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Hope has previously been a construct more of interest to philosophy
and religion than in psychology. New research has shown, however,
that hope is closely related to optimism, feelings of control, and
motivation toward achieving one's goals. The Handbook of Hope
presents a comprehensive overview of the psychological inquiry into
hope, including its measurement, its development in children, how
its loss is associated with specific clinical disorders, and
therapeutic approaches that can help instill hope in those who have
lost theirs. A final section discusses hope in occupational
applications: how the use of hope can make one a better coach,
teacher, or parent.
The Handbook of Self-Regulation represents state-of-the-art
coverage of the latest theory, research, and developments in
applications of self-regulation research. Chapters are of interest
to psychologists interested in the development and operation of
self-regulation as well as applications to health, organizational,
clinical, and educational psychology.
The book is concerned with the cognitive contributions to
perception, that is, with the influence of attention, intention, or
motor processes on performances in spatial and temporal tasks. The
chapters deal with fundamental perceptual processes resulting from
the simple localization of an object in space or from the temporal
determination of an event within a series of events.
The themes of the book are highly topical. There is a growing
interest in studies both with healthy persons and with patients
that focus on localization errors and dissociations in
localizations resulting from different tasks. These errors lead to
new concepts of how visual space is represented. Such deviations
are not only observed in the spatial domain but in the temporal
domain as well. Typical examples are errors in duration judgments
or synchronization errors in tapping tasks. In addition, several
studies indicate the influence of attention on both the timing and
on the localization of dynamic events. Another intriguing question
originates from well-known interactions between intermodal events,
namely, whether these events are based on a single representation
or whether different representations interact.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 27 discusses language acquisition, object recognition, temperament, attachment, infant problem solving, and Piaget's theory.
Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Each chapter provides a thoughtful integration of a body of work. Volume 39 includes in its coverage chapters on category learning, relational timing, infant memory, depression and memory, goals and choice, and more.
The Psychoanalytic Study of Lives Over Time: Clinical and Research Perspectives on Children Who Return to Treatment in Adulthood is a landmark volume that addresses an essential clinical question: what is the nature of the process and outcome of clinical work with children? An internationally renowned group of analytic clinicians and clinician-researchers all comment on three fascinating child analytic situations where the patient returned to treatment in adulthood.
Most of the research done in social cognition has been conducted with younger adults and may not be applicable to a much older population. Social Cognition and Aging provides a snapshot view of research that has been done with older adults or is directly applicable to this population. Focusing on issues of self identity, social interactions, and social perceptions, this book provides a broad overview of how aging affects one's own perceptions and actions as well as how others perceive and interact with the aged. Coverage includes such topics as self-control, memory, resilience, age stereotypes, moral development, and the "art" of living. With contributions from top researchers in both gerontology and psychology, this book is an important reference for academics and professionals alike in personality, cognition, social psychology, adult development, sociology, and gerontology.
International Review of Research in Mental Retardation is an ongoing scholarly look at research into the causes, effects, classification systems, syndromes, etc. of mental retardation. Contributors come from wide-ranging perspectives, including genetics, psychology, education, and other health and behavioral sciences. Volume 22 is an eclectic volume with chapters on genetics, developmental skills, and methodological issues, as well as review chapters on the Savant Syndrome, and supported employment programs. Contributors for this volume are from the U.S., U.K., and Australia.
Television: What's On, Who's Watching, and What It Means presents a
comprehensive examination of the role of television in one's life.
The emphasis is on data collected over the past two decades
pointing to an increasing and in some instances a surprising
influence of the medium. Television is not only watched but its
messages are attended to and well understood. There is no shame in
spending hours in front of the set, in fact, people over-estimate
the time they spend viewing. Television advertising no longer
persuades--it sells by creating a burst of emotional liking for the
commercial. The emphases of television news determine not only what
voters think about but also the presidential candidate they expect
to support on election day. Children and teenagers who watch a
great deal of television perform poorly on standardized achievement
tests, and among the reasons are the usurpation of time spent
learning to read and the discouragement of book reading. Television
violence frightens some children and excites others, but its
foremost effect is to increase aggressive behavior that sometimes
spills over into seriously harmful antisocial behavior.
How does a therapist go about starting a psychotherapy group? In
this practical guide the reader finds the elements, both
attitudinal and procedural, needed for starting a therapy group.
