utility of the process-specific approach to cognitive aging. Central to this effort are illustrations of how regression analyses may provide evidence for general slowing by maximizing explained variance while at the same time obscuring local sources of variance.
The book concentrates on age differences in word and language processing, because these factors relate to reading which is a critical cognitive process used in everyday life. Furthermore, age differences in word and language processing illustrate the importance of taking component cognitive processes into consideration. The breadth of coverage of the book attests to the wide range of cognitive processes involved in word and language processing.
Advances in the Study of Behavior continues to serve scientists across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Focusing on new theories and research developments with respect to behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and comparative psychology, these volumes serve to foster cooperation and communication in these diverse fields.
The field of neuropsychology has grown rapidly in recently years.
New developments have been of interest across disciplines to
cognitive, clinical, and experimental psychologists as well as
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 25 offers perspectives on children's activity memory, spatial representation, social reasoning, and metacognitive development.
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Each chapter provides a thoughtful integration of a body of work. Volume 31 covers children's representations of groups, diagnostic reasoning in medical expertise, and object representation.
How do animals learn? By what means can animals be conditioned? This volume of the acclaimed Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Second Edition, reviews such basic models as Pavlovian conditioning as well as more modern models of animal memory and social cognition. Sure to represent a benchmark of a vast literature from diverse disciplines, this reference work is a useful addition to any library devoted to animal learning, conditioning behavior, and interaction.
Correspondence analysis is a multivariate method for exploring cross-tabular data by converting such tables into graphical displays, called 'maps', and related numerical statistics. Since cross-tabulations are so often produced in the course of social science research, correspondence analysis is valuable in understanding the information contained in these tables. This book fills the gap in the literature between the theory and practice of this method. Various theoretical aspects are presented in a language accessible to both social scientists and statisticians and a wide variety of applications are given which demonstrate the versatility of the method to interpret tabular data in a unique graphical way. The first part of the book deals with basic concepts of correspondence analysis and related methods for analyzing cross-tabulations. It then looks at the multivariate case when there are several variables of interest, including the relationship to cluster analysis, factor analysis and reliability of measurement. Applications to longitudinal data: event history data, panel data and trend data are demonstrated. Finally, it examines further applications in the social sciences, including the analysis of textual data, lifestyle data and data on product descriptions in marketing research. Correspondence Analysis in the Social Sciences gives lecturers, researchers and students a detailed introduction to help them teach the method and apply it to their own research problems. Researchers in psychology, sociology, business, marketing and statistics will all find this book particularly useful.
Graphic displays such as charts, graphs, diagrams, and maps play in important role today in the design and presentation of instructional materials education. There is also a strong need in scientific, technical and administrative fields to visually present facts, laws, principles etc. The increasing use of computer-based learning environments has also become an important field where the visual presentation of information plays a central role. Despite the importance of graphical displays as a means of communication and the fact that research about learning and cognition has advanced rapidly in the past two decades, the comprehension of graphics is still a rather unexplored area.
The comprehension of graphics is not only a stimulating topic in the fields of science and instructional psychology, but also in related disciplines such as semiotics, and artificial intelligence. Research on the comprehension of graphics complements the scientific investigation of cognitive processes in text comprehension, which has contributed much to our understanding of human cognition and learning. Ultimately, a better understanding of the cognitive processes involved in the comprehension of graphics will have an impact not only on cognitive theory, but also on educational practice.
The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together
elements of cognitive psychology, mathematics, perception,
linguistics, and artificial intelligence. Given this breadth,
textbooks have had difficulty providing balanced coverage-most
resort to disjointed edited treatises that prove difficult to
This work is for upper-level undergraduates, academics and professionals in neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.;It identifies how excitory and inhibitory messages in the human nervous system combine and coordinate to affect attention, cognition, memory, and language. Communication within the nervous systems involves the excitation and inhibition of neurons. How these processes interact to affect cognition and behavioral performance has been an area of ongoing investigation that is once again at the forefront of cognitive research. This volume brings together cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists to identify the neural evidence for inhibitory mechanisms in cognitive processing and discusses how these inhibitory mechanisms subsequently affect cognition and behavior.
Advances in the Study of Behavior continues to serve scientists across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Focusing on new theories and research developments with respect to behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and comparative psychology, these volumes serve to foster cooperation and communication in these diverse fields. Volume 23 focuses on research on the lower vertebrates with respect to the functional significance of different breeding strategies, the level at which natural selection acts, methods of teasing apart the genetic control of behavior, the assumptions underlying models of territoriality, and signalling systems and the sensory mechanisms on which they depend.
