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This volume is an historically based critical evaluation of Freud's personality theory. In it the observations Freud made are described and the theoretical ideas he put forward for explaining them are set out. The adequacy of Freud's explanations are judged against the logical and scientific standards of Freud's own time. The historical perspective will give the reader a sound basis on which to make a judgement about psycho-analysis as a method of investigation and a theory of personality as well as a sense of what Freud was about from Freud's own standpoint. Freud's endeavour is sited in the psychological and psychiatric context of the time, a period not previously given the critical attention it warrants. All of Freud's important assumptions and characteristic modes of thought are to be found in this formative period. The placement also brings out more clearly the basis of a number of the unresolved problems of contemporary psycho-analytic theory, such as the place of affect and the instinctual drives, the role of the ego, and the basis of treatment.
During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in the study of ageing-related changes in cognitive abilities. In this volume researchers from a variety of theoretical perspectives discuss adult age differences in a wide range of cognitive skills. Of special interest is the extent to which ageing effects on performance are related to variations in the representation, organization and utilization of knowledge, broadly defined. Recent research and theory in the field of ageing has emphasized the need to examine such processes more closely in order to provide a more complete understanding of ageing effects on cognitive behaviour.
Many studies in cognitive psychology have provided evidence of systematic deviations in cognitive task performance relative to that dictated by optimality, rationality, or coherency. The texts in this volume present an account of research into the cognitive biases observed on various tasks: reasoning, categorization, evaluation, and probabilistic and confidence judgments. The authors have attempted to discern the contribution of the study of bias to our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in each case, rather than proposing an inventory of the different types of biases. A special section has been devoted to studies on the correction of biases and cognitive aids.
Left-handedness has been shown to be a possible marker for various psychological and physical abnormalities. This book presents evidence by a number of researchers who evaluate whether there are indeed differences between left- and right-handers which extend into the broader psychological and physiological realms. Several chapters show that left-handedness is found in unexpectedly high proportions in populations that suffer from various immune deficiency diseases, in alcoholics, dyslexics, mental retardates, psychopaths and other clinical groups. The book indicates why left-handedness should be a marker for such conditions. The genetic and environmental pressures on handedness are explored. A model for pathological left-handedness is presented, along with some interesting data which suggests that left-handedness may be associated with reduced life-span. Finally, several chapters discuss the implications of handedness patterns in non-clinical populations.
Since the end of the sixties, Piagetian general theory with its inherent power of unification has gradually given way to a multitude of more specific models which is in evidence today. In this volume the authors concentrate on three perspectives namely cognitive, perceptuo-motor and neuropsychological development and attempt to coordinate these traditionally separated views. Good illustrations of these theoretical connections can be found in different chapters although the persistent isolation of these three domains still remains. However the authors believe efforts in developmental psychology must continue in the direction of domain interaction, for theoretical concepts as well as methodological tools.
This book reviews current theories and research on adolescent development and their implications for education. It is organized around the theme of the adolescent as decision-maker, and covers areas of normal development that are crucial for the transition to independence. The issues raised by the thoughtful reviews will stimulate discussion and debate and will provide new perspectives on adolescence.
Individuals from diverse disciplines, including neurology, physiology, psychology, mathematics, and engineering have contributed to this volume. Their scientific investigations of volitional action are part of the resurgence of interest in the psychology and physiology of volition which has taken place in recent years. The book comprises a significant sample of their observations, both rational and empirical, which have new practical implications for our understanding of human conduct. The book was designed to serve a threefold purpose: a) to consolidate the gains of the various scholars, relatively isolated in their respective disciplines, b) to foster and help focus future research on conation and self-control and c) to provide practitioners in applied psychology with a broad-based tutorial.
A selection of 15 papers on choice modeling are presented in this volume. These papers result from research in the social and behavioral sciences and in economics. The models, some deterministic, some probabilistic, represent recent developments in the tradition of Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement, Coombs' unfolding theory and multidimensional scaling. The theoretical contributions and several applications to voting behaviour, consumer research and preference rankings show the important progress made in psychological choice modeling during the last few years.
This book should enhance the reader's understanding of the contemporary scene in parenting education, including effective programming, important issues, and future trends.
This book contains a number of chapters on the control and execution of skilled movements, as well as more general chapters on theoretical issues in skilled performance. The contributors have summarised their most recent research, and general themes and issues are presented in discussion chapters at the end of each section, thus providing a good general summary of the kind of research and theoretical frameworks developing in this area. The first section is concerned with the theoretical issues of programming and co-ordination. Issues raised in the second section are basic to much of the research reviewed in the volume. This section summarises the various theoretical positions in the recent debates on the role of cognitive processes in motor control and the usefulness of the ``psychomotor'' approach, and contains chapters based on individual papers which present relevant empirical findings. The third section deals with the learning and performance of skilled movements, containing papers with practical implications for everyday skills. The final section contains chapters on cognitive processes in skilled performance.
An integrated approach to the problems of vision and vehicle
control is presented in this volume.
Cognition and Instruction focuses on the relationship of knowledge acquisition processes with instruction, including reading, writing, mathematics, curriculum design and reform, and reasoning. The selection first takes a look at the issues in cognitive psychology and instruction, reading, and writing. Discussions focus on the processes of knowledge acquisition, cognitive prescriptions for teaching, cognitive components of reading, instruction in reading, distinctive nature of higher order mental activity in written composition, and knowledge-transforming procedures within the general context of higher order skills. The publication also offers information on second language and mathematics. The text ponders on science, social studies, and art. Topics include psychological research related to curriculum design, science curriculum reform, curriculum and instructional components of social studies and social sciences, evidence for individual styles in young children, educational considerations, and concept of style. The text then examines music and reasoning. The selection is a valuable source of data for readers and cognitive psychologists pursuing research on the relationship of cognition and instruction.
