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The most significant articles from each of the fields represented at the conference on Work with Display Units 1992 are presented in this volume. Such topics are:
Advances in the Study of Behavior is the leading series in its field. Each volume includes a variety of review essays by experts providing authoritative overviews of key areas of current interest that are invaluable to the teacher, student, and researcher in the field of behavior, whether psychologist or biologist. This volume continues the tradition of excellence in the study of behavior by covering a whole range of biological and psychological research. Each of the chapters presents new ideas, with a particularly interesting approach to sexual coercion. The volume as a whole has a particular strength in the area of behavioral development, which is the main topic of the last three chapters.
This volume presents a collection of chapters exploring the
interface of cognitive and affective processes in stereotyping.
Stereotypes and prejudice have long been topics of interest in
social psychology, but early literature and research in this area
focused on affect alone, while later studies focused primarily on
cognitive factors associated with information processing
strategies. This volume integrates the roles of both affect and
cognition with regard to the formation, representation, and
modification of stereotypes and the implications of these processes
for the escalation or amelioration of intergroup tensions.
"Advances in Child Development and Behaviour" is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behaviour. The serial provides scholarly technical articles and a place for the publication of scholarly speculation. In these documented critical reviews, recent advances in the field are summarized and integrated, complexities are exposed, and fresh viewpoints are offered. The serial should be useful to experts in the area as well as graduate students. Each volume of "Advances in Child Development and Behaviour" contains an index, and each chapter includes references.
This volume attempts to bring together a collection of current approaches to, and related empirical investigations on, the development of coordination in the first two years of life. It will be of interest to scientists and students in, for example, biology, human movement sciences, kinesiology, psychology, pediatrics, physiology, physical education, physical therapy and robotics.
Contributors include those with established reputations in the field, as well as young authors, who are beginning to make their mark. Their efforts resulted in twenty chapters, of which seventeen were invited. The chapters have been divided into four sections. The first chapter is intended to outline the structure of the book.
Active researchers in the areas of geography and psychology have contributed to this book. Both fields are capable of increasing our scientific knowledge of how human behavior is interfaced with the molar physical environment. Such knowledge is essential for the solution of many of today's most urgent environmental problems. Failure to constrain use of scarce resources, pollution due to human activities, creation of technological hazards and deteriorating urban quality due to vandalism and crime are all well known examples. The influence of psychology in geographical research has long been appreciated but it is only recently that psychologists have recognized they have something to learn from geography. In identifying the importance of two-way interdisciplinary communication, a psychologist and a geographer have been invited to each write a chapter in this book on a designated topic so that close comparisons can be drawn as to how the two disciplines approach the same difficulties. Since the disciplines are to some extent complementary, it is hoped that this close collaboration will have synergistic effects on the attempts of both to find solutions to environmental problems through an increased understanding of the many behavior-environment interfaces.
This volume contains contributions illuminating much of the current research occurring in the area of visual perception. It encompasses all aspects of vision and its relationship to vehicle design, including both the internal and external design of the vehicle as well as the perceptual and cognitive limitations of the vehicle controller.
Issues specifically related to the vision of the driver are initially addressed and the problems of vehicle glazing and light transmission are considered. The major topics of visual perception and vehicle control are covered in three related chapters encompassing: collision avoidance, vehicle signalling systems and the acquisition of visual information. Moving on to the external environment and its relationship to vision, traffic signs are discussed. Approaches to the measurement and modelling of driver behaviour are dealt with and the area of telerobotic control of vehicles is considered. In-vehicle displays are covered in two related chapters addressing issues of visual workload and effects of display type.
It is hoped that the book, contributed to by experts from a diverse range of disciplines, including optometrists, psychologists, physiologists, human factors specialists and engineers, will stimulate the progression of research in this area, as effectively as the preceding volumes did.
The objective of the series has always been to provide a forum in which leading contributors to an area can write about significant bodies of research in which they are involved. The operating procedure has been to invite contributions from interesting, active investigators, and then allow them essentially free rein to present their perspectives on important research problems. The result of such invitations over the past two decades has been collections of papers which consist of thoughtful integrations providing an overview of a particular scientific problem. The series has an excellent tradition of high quality papers and is widely read by researchers incognitive and experimental psychology. The volume presents research ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Topics covered fall within a wide range of disciplines from neuroscience to artificial intelligence.
This serial was established under the editorship of Dr. Norman R. Willis in 1966. As a result of his editorial effort and the contributions of many authors, the serial is now recognized as the area's best source of reviews of behavioral research on mental retardation. From its inception, active research scientists and graduate students in mental retardation have looked to this serial as a major source of critical reviews of research and theory in the area. These volumes are required reading for any professional seeking a deeper insight into the behavioral consequences of intellectual and developmental handicaps.
Our lives are informed by perceptual and cognitive processes at all levels, from instrumental learning to metaphorical discourse to memorial representation. Yet, historically, these two branches of experimental psychology, perception and cognition, have developed separately using independent methods of experimentation and analysis. This volume is motivated by the assumption that a fundamental integration of the two fields is fruitful methodologically and indispensable theoretically. It explores how the notion of psychophysics aligned with cognitive processes shapes the study of perception and cognition, and illuminates a variety of contemporary research issues from a novel theoretical perspective. The papers raise conceptual and metatheoretical issues against the background of relevant empirical data.