A dynamical system refers to any fluctuating system in which the elements interact in complex, often non-linear ways to form coherent patterns. Many systems once thought to be chaotic are in fact dynamical systems whose interaction of elements and feedback processes are only now beginning to be understood. Hence dynamical systems is sometimes referred to as "chaos theory." This metatheory has proved useful in understanding phenomenon in meteorology, population biology, chemistry, statistical mechanics, economics, and cosmology. The book demonstrates how the dynamical system perspective can be brought to bear on social psychological research in explaining such complex phenomenon as social relations, attitudes, social cognition, and interpersonal behavior.
With a long-standing tradition for excellence, this series is a collection of quality papers that are widely read by researchers in cognitive and experimental psychology. Each chapter thoughtfully integrates the writings of leading contributors, who present and discuss significant bodies of research relevant to their discipline.
The objective of the series has always been to provide a forum in which leading contributors to an area can write about significant bodies of research in which they are involved. The operating procedure has been to invite contributions from interesting, active investigators, and then allow them essentially free rein to present their perspectives on important research problems. The result of such invitations over the past two decades has been collections of papers which consist of thoughtful integrations providing an overview of a particular scientific problem. The series has a tradition of high quality papers and is widely read bv researchers in cognitive and experimental psychology.;This volume in the series includes topics such as: models of data- driven category learning and processing; data-driven and theory-driven processing and processing models, and concepts, category boundaries and conceptual combination.
This book aims to reverse the bias shown in research literature
concerning the decline of information processing abilities with
age. Twenty chapters identify areas of limited or no decline in
cognitive functioning with respect to rate of information
processing, attentional capacity, object perception, word
perception, language comprehension, learning, memory, and
problem-solving. These findings attest to the imbalance of previous
published research, presenting a fairer portrayal of the aged mind.
The intent of this book is to describe those perceptual and cognitive components which contribute to skilled motor performance in a wide variety of disciplines, including sports, microsurgery, video games, and speech. Also considered are issues in the measurement of motor skill, the development of motor skill across the life span, and the importance of individual differences in the development of motor skill. Many chapters contain studies employing the expertise approach used so successfully to study cognitive skills in psychology. Using this approach, expert performers are compared to novices on domain relevant laboratory tasks in order to determine whether specific cognitive or perceptual processes are related to performance differences.
This volume will be of value to kinesiologists, sport psychologists, physical educators, and cognitive psychologists who are interested in a new perspective on the nature of motor skills. The majority of the chapters include reviews of the literature necessary to understand the case being made. Thus, the book may be understood by any reader with a basic course in psychology or motor behavior.
The last decade has seen a major growth in research on how memory is used in everyday life. This volume represents a reaction to traditional laboratory-bound studies of the first half of the century which sought to identify the fundamental principles of learning and memory through the use of materials and methods totally divorced from the real world. The new wave of memory research has had considerable success in charting how memory develops, the role it plays in educational and social skills and the impact of memory impairment on mental life. The current volume consists of authoritative reviews of this emerging area linked to comment and criticism from major researchers in the field.
Contrasted, probably for the first time, are two major styles of research in applied memory research: The "naturalistic approach," which has sought to study memory in everyday environments, using actual experiences from people's lives as the raw data from which to derive more general principles, and the "applied cognitive approach," whereby theories and methods are developed using orthodox laboratory techniques which are then validated by applying them directly to real phenomena. This is one of the few books to bring together evidence across the very wide spectrum of humdrum activity that constitutes the everyday uses of memory.
Historical analysis reveals that perceptual theories and models are doomed to relatively short lives. The most popular contemporary theories in perceptual science do not have as wide an acceptance among researchers as do some of those in other sciences. To understand these difficulties, the authors of the present volume explore the conceptual and philosophical foundations of perceptual science. Based on logical analyses of various problems, theories, and models, they offer a number of reasons for the current weakness of perceptual explanations. New theoretical approaches are also proposed. At the end of each chapter, dicussants contribute to the conclusions by critically examining the authors' ideas and analyses.
The area of intelligent and adaptive user interfaces has been of interest to the research community for a long time. Much effort has been spent in trying to find a stable theoretical base for adaptivity in human-computer interaction and to build prototypical systems showing features of adaptivity in real-life interfaces. To date research in this field has not led to a coherent view of problems, let alone solutions. A workshop was organized, which brought together a number of well-known researchers in the area of adaptive user interfaces with a view to
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