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Mental Chronometry (MC) comprises a variety of techniques for
measuring the speed with which the brain processes
This book provides developmental researchers with the basic tools
for understanding how to utilize categorical variables in their
data analysis. Covering the measurement of individual differences
in growth rates, the measurement of stage transitions, latent class
and log-linear models, chi-square, and more, the book provides a
means for developmental researchers to make use of categorical
The media, scientific researchers, and the "Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual" all refer to "autism" as if it were a single
disorder or a single disorder over a spectrum. However, autism is
unlike any single disorder in a variety of ways. No single brain
deficit is found to cause it, no single drug is found to affect it,
and no single cause or cure has been found despite tremendous
research efforts to find same. "Rethinking Autism" reviews the
scientific research on causes, symptomology, course, and treatment
done to date and draws the potentially shocking conclusion that
"autism" does not exist as a single disorder. The conglomeration of
symptoms exists, but like fever, those symptoms aren t a disease in
themselves, but rather a result of some other cause(s). Only by
ceasing to think of autism as a single disorder can we ever advance
research to more accurately parse why these symptoms occur and what
the different and varied causes may be.
The purpose of the book is to provide a comprehensive overview of hemispheric differences in sensory and perceptual processing. The first section of the book deals directly with the intra- and inter-hemispheric processing of spatial and temporal frequencies in the visual modality. The second section addresses the initial interaction between sensory and cognitive mechanisms, dealing with how the left and right cerebral hemispheres differ in their computation and representation of sensory information. The third section covers how attentional mechanisms modulate the nature of perceptual processing in the cerebral hemispheres. Section four consists of a single chapter which reviews evidence suggesting a functional linkage between upper and right visual field processing, on the one hand, and lower and left visual field processing on the other.
Advances in the Study of Behavior continues to serve scientists across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Focusing on new theories and research developments with respect to behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and comparative psychology, these volumes foster cooperation and communication in these diverse fields.
In this book the editors have gathered a number of contributions by persons who have been working on problems of Cognitive Technology (CT). The present collection initiates explorations of the human mind via the technologies the mind produces. These explorations take as their point of departure the question What happens when humans produce new technologies? Two interdependent perspectives from which such a production can be approached are adopted:
- How and why constructs that have their origins in human mental life are embodied in physical environments when people fabricate their habitat, even to the point of those constructs becoming that very habitat
- How and why these fabricated habitats affect, and feed back into, human mental life.
The aim of the CT research programme is to determine, in general, which technologies, and in particular, which interactive computer-based technologies, are humane with respect to the cognitive development and evolutionary adaptation of their end users. But what does it really mean to be humane in a technological world? To shed light on this central issue other pertinent questions are raised, e.g.
- Why are human minds externalised, i.e., what purpose does the process of externalisation serve?
- What can we learn about the human mind by studying how it externalises itself?
- How does the use of externalised mental constructs (the objects we call 'tools') change people fundamentally?
- To what extent does human interaction with technology serve as an amplification of human cognition, and to what extent does it lead to a atrophy of the human mind?
The book calls for a reflection on what a tool is. Strong parallels between CT andenvironmentalism are drawn: both are seen as trends having originated in our need to understand how we manipulate, by means of the tools we have created, our natural habitat consisting of, on the one hand, the cognitive environment which generates thought and determines action, and on the other hand, the physical environment in which thought and action are realised. Both trends endeavour to protect the human habitat from the unwanted or uncontrolled impact of technology, and are ultimately concerned with the ethics and aesthetics of tool design and tool use.
Among the topics selected by the contributors to the book, the following themes emerge (the list is not exhaustive): using technology to empower the cognitively impaired; the ethics versus aesthetics of technology; the externalisation of emotive and affective life and its special dialectic ('mirror') effects; creativity enhancement: cognitive space, problem tractability; externalisation of sensory life and mental imagery; the engineering and modelling aspects of externalised life; externalised communication channels and inner dialogue; externalised learning protocols; relevance analysis as a theoretical framework for cognitive technology.
This serial was established under the editorship of Dr. Norman R. Ellis in 1966. As a result of his editorial effort and the contributions of many authors, the serial is now recognized as the area's best source of reviews of behavioral research on mental retardation. From its inception, active research scientists and graduate students in mental retardation have looked to this serial as a major source of critical reviews of research and theory in the area.
WJ III Clinical Use and Interpretation presents a wide variety of
clinical applications of the WJ III from leading experts. Each
chapter will provide the reader with insights into patterns of
cluster and test scores from both the WJ III "Tests of Cognitive
Abilities" and WJ III "Tests of Achievement" that can assist with
interpretation and formulation of diagnostic hypotheses for
clinical practice. WJ III Clinical Use and Interpretation provides
expert guidance for using the WJ III with individuals with a broad
array of learning and neuropsychological problems, including
learning disabilities and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
New research included in this volume emphasizes the value of the WJ
III for identification of gifted children and adolescents and young
children with developmental delays.
Donald Kausler is one of the founding fathers of research on aging.