The authors provide a virtually narrative account of the most recent developments in their respective fields of expertise in psychophysics and cognitive psychology. Hence, this volume gives the interested reader an opportunity to reflect critically upon some of the current issues defining the two domains and their conjunction. Topics discussed include the psychology and psychophysics of similarity, the psychophysics of visual memory and cognitive factors in judgment. The emerging notion of cognitive psychophysics may well warrant the attention of experts in the field.
It has become a truism that the frozen optical diagram representation of vision is the worst possible picture of the way in which we visually interact with the environment. Even apart from our reaction to moving targets by pursuit movements, our visual behaviour can be said to be characterised by eye movements. We sample from our environment in a series of relatively brief fixations which move from one point to another in a series of extremely rapid jerks known as saccades. Many questions arising from this characteristic of vision are explored within this volume, including the question of how our visual world maintains its perceptual stability despite the drastic changes in input associated with these eye movements.
Advances in the Study of Behavior remains one of the most-turned-to
sources for penetrating insight on the latest findings in behavior
research. This serial has kept pace with the vigorous
multidisciplinary growth of the field and covers all major aspects,
from ecology to endocrinology, in both human and animal subjects.
Critical reviews, presentations of major research programs, and
communication of significant new concepts provide readers with an
up-to-date overview of the latest developments in this field.
Dementia diseases are the most common cause of severe mental deterioration in the world today, and expected changes in the population structure will inevitably result in a gradually increasing occurrence of dementia. One of the primary symptoms of dementia diseases is severe memory dysfunction. Knowledge about the ways in which dementia diseases affect memory increases our knowledge about the relationship between brain structures and memory functions, is imperative for early clinical diagnosis, and forms a basis for sound behavioral and pharmacological intervention. While the memory impairment in dementia has been known for more than 2000 years, the nature of this impairment is not yet completely understood. Research in this area has not, until quite recently, utilized theoretical and methodological advances from basic cognitive psychology. This volume gives a comprehensive treatment of this new and increasingly developing field of inquiry.
Considerable evidence exists that visual sensory information is analyzed simultaneously along two or more independent pathways. In the past two decades, researchers have extensively used the concept of parallel visual channels as a framework to direct their explorations of human vision. More recently, basic and clinical scientists have found such a dichotomy applicable to the way we organize our knowledge of visual development, higher order perception, and visual disorders, to name just a few. This volume attempts to provide a forum for gathering these different perspectives.
The study and application of spatial information systems have been
developed primarily from the use of computers in the geosciences.
These systems have the principle functions of capturing, storing,
representing, manipulating, and displaying data in 2-D and 3-D
worlds. This book approaches its subject from the perspectives of
informatics and geography, presenting methods of conceptual
modeling developed in computer science that provide valuable aids
for resolving spatial problems. This book is an essential textbook
for both students and practitioners. It is indispensable for
academic geographers, computer scientists, and the GIS
Since the classic studies of Woodworth (1899), the role of
In this volume, articles are
This collection of 33 papers represents the most current thinking and research on the study of cognitive processing in bilingual individuals. The contributors include well-known figures in the field and promising new scholars, representing four continents and work in dozens of languages. Instead of the social, political, or educational implications of bilingualism, the focus is on how bilingual people (mostly adults) think and process language.
This work offers information on recent advances in the psychology of learning and motivation. Among the topics covered are the deriving of categories to achieve goals, the application of category knowledge in unsupervised domains and spatial mental models.
During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic
This work presents the first serious attempt to impose rigor on the
definition and measurement of quality of life among the elderly.
The book uses a conference to develop background but goes well
beyond the meeting in terms of depth of reviews of the literature
and of integration among the chapters.
This book is a new interdisciplinary work which presents the
proceedings of the third international conference on Vision in
Vehicles, the aim of which was to provide an international forum
for the exchange of information on current work on all aspects of
vision and its relationship to vehicle design. This includes both
the internal and external design of the vehicle and its
environmental displays, as well as the perceptual and cognitive
capabilities of the vehicle controllers.
This volume is sponsored by Division 9 of the American
Psychological Association: The Society for the Psychological Study
of Social Issues.****This is an essential reference book for any
social scientist or student who uses measuresof attitude or
personality in his or her research. The earlier version, published
twenty years ago, was to be found on the shelf of virtually
everyone who worked in the field.
Difficulties in motor behavior are commonly associated with a
variety of disabilities. Early research efforts focused on
descriptions of specific groups of people or on evaluations of
intervention programs. Only recently have investigators begun to
explore questions from a variety of theoretical positions in an
attempt to build a more fundamental understanding of the disabled
person. The present volume represents views of major methodological
issues, current research fronts and selected applied concerns from
the perspective of the disabled performer. Authors write from a
number of theoretical viewpoints and sketch future research
directions in these chapters.
This book is unique in that it gives equal weight to the
psychological and neurological approaches to the study of cognitive
deficits in patients with brain lesions. The result is a balanced
and comprehensive analysis of cognitive skills and abilities that
departs from the more usual syndrome approach favored by
neurologists and the anti-localizationist perspective of cognitive
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