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This collection of papers illustrates how concepts, theories and techniques from experimental psychology can be applied in the domain of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). An experimental psychological basis for cognitive ergonomics is presented, built on a foundation of theoretical and experimental research. In addition, various issues in cognitive ergonomics are closely examined, including performance in specific interactive tasks - such as computer programming and program debugging. Other subject areas covered include database interrogation, text editing and graphics design.
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Each chapter provides a thoughtful integration of a body of work.
The aim of Advances in the Study of Behavior remains as it has been since the series began: to serve the increasing number of scientists who are engaged in the study of animal behavior by presenting their theoretical ideas and research to their colleagues and to those in neighboring fields. We hope that the series will continue its "contribution to the development of the field," as its intended role was phrased in the Preface to the first volume in 1965. Since that time, traditional areas of animal behavior have achieved new vigor by the links they have formed with related fields and by the closer relationship that now exists between those studying animal and human subjects.
The simple task of grasping objects has been studied for centuries by scientists, therapists and engineers who have tried to understand and duplicate the versatility of the human hand. Using an interdisciplinary approach and new framework for looking at prehension, the authors uncover the subleties of the amazing interaction between the hand and the brain. They draw from such diverse fields as experimental psychology, kinesiology, robotics, neural networks, artificial intelligence, neuropsychology and rehabilitation. A triangle strategy is presented, starting from conceptual models that suggest both experimental and computational models. Chapters describe the multiple postures established by the hand, phases in the dynamic process of reaching for, grasping and manipulating various objects, and the constraints acting on such activity.
Appendices provide the complete anatomy of the upper limb, the basics of computational modelling, and the fundamentals of prosthetic and dextrous robot hands. The ultimate goal of this book is to develop a common vocabularly for multidisciplinary researchers who strive to understand a system as complex as the hand under the control of the human brain.
With Psycholinguistics in its fifth decade of existence, the second
edition of the Handbook of Psycholinguistics represents a
comprehensive survey of psycholinguistic theory, research and
methodology, with special emphasis on the very best empirical
research conducted in the past decade. Thirty leading experts have
been brought together to present the reader with both broad and
detailed current issues in Language Production, Comprehension and
The handbook is an indispensible single-source guide for
professional researchers, graduate students, advanced
undergraduates, university and college teachers, and other
professionals in the fields of psycholinguistics, language
comprehension, reading, neuropsychology of language, linguistics,
language development, and computational modeling of language. It
will also be a general reference for those in neighboring fields
such as cognitive and developmental psychology and education.
The Psychology of Stalking is the first scholarly book on stalking
ever published. Virtually every serious writer and researcher in
this area of criminal psychopathology has contributed a chapter.
These chapters explore stalking from social, psychiatric,
psychological and behavioral perspectives. New thinking and data
are presented on threats, pursuit characteristics, psychiatric
diagnoses, offender-victim typologies, cyberstalking, false
victimization syndrome, erotomania, stalking and domestic violence,
the stalking of public figures, and many other aspects of stalking,
as well as legal issues. This landmark text is of interest to both
professionals and other thoughtful individuals who recognize the
serious nature of this ominous social behavior.
Sharon Johnson is the author of the best selling Therapist's Guide
to Clinical Intervention now in its second edition. In this new
book on PTSD, she lends her practical outline format to
understanding PTSD assessment, treatment planning, and
intervention. The book begins with a summary information on PTSD
definition, and prevalence, assessment, and the evidence basis
behind different treatment options. The book offers adjunctive
skill building resources to supplement traditional therapy choices
as well as forms for use in clinical practice.
New US government requirements state that federally funded grants
and school programs must prove that they are based on
scientifically proved improvements in teaching and learning. All
new grants must show they are based on scientifically sound
research to be funded, and budgets to schools must likewise show
that they are based on scientifically sound research. However, the
movement in education over the past several years has been toward
qualitative rather than quantitative measures. The new legislation
comes at a time when researchers are ill trained to measure results
or even to frame questions in an empirical way, and when school
administrators and teachers are no longer remember or were never
trained to prove statistically that their programs are effective.