The processes of obtaining referrals, selecting clients, orienting
and educating clients, and preparing clients for psychotherapy are
covered in clear step-by-step procedures. Tables and charts are
provided for the necessary record keeping. The initial chapters
detail the important stages leading up to the first therapy
session. Eminent group therapists present special chapters on
various therapeutic approaches. The topics of terminating groups
and the role of the therapist close this pragmatic guide to therapy
Psychologists receive several years of specialized study on the brain, behavior, and mental health, but despite the fact that over half ultimately end up in administrative or managerial roles, they receive no formalized training in the skills necessary to be successful in these roles. This book is the first of its kind to target the managerial and administrative skills necessary for the mental health professional. The book discusses practical information such as how to deal with personnel issues, how to set budgets and allocate resources, and how to document progress and maintain schedules in the domains of private practice, hospitals, government agencies, and universities. Chapter authors are well-known and successful psychologists within these settings and include Raymond Fowler, past president of the American Psychological Association.
Advances in the Study of Behavior continues to serve scientists across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Focusing on new theories and research developments with respect to behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and comparative psychology, these volumes foster cooperation and communication in these diverse fields.
The original concept for the Vision in Vehicle series of
international conferences was born from discussions within the
Applied Vision Association which led eventually to the first
conference being held in 1985. Ten years of progress later and this
volume presents the selected and edited proceedings of the Sixth
International Conference on Vision in Vehicles (VIV6) which was
held at the University of Derby, 13-16 September 1995. The meeting
was organised in association with the Applied Vision Association
and the Ergonomics Society.
Cocaine abuse remains a major public health problem and contributes
to many of our most disturbing social problems, including the
spread of infectious disease, crime, violence, and neonatal drug
exposure. Cocaine abuse results from a complex interplay of
behavioral, pharmacological, and neurobiological determinants.
While a complete understanding of cocaine abuse is currently beyond
us, significant progress has been made in preclinical research on
fundamental determinants of this disorder. These advances are
critically reviewed in the first section of this volume. Important
advances also have been made in characterizing the clinical
pharmacology of cocaine, and those advances have been extended to
understanding individual vulnerability to cocaine abuse,
development of effective treatments, and discussions of policy.
Those advances are critically reviewed in the third section of this
volume. Contributors to the book were selected because of their
status as internationally recognized leaders in their respective
areas of scientific expertise. Moreover, each is a proponent of the
importance of a rigorous, interdisciplinary scientific approach to
effectively addressing the problem of cocaine abuse. As such, this
volume offers a coherent, empirically-based conceptual framework
for addressing cocaine abuse that has continuity from the basic
research laboratory through the clinical and policy arenas. Each of
the specific chapters is sufficiently detailed, in-depth and
current to be valuable to informed readers with specific interests
while also offering a comprehensive overview for those who might be
less informed or have broader interests in cocaine abuse. This
blend of critical review within each chapter with an explicitly
conceptual continuity that spans all of the chapters makes this
volume a unique contribution to cocaine abuse in particular and
substance abuse in general.
For centuries, scholars have debated the causes of aggression and
the means to reduce its occurrence. Human Aggression brings
together internationally recognized experts discussing the most
current psychological research on the causes and prevention of
aggression. Scholars, policy makers, practitioners, and those
generally concerned with the growing issue of aggression find this
a much needed reference work. Topics include how aggression is
related to the usage of drugs, how temperature affects aggression,
the effect of the mass media on aggression, violence by men against
women, and the treatment of anger/aggression in clinical settings.
The book also provides a comprehensive review of theory and
methodology in the study of aggression.
This handbook shows the wide perspective cognitive-behavioural treatment can offer to health professionals, the vast majority of whom now recognize that cognitive behavioural procedures are very useful in treating many 'mental' disorders, even if certain disciplines continue to favour other kinds of treatment. This book offers a wide range of structured programmes for the treatment of various psychological/psychiatric disorders as classified by the DSM-IV. The layout will be familiar to the majority of health professionals in the description of mental disorders and their later treatment. It is divided into seven sections, covering anxiety disorders, sexual disorders, dissociative, somatoform, impulse control disorders, emotional disorders and psychotic and organic disorders. Throughout the twenty-three chapters, this book offers the health professional a structured guide with which to start tackling a whole series of 'mental' disorders and offers pointers as to where to find more detailed information. The programmes outlined should, it is hoped, prove more effective than previous approaches with lower economic costs and time investment for the patient and therapist.
General Description of the Series
There is a growing body of scientific knowledge regarding
development during the middle years which has so far been relegated
to discipline-specific texts and journals (e.g., clinical
psychology and endocrinology).
