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A large number of volumes have been produced summarizing the work on generation and control of rhythmic movements, in particular locomotion. Unfortunately most of them focus on locomotor studies done on animals. This edited volume redresses that imbalance by focusing completely on human locomotor behaviour. The very nature of the problem has both necessitated and attracted researchers from a wide variety of disciplines ranging from psychology, neurophysiology, kinesiology, engineering, medicine to computer science. The different and unique perspectives they bring to this problem provide a comprehensive picture of the current state of knowledge on the generation and regulation of human locomotor behaviour.
A common unifying theme of this volume is studying the adaptability of human gait to obtain insights into the control of locomotion. The intentional focus on "adaptability" is meant to draw attention to the importance of understanding the generation and regulation of "skilled locomotor behaviour" rather than just the generation of basic locomotor patterns which has been the major focus of animal studies. The synthesis chapter at the end of the volume examines how the questions posed, the technology, and the experimental and theoretical paradigms have evolved over the years, and what the future has in store for this important research domain.
The relation between mind and brain can never be understood by science until the nature of consciousness and self-consciousness is clearly perceived as specific system-properties. In this volume the author tackles this problem in a rigorous analysis which begins with the general dynamics of living systems and leads the reader step-by-step towards firm conclusions about the physical processes of consciousness and the main categories of mental events. Finally the author moves from the cognitive to the affective, and proceeds to interpret a number of uniquely human sensibilities in the light of the general biological perspective he has established.
Each chapter in this book is written by, and devoted to the original work of a leading researcher in his or her own field. The book presents an integrative approach to the psychological study of time in an attempt to bring to light similarities between bodies of research which have been developed independently within different theoretical frameworks - from Piaget's structuralist-organismic model, to information processing approaches. The chapters are organized in a life-span perspective, with different chapters focusing on different age-levels. It includes analyses of time perception in infancy, temporal systems in the developing language, time conception, time measurement and time reading in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as various models of time perception in the adult, both normal and abnormal. A rich concept such as time sheds light on a wide variety of major topics in psychology; the book will be of value to cognitive, developmental and educational psychologists, as well as to psycholinguists.
This volume presents a variety of studies relating to the reach to grasp movement and provides a necessary and valuable contribution to the field of motor control. The professions covered in this book range from those interested in the basic sciences to those more interested in practical application. Neurophysiologists and biomechanists join with therapists and neural modelers to present an extensive overview of current developments. Evolutionary and developmental aspects are included together with descriptions of how this movement is affected by central nervous system damage. Purely theoretical aspects of the motor control of this movement are interspersed with treatment applications and robotics.
The simple task of grasping objects has been studied for centuries by scientists, therapists and engineers who have tried to understand and duplicate the versatility of the human hand. Using an interdisciplinary approach and new framework for looking at prehension, the authors uncover the subleties of the amazing interaction between the hand and the brain. They draw from such diverse fields as experimental psychology, kinesiology, robotics, neural networks, artificial intelligence, neuropsychology and rehabilitation. A triangle strategy is presented, starting from conceptual models that suggest both experimental and computational models. Chapters describe the multiple postures established by the hand, phases in the dynamic process of reaching for, grasping and manipulating various objects, and the constraints acting on such activity.
Appendices provide the complete anatomy of the upper limb, the basics of computational modelling, and the fundamentals of prosthetic and dextrous robot hands. The ultimate goal of this book is to develop a common vocabularly for multidisciplinary researchers who strive to understand a system as complex as the hand under the control of the human brain.