Artificial Intelligence is the study of how to build or program
computers to enable them to do what minds can do. This volume
discusses the ways in which computational ideas and computer
modeling can aid our understanding of human and animal minds. Major
theoretical approaches are outlined, as well as some promising
recent developments. Fundamental philosophical questions are
discussed along with topics such as: the differences between
symbolic and connectionist AI, planning and problem solving,
knowledge representation, learning, expert systems, vision, natural
language, creativity, and human-computer interaction. This volume
is suitable for any psychologist, philosopher, or computer
scientist wanting to know the current state of the art in this area
of cognitive science.
Measurement, Judgment, and Decision Making provides an excellent
introduction to measurement, which is one of the most basic issues
of the science of psychology and the key to science. Written by
leading researchers, the book covers measurement, psychophysical
scaling, multidimensional scaling, stimulus categorization, and
behavioral decision making. Each chapter provides a useful handbook
summary and unlocks the door for a scholar who desires entry to
This handbook shows the wide perspective cognitive-behavioural treatment can offer to health professionals, the vast majority of whom now recognize that cognitive behavioural procedures are very useful in treating many 'mental' disorders, even if certain disciplines continue to favour other kinds of treatment. This book offers a wide range of structured programmes for the treatment of various psychological/psychiatric disorders as classified by the DSM-IV. The layout will be familiar to the majority of health professionals in the description of mental disorders and their later treatment. It is divided into seven sections, covering anxiety disorders, sexual disorders, dissociative, somatoform, impulse control disorders, emotional disorders and psychotic and organic disorders. Throughout the twenty-three chapters, this book offers the health professional a structured guide with which to start tackling a whole series of 'mental' disorders and offers pointers as to where to find more detailed information. The programmes outlined should, it is hoped, prove more effective than previous approaches with lower economic costs and time investment for the patient and therapist.
Zuckerman received his Ph.D. in psychology from New York
University, Graduate School of Arts and Science in 1954 with a
specialization in clinical psychology. After graduation, he worked
for three years as a clinical psychologist in state hospitals in
Norwich, Connecticut and Indianapolis, Indiana. While in the latter
position the Institute for Psychiatric Research was opened in the
same medical center where he was working as a clinical
psychologist. He obtained a position there with a joint appointment
in the department of psychiatry. This was his first
interdisciplinary experience with other researchers in psychiatry,
biochemistry, psychopharmacology, and psychology.
His first research areas were personality assessment and the
relation between parental attitudes and psychopathology. During
this time, he developed the first real trait-state test for
affects, starting with the Affect Adjective Check List for anxiety
and then broadening it to a three-factor trait-state test including
anxiety, depression, and hostility (Multiple Affect Adjective Check
List). Later, positive affect scales were added.
Toward the end of his years at the institute, the first reports
of the effects of sensory deprivation appeared and he began his own
experiments in this field. These experiments, supported by grants
from NIMH, occupied him for the next 10 years during his time at
Brooklyn College, Adelphi University, and the research labs at
Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. This last job was
his second interdisciplinary experience working in close
collaboration with Harold Persky who added measures of hormonal
changes to the sensory deprivation experiments. He collaborated
with Persky in studies of hormonal changes during experimentally
(hypnotically) induced emotions.
During his time at Einstein, he established relationships with
other principal investigators in the area of sensory deprivation
and they collaborated on the book Sensory Deprivation: 15 years of
research edited by John Zubek (1969). His chapter on theoretical
constructs contained the idea of using individual differences in
optimal levels of stimulation and arousal as an explanation for
some of the variations in response to sensory deprivation. The
first sensation seeking scale (SSS) had been developed in the early
1960's based on these constructs.