In this, his fourth book published by Academic Press, the author pursues current theories in the expansive field of personality research. Presenting a unique perspective on recent developments in the field, the emphasis is on empirical research. Topics discussed include stability and change in traits, the behavior genetics of traits, a review and defense of trait theory, and a comprehensive review of research on the unconscious.
The major focus of this book is on the differences between ecological approaches to action (`action theories'), and theories on motor control and learning couched in terms of information processing (`motor theories'). Proponents of both approaches express their views in Part 1 and the differences between the approaches are further analysed. Part 2 presents empirical studies, while in Part 3, methodological, philosophical and scientific implications are discussed and the possibility of a solution is considered.
How is existing knowledge reconciled with new information in the
mind of a young child, as compared to that of a more sophisticated
Real advances are not made in blind alleys (or culs-de-sac). In Social Psychology, as in every branch of science, the paths which appear to offer progress do not always result in theoretical elegance. Certain basic problems persistently defy final solution. This volume surveys the foundations and methods of Social Psychology with the aim of identifying ways out of the research maze. It examines the history and traditions of the field, looks at methodology and conceptual schemes, and discusses the actual research methods used.
This volume is the outcome of an international symposium held in Berlin, FRG, which brought together researchers in the field of infant development. The contributors are from Europe and North America, and have as their primary professional interest either pediatrics, biology or psychology. These fields, in spite of common involvement and large overlap, still have to overcome communication problems and differences in scientific approaches. The emphasis of this book is on the efforts of the participants towards reaching a mutual understanding. In spite of disciplinary diversity, the papers in this book complement each other, and set the scene for future multidisciplinary research and exchange in the field of infant development.
Spatial Neglect is one of the few areas in Neuropsychology where clinicians, psychologists and animal experimenters have succeeded in adopting a common language. The result of interaction between these three approaches has been some important new advances, which are presented in this volume. Apart from its clinical significance in neuropsychology, Spatial Neglect raises important questions in the field of behavioral neurosciences. In this volume, three aspects are examined: a) normal subjects, where new findings on spatial behavior are described. b) brain-lesioned subjects, where the classical studies on neglect are reconsidered in the light of new findings. c) animals, where new experimental situations allow a deeper understanding of the neural substrate.
The main purpose of this book is to address the statistical issues
for integrating independent studies. There exist a number of papers
and books that discuss the mechanics of collecting, coding, and
preparing data for a meta-analysis, and we do not deal with these.
Volume 38 of the "Advances in Child Development and Behavior"
series is concerned with the development of memory in the first
years of life. It covers an introduction to normative development
of memory during this period andan introduction of a means of
assessing memory in preverbal infants--namely, elicited
imitation.Three chapters each concern a special population in which
we have reason to believe the development of memory will be
affected due to compromised hippocampal development as a result of
maternal gestational diabetes, preterm birth, early deprivation
resulting from institutional (orphanage) care, and abuse and/or
neglect by the caregiver.
"Advances in Experimental Social Psychology "continues to be one of
the most sought after and most often cited series in this field.
Containing contributions of major empirical and theoretical
interest, this series represents the best and the brightest in new
research, theory, and practice in social psychology.
This book aims to help the reader to understand what motivates people to engage in risk taking behavior, such as participating in traffic, sports, financial investments, or courtship. The consequences of risk taking may be positive, or result in accidents and injuries, especially in traffic. The wealth of studies and theories (about 1000 references) is used to offer a cohesive, holistic view of risk motivation. The risk motivation theory is a dynamic state-trait model incorporating physiological, emotional and cognitive components of risk perception, processing and planning. If a deficit exists between desired and perceived risk, risk compensation behavior results. A feedback loop provides new information for the next perception-motivation-behavior process. Assumptions were tested and support was found with 120 subjects in a longitudinal study. The concepts and findings are discussed in relation to psychological theories and their meaning for our daily lives.
This book is the first in a series aimed at addressing the rapidly
expanding field of assessment and treatment of children with mental
health issues and/or development disabilities. Autism: Early
Childhood Interventions is aimed at the researcher of practitioner
who works with those young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
In addition to covering major research developments in differential
diagnosis and early intervention, the author's provide a critical
review and analysis of core concept that define this area.
The first chapter of the book reviews the development of
definitions of autism along with early methods for diagnosing this
area of developmental disabilities. Chapter two covers some of the
most discussed theories of etiology along with a review of
prevalence and the author's opinions on why the number of children
diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder has increased markedly in
recent years. A chapter on the most commonly used assessment
methods and a critique of the psychometric properties of each is
followed by three chapters on treatment. We have broken the
treatment chapters down based on type of intervention. The first
treatment chapter covers specific target behaviors or small sets of
behaviors. A second chapter covers training for the packaged
comprehensive treatment models with particular emphasis on the
TEACCH, UCLA-YAP and the University of California Santa Barbara
Autism Research and Training Program. Each of these programs gives
a unique perspective on treatment for these young children. The
final treatment chapter covers the recent developments in
pharmacotherapy for autism spectrum disorder, with a critical
analysis and review of the data.
We hope the overview presented proves to be of interest to
researchers and practitioners in the field. We present one
perspective on this exciting and innovative area of research and
treatment. Hopefully, it will serve as one useful source to those
who wish to provide the most up to date evidence based intervention
to these young developmentally challenged children.
Accuracy in judging personality is important in clinical
assessment, applied settings, and everyday life. Personality
judgments are important in assessing job candidates, choosing
friends, and determining who we can trust and rely on in our
personal lives. Thus, the accuracy of those judgments is important
to both individuals and organizations.
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