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This book is a collection of contemporary applications of psychological insights into practical human factors issues. The topics are arranged largely according to an information processing/energetic approach to human behavior. Consideration is also given to human-computer interaction and organizational design.
International Review of Research in Mental Retardation is an
ongoing scholarly look at research into the causes, effects,
classification systems, syndromes, etc. of mental retardation.
Contributors come from wide-ranging perspectives, including
genetics, psychology, education, and other health and behavioral
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 32 discusses cultural contributions in development, infants' representation of objects and events, the impacts of affluence, mechanisms of early categorization and induction, attentional inertia, the early development of pictoral competence, and classroom competence.
The original concept for the Vision in Vehicle series of
international conferences was born from discussions within the
Applied Vision Association which led eventually to the first
conference being held in 1985. Ten years of progress later and this
volume presents the selected and edited proceedings of the Sixth
International Conference on Vision in Vehicles (VIV6) which was
held at the University of Derby, 13-16 September 1995. The meeting
was organised in association with the Applied Vision Association
and the Ergonomics Society.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 30 discusses early recall memory, balance and motor learning, sexual selection, emotion-related regulation, maternal sensitivity and attachment, and influences of friends.
Tasting and Smelling presents a comprehensive overview to research on these two important modes of perception. The book offers a review of research findings on the biophysics, neurophysiology, and psychophysicsof both senses, as well as discussing the emotional component associated with taste and smell, and clinical disorders affecting each of these two senses. Tasting and Smelling answers how odors and flavors are perceived, why we have favorites, and what happens when our senses go awry. This book is of interest to the researcher in perception, cognition, or neurophysiology.
This book aims to help the reader to understand what motivates people to engage in risk taking behavior, such as participating in traffic, sports, financial investments, or courtship. The consequences of risk taking may be positive, or result in accidents and injuries, especially in traffic. The wealth of studies and theories (about 1000 references) is used to offer a cohesive, holistic view of risk motivation. The risk motivation theory is a dynamic state-trait model incorporating physiological, emotional and cognitive components of risk perception, processing and planning. If a deficit exists between desired and perceived risk, risk compensation behavior results. A feedback loop provides new information for the next perception-motivation-behavior process. Assumptions were tested and support was found with 120 subjects in a longitudinal study. The concepts and findings are discussed in relation to psychological theories and their meaning for our daily lives.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 28 discusses variability in reasoning, dual processes in memory, reasoning, and cognitive neuroscience, language and cognition, and adolescent depression.
Serial killers like Seattle's Ted Bundy, Maryland's Beltway Sniper,
Atlanta's Wayne Williams, or England's Peter Sutcliffe usually
outsmart the task forces on their trail for long periods of time.
Keppel and Birnes take readers inside the operations of serial
killer task forces to learn why. What is the underlying psychology
of a serial killer and why this defeats task force investigations?
Volume 35 of the Advances in Child Development and Behavior series
is divided into nine components that highlight some of the most
recent research in developmental and educational psychology.
Active researchers in the areas of geography and psychology have contributed to this book. Both fields are capable of increasing our scientific knowledge of how human behavior is interfaced with the molar physical environment. Such knowledge is essential for the solution of many of today's most urgent environmental problems. Failure to constrain use of scarce resources, pollution due to human activities, creation of technological hazards and deteriorating urban quality due to vandalism and crime are all well known examples. The influence of psychology in geographical research has long been appreciated but it is only recently that psychologists have recognized they have something to learn from geography. In identifying the importance of two-way interdisciplinary communication, a psychologist and a geographer have been invited to each write a chapter in this book on a designated topic so that close comparisons can be drawn as to how the two disciplines approach the same difficulties. Since the disciplines are to some extent complementary, it is hoped that this close collaboration will have synergistic effects on the attempts of both to find solutions to environmental problems through an increased understanding of the many behavior-environment interfaces.
This new work summarizes the research on all forms of media on
children, looking at how much time they spend with media everyday,
television programming and its impact on children, how advertising
has changed to appeal directly to children and the effects on
children and the consumer behavior of parents, the relationship
between media use and scholastic achievement, the influence of
violence in media on anti-social behavior, and the role of media in
influencing attitudes on body image, sex and work roles, fashion,
The Psychology of Stalking is the first scholarly book on stalking
ever published. Virtually every serious writer and researcher in
this area of criminal psychopathology has contributed a chapter.
These chapters explore stalking from social, psychiatric,
psychological and behavioral perspectives. New thinking and data
are presented on threats, pursuit characteristics, psychiatric
diagnoses, offender-victim typologies, cyberstalking, false
victimization syndrome, erotomania, stalking and domestic violence,
the stalking of public figures, and many other aspects of stalking,
as well as legal issues. This landmark text is of interest to both
professionals and other thoughtful individuals who recognize the
serious nature of this ominous social behavior.
Since the classic studies of Woodworth (1899), the role of
In this volume, articles are
The book is concerned with the cognitive contributions to
perception, that is, with the influence of attention, intention, or
motor processes on performances in spatial and temporal tasks. The
chapters deal with fundamental perceptual processes resulting from
the simple localization of an object in space or from the temporal
determination of an event within a series of events.
The themes of the book are highly topical. There is a growing
interest in studies both with healthy persons and with patients
that focus on localization errors and dissociations in
localizations resulting from different tasks. These errors lead to
new concepts of how visual space is represented. Such deviations
are not only observed in the spatial domain but in the temporal
domain as well. Typical examples are errors in duration judgments
or synchronization errors in tapping tasks. In addition, several
studies indicate the influence of attention on both the timing and
on the localization of dynamic events. Another intriguing question
originates from well-known interactions between intermodal events,
namely, whether these events are based on a single representation
or whether different representations interact.