This book represents the research efforts of individuals whose scientific expertise lies in reflection on what Sartre described as reflective acts. Theory in the cognitive psychology of mental imagery, endeavors not only being able to describe the contents and nature of mental imagery, but also being able to understand the underlying functional cognition. Psychologists need not solely rely on the techniques of introspection, and the last two decades have seen highly creative developments in techniques for eliciting behavioural data to be complemented by introspective reports. This level of sophistication has provided singular insights into the relationship between imagery and other consequential and universal aspects of human cognition: perception, memory, verbal processes and problem solving. The recognition that imagery, despite its ubiquitous nature, differs between individuals both in prevalence and in kind, and the dramatic rise in cognitive science has provided the additional potential for integrating our understanding of cognitive function with our understanding of neuroanatomy and of computer science.All of these relationships, developments and issues are dealt with in detail in this book, by some of the most distinguished authors in imagery research, working at present in both Europe and the U.S.A.
Industrial/Organizational psychologists are a rather diverse group of people with a common interest in applying psychology to work settings. This is the conclusion reached by George Alliger in the opening chapter of this volume, setting the tone for the rest of the book, which attempts to expand our view of what can be considered as I/O psychology. The authors of the individual chapters are from a variety of backgrounds, not all of them directly associated with I/O psychology, and they discuss topics such as managerial success and training, as well as topics much more on the edge of I/O such as team-building and organizational theory. Thus, this volume makes an important statement about the potential diversity of our field. At the same time, it will help move us towards that diversity by providing insights and information in areas that should be, and are becoming part of the realm of I/O psychology. These insights into non-traditional topics, as well as particularly interesting approaches to more traditional areas, make this volume worthwhile and useful to almost anyone concerned with I/O psychology.
This book is a collection of contemporary applications of psychological insights into practical human factors issues. The topics are arranged largely according to an information processing/energetic approach to human behavior. Consideration is also given to human-computer interaction and organizational design.
"Advances in the Study of Behavior" was initiated over 40 years ago to serve the increasing number of scientists engaged in the study of animal behavior. That number is still expanding. This thematic volume, "Vocal Communication in Birds and Mammals, "makes another important "contribution to the development of the field" by presenting theoretical ideas and research to those studying animal behavior and to their colleagues in neighboring fields.
This book aims to help the reader to understand what motivates people to engage in risk taking behavior, such as participating in traffic, sports, financial investments, or courtship. The consequences of risk taking may be positive, or result in accidents and injuries, especially in traffic. The wealth of studies and theories (about 1000 references) is used to offer a cohesive, holistic view of risk motivation. The risk motivation theory is a dynamic state-trait model incorporating physiological, emotional and cognitive components of risk perception, processing and planning. If a deficit exists between desired and perceived risk, risk compensation behavior results. A feedback loop provides new information for the next perception-motivation-behavior process. Assumptions were tested and support was found with 120 subjects in a longitudinal study. The concepts and findings are discussed in relation to psychological theories and their meaning for our daily lives.
This volume aims to contribute to the integration of three traditions that have remained separate in psychology. Specifically, the developmental, the psychometric, and the cognitive tradition. In order to achieve this aim, the text deals with these three aspects of human knowing that have been the focus of one or more of the three traditions for many years. Answers are provided to questions such as the following: What is common to intelligence, mind, and reasoning? What is specific to each of these three aspects of human knowing? How does each of them affect the functioning and development of the other?
The chapters are organized into two parts. Part I focuses on
intelligence and mind and has reasoning at the background. The
papers in this part present new theories and methods that
systematically attempt to bridge psychometric theories of
intelligence with theories of cognitive development or information
processing theories. Part II focuses on mind and reasoning and has
intelligence at the background. The papers in this part develop
models of reasoning and attempt to show how reasoning interacts
with mind and intelligence. Two discussion chapters are also
included. These highlight the convergences and the divergences of
the various traditions as represented in the book.
This book is divided into five sections dealing with various fundamental issues in current research: attention, information processing and eye movement control; the role of phonology in reading; syntax and discourse processing and computational models and simulations. Control and measurement of eye movements form a prominent theme in the book. A full understanding of the where and when of eye movement control is a prerequisite of any complete theory of reading, since it is precisely at this point that perceptual and cognitive processes interact.
Amongst the 'hot topics' included are the relation between
parafoveal and foveal visual processing of linguistic information,
the role of phonology in fluent reading and the emergence of
statistical 'tuning' approaches to sentence parsing.