At the time of his move to the University of Delaware in 1969,
he turned his full attention to the SSS as the operational measure
of the optimal level constructs. This was the time of the drug and
sexual revolutions on and off campuses and research relating
experience in these areas to the basic trait paid off and is
continuing to this day in many laboratories. Two books have been
written on this topic: Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level
of Arousal, 1979; Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of
Sensation Seeking, 1994. Research on sensation seeking in America
and countries around the world continues at an unabated level of
journal articles, several hundred appearing since the 1994 book on
The theoretical model of sensation seeking changed as a
consequence of research on the biological correlates of sensation
seeking which included biochemical as well as psychophysiological
variables. Genetic studies also indicated that sensation seeking
was a major trait with a strong genetic/ biological basis.
Zuckerman and his colleagues conducted research on the
psychophysiological correlates of sensation seeking. One of these
areas, augmenting/reducing of the cortical evoked potential, has
provided a well replicated model of brain functioning in high and
low sensation seekers, and Siegel has extended this into a model
for sensation seeking in cats and rats. This animal model provides
a link between sensation seeking and behavioral, genetic,
physiological, and biochemical bases for the trait in other
species. Investigators at other universities, Bardo at the
University of Kentucky and LeMoal and Simon at the University of
Bordeaux, have used the sensation seeking model to investigate the
psychobiological basis of novelty seeking in rats.
Zuckerman's interest in the biological basis of the trait of
sensation seeking broadened into a more general interest in the
biological bases of personality, culminating in his book:
"Psychobiology of Personality," 1991 and many book chapters and
articles on the subject. His perspective in the area was broadened
by sabbaticals spent with leaders in the field in England: Hans
Eysenck, Jeffrey Gray, and Robert Plomin.
More recent research attempted to place sensation seeking within the context of new structural models for personality traits. Factor analytic studies showed that a combined factor of impulsivity and sensation seeking formed one of five, robust and replicable factors of personality. Research on this new measure of the basic trait is ongoing.
The book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of
current research on cognitive and applied aspects of eye movements.
The contents include peer-reviewed chapters based on a selection of
papers presented at the 11th European Conference on Eye Movements
(Turku, Finland 2001), supplemented by invited contributions. The
ECEM conference series brings together researchers from various
disciplines with an interest to use eye-tracking to study
perceptual and higher order cognitive functions.
The ABCs of Learning Disabilities, Second Edition, discusses major
research findings on learning disabilities in children, adolescents
and adults in language, memory, social skills, self-regulation,
reading, mathematics, and writing, with an additional chapter on
assessment. This concise primer is intended for use as an
undergraduate introductory text to the field. Written with an
evenness of tone, breadth, and depth, the conveys an engaging style
meant to encourage the beginning student to identify the big
picture and to be interested in conceptual issues as well as
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Volume 49 contains chapters on short-term memory, theory and measurement of working memory capacity limits, development of perceptual grouping in infancy, co-constructing conceptual domains through family conversations and activities, the concrete substrates of abstract rule use, ambiguity, accessibility, and a division of labor for communicative success, and lexical expertise and reading skill.
"Children & Adolescents: Clinical Formulation & Treatment"
draws on the experience and research of leading scientists and
clinicians from the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom,
Israel and Canada to present state-of-the-art information on all
aspects of child psychology and psychiatry. Special attention is
given to the psychopathology, assessment, treatment, and prevention
of childhood behavioral disorders.
The volume highlights the developmental-contextual framework
used in the clinical formulation of these disorders, as well as
process and outcome issues in treatment. Various theoretical
perspectives are also reviewed, including applied behavior
analysis, family systems therapy, play therapy, and pharmacologic
therapy. In the final section, all of the major childhood disorders
found in the DSM and ICD are described, with information on their
prevalence, etiology, assessment, and treatment. This section also
analyzes the empirical status of the various therapies used for the
treatment of childhood disorders.
Section I examines the foundations for the conceptualization,
assessment, and treatment of child psychopathology.
"Children are not miniature adults, rather they are growing,
developing organisms who are richly embedded in diverse social
contexts including the family, school, and communities in which
they live. As such, they need to be viewed as distinct from adults
and as important in their own right. Children have come of age.