The distinguished contributors to this volume have been set the
problem of describing how we know where to move our eyes. There is
a great deal of current interest in the use of eye movement
recordings to investigate various mental processes. The common
theme is that variations in eye movements indicate variations in
the processing of what is being perceived, whether in reading,
driving or scene perception. However, a number of problems of
interpretation are now emerging, and this edited volume sets out to
address these problems. The book investigates controversies
concerning the variations in eye movements associated with reading
ability, concerning the extent to which text is used by the
guidance mechanism while reading, concerning the relationship
between eye movements and the control of other body movements, the
relationship between what is inspected and what is perceived, and
concerning the role of visual control attention in the acquisition
of complex perceptual-motor skills, in addition to the nature of
the guidance mechanism itself.
The world within reach is characterised to a large extent by our
ability to sense objects through touch. Research into the sensation
of touch has a long history. However, it is only relatively
recently that significant advances have been made in understanding
how information about objects we touch is represented in both the
peripheral and central divisions of the nervous systems. This
volume draws together the increasing body of knowledge regarding
the mechanisms underlying tactile sensation and how they relate to
Thinking and Problem-Solving presents a comprehensive and
up-to-date review of literature on cognition, reasoning,
intelligence, and other formative areas specific to this field.
Written for advanced undergraduates, researchers, and academics,
this volume is a necessary reference for beginning and established
investigators in cognitive and educational psychology.
Advances in the Study of Behavior continues to serve scientists across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Focusing on new theories and research developments with respect to behavioral ecology, evolutionarybiology, and comparative psychology, these volumes foster cooperation and communication in these diverse fields.
It has been said more than once in psychology that one person's
effect is another person's error term. By minimising and
occasionally ignoring individual and group variability cognitive
psychology has yieled many fine achievements. However, when
investigators are working with special populations, the subjects,
and the unique nature of the sample, come into focus and become the
goal in itself. For developmental psychologists, gerontologists and
psychopathologists, research progresses with an eye on their target
populations of study. Yet every good study in any of these domains
inevitably has another dimension. Whenever a study is designed to
turn a spotlight on a special population, the light is also shed on
the mainstream from which the target deviates.
This book examines what we can learn about general and universal phenomena in cognition and its brain substrates from examining the odd, the rare, the transient, the exceptional and the abnormal.
This book takes as a starting point, John Dewey's article, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology," in which Dewey was calling for, in short, the utilisation of systems theories within psychology, theories of behaviour that capture its nature as a vastly-complex dynamic coordination of nested coordinations. This line of research was neglected as American psychology migrated towards behaviourism, where perception came to be thought of as being both a neural response to an external stimulus and a mediating neural stimulus leading to, or causing a muscular response. As such, perception becomes a question of how it is the perceiver creates neural representations of the physical world. Gestalt psychology, on the other hand, focused on perception itself, utilising the term Phenomenological Field; a term that elegantly nests perception and the organism within their respective, as well as relative, levels of organisation. With the development of servo-mechanisms during the second world war, systems theory began to take on momentum within psychology, and then in the 1970s William T Powers brought the notion of servo-control to perception in his book, "Behavior: The Control of Perception." Since then, scientists have come to see nature not as linear chain of contingent cause-effect relationships, but rather, as a non linear, unpredictable nesting of self referential, emergent coordinations, best described as Chaos theory. The implications for perception are astounding, while maintaining the double-aspect nature of perception espoused by the Gestalt psychologists. In short, system theories model perception within the context of a functioning organism, so that objects of experience come to be seen as scale-dependent, psychophysically-neutral, phenomenological transformations of energy structures, the dynamics of which are the result of evolution, and therefore, "a priori" to the individual case. This "a priori," homological unity among brain perception and world is revealed through the use of systems theories and represents the thrust of this book. All the authors are applying some sort of systems theory to the psychology of perception. However, unlike Dewey we have close to a century of technology we can bring to bear upon the issue. This book should be seen as a collection of such efforts.
This book turns the tables on the way prejudice has been looked at
in the past. Almost all of the current information on prejudice
focuses on the person holding prejudiced beliefs. This book,
however, provides the first summary of research focusing on the
intended victims of prejudice. Divided into three sections, the
first part discusses how people identify prejudice, what types of
prejudice they encounter, and how people react to this prejudice in
interpersonal and intergroup settings. The second section discusses
the effect of prejudice on task performance, assessment of ones own
abilities, self-esteem, and stress. The final section examines how
people cope with prejudice, including a discussion of coping
mechanisms, reporting sexual harassment, and how identity is
related to effective coping.
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