Also discussed in the book are three attempts to develop
quantitative models of reading which represent a significant
departure in theory-building and a quantum step in the maturation
of reading research.
Much of the work reported in the book was first presented at the
5th European Workshop on Language Comprehension organised in April
1998 which was held at the CNRS Luminy Campus, near Marseilles. All
contributions summarise the state-of-the-art in the relevant areas
of reading research.
The field of psychological assessment has been undergoing rapid
change. The second edition of this Handbook, published in 1990,
appeared at the beginning of a decade marked by extensive advances
in assessment in essentially all of its specialized areas. There
are many new tests, new applications of established tests, and new
test systems. Major revisions have appeared of established tests,
notably the Wechsler intelligence scales. The time seemed right for
a third edition, since even over the relatively brief period of ten
years, many tests described in the second edition have been
replaced, and are no longer commonly used. Furthermore, much new
research in such areas as neuropsychology, cognitive science, and
psychopathology have made major impacts on how many tests and other
assessment procedures are used and interpreted. This third edition
represents an effort to give the reader an overview of the many new
developments in assessment, while still maintaining material on
basic psychometric concepts in order for it to continue to serve as
a comprehensive handbook for the student and professional.
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology continues to be one of
the most sought after and most often cited series in this field.
Containing contributions of major empirical and theoretical
interest, this series represents the best and the brightest in new
research, theory, and practice in social psychology.
For more information about the Elsevier Book Series on
ScienceDirect Program, please visit:
The book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of
current research on cognitive and applied aspects of eye movements.
The contents include peer-reviewed chapters based on a selection of
papers presented at the 11th European Conference on Eye Movements
(Turku, Finland 2001), supplemented by invited contributions. The
ECEM conference series brings together researchers from various
disciplines with an interest to use eye-tracking to study
perceptual and higher order cognitive functions.
The aim of Advances in the Study of Behavior is to serve scientists engaged in the study of animal behavior, including psychologists, neuroscientists, biologists, ethologists, pharmacologists, endocrinologists, ecologists, and geneticists. Articles in the series present critical reviews of significant research programs with theoretical syntheses, reformulation of persistent problems, and/or highlighting new and exciting research concepts. Volume 35 is an eclectic volume that includes the mechanisms and evolution of arthropod and anuran communal sexual displays, a functional analysis of feeding, the sexual behavior and breeding system of tufted capuchin monkeys, acoustic communication in noise, ethics and behavioral biology, prenatal sensory ecology and experience, conflict and cooperation in chimpanzees, and the tradeoffs in the adaptive use of social and asocial learning.
Zuckerman received his Ph.D. in psychology from New York
University, Graduate School of Arts and Science in 1954 with a
specialization in clinical psychology. After graduation, he worked
for three years as a clinical psychologist in state hospitals in
Norwich, Connecticut and Indianapolis, Indiana. While in the latter
position the Institute for Psychiatric Research was opened in the
same medical center where he was working as a clinical
psychologist. He obtained a position there with a joint appointment
in the department of psychiatry. This was his first
interdisciplinary experience with other researchers in psychiatry,
biochemistry, psychopharmacology, and psychology.
His first research areas were personality assessment and the
relation between parental attitudes and psychopathology. During
this time, he developed the first real trait-state test for
affects, starting with the Affect Adjective Check List for anxiety
and then broadening it to a three-factor trait-state test including
anxiety, depression, and hostility (Multiple Affect Adjective Check
List). Later, positive affect scales were added.
Toward the end of his years at the institute, the first reports
of the effects of sensory deprivation appeared and he began his own
experiments in this field. These experiments, supported by grants
from NIMH, occupied him for the next 10 years during his time at
Brooklyn College, Adelphi University, and the research labs at
Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. This last job was
his second interdisciplinary experience working in close
collaboration with Harold Persky who added measures of hormonal
changes to the sensory deprivation experiments. He collaborated
with Persky in studies of hormonal changes during experimentally
(hypnotically) induced emotions.