Hopefully, this volume will assist in their ongoing recognition and
provide the reader with much information about assessment and
treatment practices that are in their best interests."" Professor
Thomas Ollendick, Preface to Volume 5, Comprehensive Clinical
This edited textbook will be appropriate for use in advanced
undergraduate and graduate level courses and will serve as a
comprehensive and timely introduction to the field of adolescent
development, providing students with a strong foundation for
understanding the biological, cognitive and psychosocial
transitions occurring during adolescence. While certain normative
biological and cognitive processes are relevant for all youth,
development varies dramatically based on a youth's position in
society. The volume will focus on contextual factors such as
culture, racial identity, socioeconomic position and sociopolitical
and historical events, highlighting the impact such factors have on
the physiological and psychological processes and treating them as
key elements in understanding development during this life stage.
The authors will cover the major theoretical positions (both
historical and contemporary) about adolescence as well as the
relevant research and application. Additionally, modern phenomena -
the ever-increasing influence of pop culture (i.e. Hip Hop), mass
media and technology (i.e., the internet, gaming) and the evolution
of family, education and the church - will be explored in depth.
Each chapter will be written by a known expert in the field.
Thiscollection of 58 articles from therecently-published third
edition of the INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION focus on
learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation,
and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive
psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory,
categorization, etc. Most books in the area either focus on one
subtopic in-depth (e.g. an entire book on memory) or cover the
gamut of subjects in a series of long, technical handbook-like
chapters. This concise reference offers researchers and professors
teaching in the area a new take on the material that is
comprehensive in breadth, but lighter in depth - focusing on main
findings, established facts, and minimizing the amount of space
taken up by large, multi-volume references.
Volume 47 of The Psychology of Learning and Motivation offers a
discussion of the different factors that influence one's
development as a mature and capable person. This is the latest
release in this well-received and highly credible series of
This volume aims to contribute to the integration of three traditions that have remained separate in psychology. Specifically, the developmental, the psychometric, and the cognitive tradition. In order to achieve this aim, the text deals with these three aspects of human knowing that have been the focus of one or more of the three traditions for many years. Answers are provided to questions such as the following: What is common to intelligence, mind, and reasoning? What is specific to each of these three aspects of human knowing? How does each of them affect the functioning and development of the other?
The chapters are organized into two parts. Part I focuses on
intelligence and mind and has reasoning at the background. The
papers in this part present new theories and methods that
systematically attempt to bridge psychometric theories of
intelligence with theories of cognitive development or information
processing theories. Part II focuses on mind and reasoning and has
intelligence at the background. The papers in this part develop
models of reasoning and attempt to show how reasoning interacts
with mind and intelligence. Two discussion chapters are also
included. These highlight the convergences and the divergences of
the various traditions as represented in the book.
Substance Use Disorders: Assessment and Treatment is a summary of
everything a therapist should know about substance abuse in one
easy-to-read comprehensive book. The book begins with a discussion
of the pharmacology of specific drug classes (opioids,
hallucinogens, etc.) and the epidemiology of abuse. It then
presents psychological theories of substance abuse, the initiation
and progression of substance abuse disorders, issues of prevention
and early intervention, and screening and assessment for substance
abuse (including specific tests for assessment) and discusses in
detail the various treatment methodologies available. Two final
chapters explore issues relevant to special populations and legal
and ethical considerations, regarding issues such as
confidentiality and coerced treatment.
In today's industrialized societies, the majority of parents work
full time while caring for and raising their children and managing
household upkeep, trying to keep a precarious balance of fulfilling
multiple roles as parent, worker, friend, & child. Increasingly
demands of the workplace such as early or late hours, travel,
commute, relocation, etc. conflict with the needs of being a
parent. At the same time, it is through work that people
increasingly define their identity and self-worth, and which
provides the opportunity for personal growth, interaction with
friends and colleagues, and which provides the income and benefits
on which the family subsists. The interface between work and family
is an area of increasing research, in terms of understanding
stress, job burn out, self-esteem, gender roles, parenting
behaviors, and how each facet affects the others.