This collection of papers illustrates how concepts, theories and techniques from experimental psychology can be applied in the domain of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). An experimental psychological basis for cognitive ergonomics is presented, built on a foundation of theoretical and experimental research. In addition, various issues in cognitive ergonomics are closely examined, including performance in specific interactive tasks - such as computer programming and program debugging. Other subject areas covered include database interrogation, text editing and graphics design.
Advances in the area of tactile perception and pain have lead to the development of this text on basic research and clinical practice. Equal parts psychology and neuroscience, it covers peripheral cutaneous tactile information processing, sensory mapping, tactile exploratory behaviour, neurophysiology of nociception and nociceptors in pain research, clinical scaling methods for psychophysics of pain, and pain control, pathology, and therapeutics. Detailed chapters discuss how the brain processes both pain and touch, the nerve pathways by which these sensations travel, how sensations of pain can be clinically measured, and means of controlling pathological pain.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints. Volume 25 offers perspectives on children's activity memory, spatial representation, social reasoning, and metacognitive development.
The distinguished contributors to this volume have been set the
problem of describing how we know where to move our eyes. There is
a great deal of current interest in the use of eye movement
recordings to investigate various mental processes. The common
theme is that variations in eye movements indicate variations in
the processing of what is being perceived, whether in reading,
driving or scene perception. However, a number of problems of
interpretation are now emerging, and this edited volume sets out to
address these problems. The book investigates controversies
concerning the variations in eye movements associated with reading
ability, concerning the extent to which text is used by the
guidance mechanism while reading, concerning the relationship
between eye movements and the control of other body movements, the
relationship between what is inspected and what is perceived, and
concerning the role of visual control attention in the acquisition
of complex perceptual-motor skills, in addition to the nature of
the guidance mechanism itself.
New US government requirements state that federally funded grants
and school programs must prove that they are based on
scientifically proved improvements in teaching and learning. All
new grants must show they are based on scientifically sound
research to be funded, and budgets to schools must likewise show
that they are based on scientifically sound research. However, the
movement in education over the past several years has been toward
qualitative rather than quantitative measures. The new legislation
comes at a time when researchers are ill trained to measure results
or even to frame questions in an empirical way, and when school
administrators and teachers are no longer remember or were never
trained to prove statistically that their programs are effective.
This book is based on the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Vision in Vehicles. The aim of the conference series is to enable international researchers from different disciplines to meet and exchange ideas on the current state-of-the-art of all aspects related to vehicles and vehicle controllers. This is perceived as encompassing the internal and external design of a vehicle, the environment in which vehicles move, as well as the visual, perceptual and cognitive limitations of the vehicle controller. All types of vehicles (including underground mining vehicles, helicopters, trains and motorcycles) are considered, though the majority of papers deal with automobiles and their drivers.
The conference keynote address Automated Highways: A Vision of the Future, which was presented by John Bloomfield, set the tone for the meeting. The proceedings, as contained in this volume, begin in a similar vein with chapters considering Simulation Studies of Driver Performance, followed by a section on Visual Processing and Collision Avoidance. Cognitive issues are addressed in several chapters detailing recent work on Cognitive Aspects of Visual Information Processing.
The growing use of information technology is covered in two subsequent sections concerning firstly, the Visual Requirements of In-Vehicle Guidance Systems and secondly, Driver Support Systems. Environmental factors are discussed in a separate section, as is driver's own visual impairment. The final section concerns Arousal and Performance and discusses alcohol effects on driving ability.
Vision in Vehicles V, with contributions by experts from a diverse range of disciplines, including optometrists, psychologists, physiologists, human factors specialists and engineers, will undoubtedly stimulate the progression of research in this area.
The simple task of grasping objects has been studied for centuries by scientists, therapists and engineers who have tried to understand and duplicate the versatility of the human hand. Using an interdisciplinary approach and new framework for looking at prehension, the authors uncover the subleties of the amazing interaction between the hand and the brain. They draw from such diverse fields as experimental psychology, kinesiology, robotics, neural networks, artificial intelligence, neuropsychology and rehabilitation. A triangle strategy is presented, starting from conceptual models that suggest both experimental and computational models. Chapters describe the multiple postures established by the hand, phases in the dynamic process of reaching for, grasping and manipulating various objects, and the constraints acting on such activity.
Appendices provide the complete anatomy of the upper limb, the basics of computational modelling, and the fundamentals of prosthetic and dextrous robot hands. The ultimate goal of this book is to develop a common vocabularly for multidisciplinary researchers who strive to understand a system as complex as the hand under the control of the human brain.
Volume 47 of The Psychology of Learning and Motivation offers a
discussion of the different factors that influence one's
development as a mature and capable person. This is the latest
release in this well-received and highly credible series of
The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial
intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered
diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central
conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its
consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as
The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of
representation - that all representation has the nature of
encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but
The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges.
Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is
proposed and examined.
Volume 31 of the International Review of Research in Mental
Retardation is a thematic exploration of personality and motivation
in persons with mental retardation. Looking at a broad spectrum of
intellectual disabilities, Mental Retardation, Personality, and
Motivational Systems explores motivation as a moderator for
performance and individualized effort. Coverage includes
discussions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in both mentally
retarded and non-retarded children, self-determination,
interpersonal decision making in adolescents and adults with mental
retardation, interpersonal relationships, and the connection
between etiological-specific differences and motivation to form
"behavioral phenotypes." A final chapter presents a transactional
perspective on human ability, relying on constructs of
intelligence, cognitive processes, and motivation, with
implications for developmental interventions in the lives of
persons with mental retardation.
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