During his time at Einstein, he established relationships with
other principal investigators in the area of sensory deprivation
and they collaborated on the book Sensory Deprivation: 15 years of
research edited by John Zubek (1969). His chapter on theoretical
constructs contained the idea of using individual differences in
optimal levels of stimulation and arousal as an explanation for
some of the variations in response to sensory deprivation. The
first sensation seeking scale (SSS) had been developed in the early
1960's based on these constructs.
At the time of his move to the University of Delaware in 1969,
he turned his full attention to the SSS as the operational measure
of the optimal level constructs. This was the time of the drug and
sexual revolutions on and off campuses and research relating
experience in these areas to the basic trait paid off and is
continuing to this day in many laboratories. Two books have been
written on this topic: Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level
of Arousal, 1979; Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of
Sensation Seeking, 1994. Research on sensation seeking in America
and countries around the world continues at an unabated level of
journal articles, several hundred appearing since the 1994 book on
The theoretical model of sensation seeking changed as a
consequence of research on the biological correlates of sensation
seeking which included biochemical as well as psychophysiological
variables. Genetic studies also indicated that sensation seeking
was a major trait with a strong genetic/ biological basis.
Zuckerman and his colleagues conducted research on the
psychophysiological correlates of sensation seeking. One of these
areas, augmenting/reducing of the cortical evoked potential, has
provided a well replicated model of brain functioning in high and
low sensation seekers, and Siegel has extended this into a model
for sensation seeking in cats and rats. This animal model provides
a link between sensation seeking and behavioral, genetic,
physiological, and biochemical bases for the trait in other
species. Investigators at other universities, Bardo at the
University of Kentucky and LeMoal and Simon at the University of
Bordeaux, have used the sensation seeking model to investigate the
psychobiological basis of novelty seeking in rats.
Zuckerman's interest in the biological basis of the trait of
sensation seeking broadened into a more general interest in the
biological bases of personality, culminating in his book:
"Psychobiology of Personality," 1991 and many book chapters and
articles on the subject. His perspective in the area was broadened
by sabbaticals spent with leaders in the field in England: Hans
Eysenck, Jeffrey Gray, and Robert Plomin.
More recent research attempted to place sensation seeking within the context of new structural models for personality traits. Factor analytic studies showed that a combined factor of impulsivity and sensation seeking formed one of five, robust and replicable factors of personality. Research on this new measure of the basic trait is ongoing.
This volume combines different perspectives on case-marking: (1)
typological and descriptive approaches of various types and
instances of case-marking in the languages of the world as well as
comparison with languages that express similar types of relations
without morphological case-marking; (2) formal analyses in
different theoretical frameworks of the syntactic, semantic, and
morphological properties of case-marking; (3) a historical approach
of case-marking; (4) a psycholinguistic approach of case-marking.
Although there are a number of publications on case related
issues, there is no volume such as the present one, which
exclusively looks at case marking, competition and variation from a
cross-linguistic perspective and within the context of different
contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of language.
In addition to chapters with broad conceptual orientation, the
volume offers detailed empirical studies of case in a number of
diverse languages including: Amharic, Basque, Dutch, Hindi,
Japanese, Kuuk Thaayorre, Malagasy and Yurakare.
The volume will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in the cognitive sciences, general linguistics, typology, historical linguistics, formal linguistics, and psycholinguistics. The book will interest scholars working within the context of formal syntactic and semantic theories as it provides insight into the properties of case from a cross-linguistic perspective. The book also will be of interest to cognitive scientists interested in the relationship between meaning and grammar, in particular, and the human mind's capacity in the mapping of meaning onto grammar, in general.
This book is the first in a series aimed at addressing the rapidly
expanding field of assessment and treatment of children with mental
health issues and/or development disabilities. Autism: Early
Childhood Interventions is aimed at the researcher of practitioner
who works with those young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
In addition to covering major research developments in differential
diagnosis and early intervention, the author's provide a critical
review and analysis of core concept that define this area.