This volume presents a variety of perspectives from within and outside moral psychology. Recently there has been an explosion of research in moral psychology, but it is one of the subfields most in need of bridge-building, both within and across areas. Interests in moral phenomena have spawned several separate lines of research that appear to address similar concerns from a variety of perspectives. The contributions to this volume examine key theoretical and empirical issues these perspectives share that connect these issues with the broader base of theory and research in social and cognitive psychology.
The first two chapters discuss the role of mental representation in moral judgment and reasoning. Sloman, Fernbach, and Ewing argue that causal models are the canonical representational medium underlying moral reasoning, and Mikhail offers an account that makes use of linguistic structures and implicates legal concepts. Bilz and Nadler follow with a discussion of the ways in which laws, which are typically construed in terms of affecting behavior, exert an influence on moral attitudes, cognition, and emotions.
Baron and Ritov follow with a discussion of how people's moral cognition is often driven by law-like rules that forbid actions and suggest that value-driven judgment is relatively less concerned by the consequences of those actions than some normative standards would prescribe. Iliev et al. argue that moral cognition makes use of both rules and consequences, and review a number of laboratory studies that suggest that values influence what captures our attention, and that attention is a powerful determinant of judgment and preference. Ginges follows with a discussion of how these value-related processes influence cognition and behavior outside the laboratory, in high-stakes, real-world conflicts.
Two subsequent chapters discuss further building blocks of moral cognition. Lapsley and Narvaez discuss the development of moral characters in children, and Reyna and Casillas offer a memory-based account of moral reasoning, backed up by developmental evidence. Their theoretical framework is also very relevant to the phenomena discussed in the Sloman et al., Baron and Ritov, and Iliev et al. chapters.
The final three chapters are centrally focused on the interplay of hot andcold cognition. They examine the relationship between recent empirical findings in moral psychology and accounts that rely on concepts and distinctions borrowed from normative ethics and decision theory. Connolly and Hardman focus on bridge-building between contemporary discussions in the judgment and decision making and moral judgment literatures, offering several useful methodological and theoretical critiques. Ditto, Pizarro, and Tannenbaum argue that some forms of moral judgment that appear objective and absolute on the surface are, at bottom, more about motivated reasoning in service of some desired conclusion. Finally, Bauman and Skitka argue that moral relevance is in the eye of the perceiver and emphasize an empirical approach to identifying whether people perceive a given judgment as moral or non-moral. They describe a number of behavioral implications of people's reported perception that a judgment or choice is a moral one, and in doing so, they suggest that the way in which researchers carve out the moral domain "a priori" might be dubious."
"Biological Research on Addiction" examines the neurobiological mechanisms of drug use and drug addiction, describing how the brain responds to addictive substances as well as how it is affected by drugs of abuse. The book's four main sections examine behavioral and molecular biology; neuroscience; genetics; and neuroimaging and neuropharmacology as they relate to the addictive process.
This volume is especially effective in presenting current knowledge on the key neurobiological and genetic elements in an individual s susceptibility to drug dependence, as well as the processes by which some individuals proceed from casual drug use to drug dependence.
"Biological Research on Addiction" is one of three volumes
comprising the 2,500-page series, "Comprehensive Addictive
Behaviors and Disorders." This series provides the most complete
collection of current knowledge on addictive behaviors and
disorders to date. In short, it is the definitive reference work on
Motivation is the energizing force that drives much of our attention, conscious effort, and achievement in life. Yet this important driving force may be absent, low, or problematic in persons with mental retardation. This special thematic volume in the "International Review of Research in Mental Retardation" focuses on motivation within this special population. The book explores several theoretical models of motivation, as well as discussing issues of goal orientation, self-regulated academic learning, the setting and monitoring of realistic goals, and social competence for people with mental retardation. Additional chapters discuss the measurement of subjective well-being and quality of life in this population, and strategies for empowering students with developmental difficulties as well as instructional practices and contexts that can enhance motivation, learning, and achievement.
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