The first chapter of the book reviews the development of
definitions of autism along with early methods for diagnosing this
area of developmental disabilities. Chapter two covers some of the
most discussed theories of etiology along with a review of
prevalence and the author's opinions on why the number of children
diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder has increased markedly in
recent years. A chapter on the most commonly used assessment
methods and a critique of the psychometric properties of each is
followed by three chapters on treatment. We have broken the
treatment chapters down based on type of intervention. The first
treatment chapter covers specific target behaviors or small sets of
behaviors. A second chapter covers training for the packaged
comprehensive treatment models with particular emphasis on the
TEACCH, UCLA-YAP and the University of California Santa Barbara
Autism Research and Training Program. Each of these programs gives
a unique perspective on treatment for these young children. The
final treatment chapter covers the recent developments in
pharmacotherapy for autism spectrum disorder, with a critical
analysis and review of the data.
We hope the overview presented proves to be of interest to
researchers and practitioners in the field. We present one
perspective on this exciting and innovative area of research and
treatment. Hopefully, it will serve as one useful source to those
who wish to provide the most up to date evidence based intervention
to these young developmentally challenged children.
Is it possible to ban unwanted thoughts from consciousness? According to the literature on thought suppression, the answer is no. In the 1980s, Wegner and colleges demonstrated that the average person cannot prevent a trivial thought like that of a polar bear from entering consciousness approximately seven times in a five minute period. This experimental finding was followed by a substantial number of replications. This book provides an up-to-date overview of the thought suppression literature. First, similarities and differences between suppression, repression, and dissociation are discussed. Methodological issues are then considered. Finally, the clinical applications of the thought suppression literature are discussed. Although there are numerous conditions to which the phenomenon of suppression can be applied, obsession and traumatic recollection are the main applications. In addition to offering an overview of the literature, this book links the thought suppression paradigm to other research fields, such as directed forgetting and repressive coping. Furthermore, it discusses the phenomenon of thought suppression in the light of broader theories such as the cognitive theory of obsession, and the ego depletion hypothesis. Clinical implications and directions for future research are offered.
Intended to give a broad overview of the literature in the area of
self-injurious behavior in people with intellectual disabilities,
but most of the text is dedicated to the review of the behavioral
and biological research in this field. In fact, it is our view that
the most promising heuristic approach for the advancement of our
understanding of this phenomenon and for its management and
treatment is likely the bio-behavioral perspective in which
behavior can be studied at the intersect of learning and the
biological bases of behavior. We will propose an overarching
heuristic model, which we will call the Gene-Brain-Behavior Model
of Self-Injurious Behavior that presents a platform to integrate
disparate, and previously isolated scientific approaches.
Mental Chronometry (MC) comprises a variety of techniques for
measuring the speed with which the brain processes
Written at a post-graduate level, this new volume provides a
cumulative overview of the research available on the pathogenesis
of fear and anxiety in youths. Its aim is to give the reader an
idea of the factors that are thought to be involved in the
development of abnormal fear and anxiety in children and
adolescents, and to integrate this knowledge in a comprehensive
model. This book also gives an update of the current scientific
status on the psychological and pharmacological treatment and
assessment of anxiety disorders in youths.
Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders,
affecting 14% of all people at some point in their lifetime. Women
are twice as likely to become depressed as men, but beyond gender
there are a variety of risk factors that influence the prevalence
and likelihood of experiencing depression. Risk Factors in
Depression consolidates research findings on risk factors into one
source, for ease of reference for both researchers and clinicians
The book brings together research that investigates how people
experience products: durable, non-durable, or virtual. In contrast
to other books, the present book takes a very broad, possibly
all-inclusive perspective, on how people experience products. It
thereby bridges gaps between several areas within psychology (e.g.
perception, cognition, emotion) and links these areas to more
applied areas of science, such as product design, human-computer
interaction and marketing.
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