Internationally recognized, his efforts have formed the cornerstone
of research on how age affects memory and learning. Now, in one
comprehensive volume, Kausler condenses research findings in this
realm into one engaging and forthright book. What are the effects
of aging on classical and operant conditioning? How does age affect
memory capacity/transfer of learning skill acquisition? Kausler
addresses all of these issues and more in a clearly presented,
easily understood review of major research findings.
Time-to-contact is the visual information that observers use in fundamental tasks such as landing an airplane or hitting a ball. Time-to-contact has been a hot topic in perception and action for many years and although many articles have been published on this topic, a comprehensive overview or assessment of the theory does not yet exist. This book fills an important gap and will have appeal to the perception and action community. The book is divided into four sections. Section one covers the foundation of time-to-contact, Section two covers different behavioral approaches to time-to-contact estimation, Section three focuses on time-to-contact as perception and strategy, and Section four covers time-to-contact and action regulation.
The papers included in this volume highlight research and practice in child and adolescent mental health from around the world. As systems of care are different across countries and cultures, it is imperative that knowledge is shared and lessons learned. The biennial Elsevier conference on Child and Adolescent Mental Health is designed to provide a forum for mental health and educational experts from various disciplines and countries.
The Handbook of Psychoeducational Assessment is a practical guide
for educational and psychological professionals using
norm-referenced tests in the ability, achievement, and behavioral
assessment of children. Written by key individuals involved in the
construction and evolution of the most widely used tests, this book
provides critical information on the nature and scope of commonly
used tests, their reliability and validity, administration, scoring
and interpretation, and on how the tests may differ and complement
each other in their utility with specific populations.
The aim of Advances in the Study of Behavior remains as it has been
since the series began: to serve the increasing number of
scientists who are engaged in the study of animal behavior by
presenting their theoretical ideas and research to their colleagues
and to those in neighboring fields. We hope that the series will
continue its "contribution to the development of the field," as its
intended role was phrased in the Preface to the first volume in
1965. Since that time, traditional areas of animal behavior have
achieved new vigor by the links they have formed with related
fields and by the closer relationship that now exists between those
studying animal and human subjects.
Serial killers like Seattle's Ted Bundy, Maryland's Beltway Sniper,
Atlanta's Wayne Williams, or England's Peter Sutcliffe usually
outsmart the task forces on their trail for long periods of time.
Keppel and Birnes take readers inside the operations of serial
killer task forces to learn why. What is the underlying psychology
of a serial killer and why this defeats task force investigations?
The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together elements of cognitive psychology, mathematics, perception, and linguistics. Focusing on the main areas of exploration in this field today, Cognitive Science presents comprehensive overviews of research findings and discusses new cross-over areas of interest. Contributors represent the most senior and well-established names in the field. This volume serves as a high-level introduction, with sufficient breadth to be a graduate-level text, and enough depth to be a valued reference source to researchers.
The relation between mind and brain can never be understood by science until the nature of consciousness and self-consciousness is clearly perceived as specific system-properties. In this volume the author tackles this problem in a rigorous analysis which begins with the general dynamics of living systems and leads the reader step-by-step towards firm conclusions about the physical processes of consciousness and the main categories of mental events. Finally the author moves from the cognitive to the affective, and proceeds to interpret a number of uniquely human sensibilities in the light of the general biological perspective he has established.
The idea for this book grew out of the conference "Motivational
Psychology of Ontogenesis" held at the Max Planck Institute for
Human Development in Berlin, Germany, in May 1998. This conference
focused on the interface of development and motivation and
therefore brought together scholars from three major areas in
psychology - developmental, motivational and lifespan.
Empathy has long been regarded as central to the art of medicine
and especially to the practice of psychotherapy. The ability of a
therapist to appreciate the patient's state of mind and frame of
reference is the foundation of a therapeutic alliance and key to
the process of healing. However, these subjective aspects of
practice are rendered suspect by today's emphasis on objectivity:
formal diagnosis, with biological treatments, and standardized
methodologies that appear to be aimed more at disease than at the
person who suffers from it. Pressured by the practice climate and
by the advances of science, practitioners have become treatment
specialists and the empathic healer has become an endangered
The aim of Advances in the Study of Behavior is to serve scientists
engaged in the study of animal behavior, including psychologists,
neuroscientists, biologists, ethologists, pharmacologists,
endocrinologists, ecologists, and geneticists. Articles in the
series present critical reviews of significant research programs
with theoretical syntheses, reformulation of persistent problems,
and/or highlighting new and exciting research concepts.
Describes the evidence-based approaches to preventing relapse of
major mental and substance-related disorders. Therapist's Guide to
Evidence-based Relapse Prevention combines the theoretical
rationale, empirical data, and the practical "how-to" for
Adjunctive treatments, in which patients are provided additional
modalities that can assist in their behavior change or the
maintenance of their behavior change (i.e. telehealth,
psychoeducation, consumer-driven treatment planning), have a useful
role in addressing problems that can't be solved by face-to-face
meetings. The adjunctive therapies covered in this book are all
based on improving patient's self management of their problems or
the factors that exacerbate their problems.
Intended to give a broad overview of the literature in the area of
self-injurious behavior in people with intellectual disabilities,
but most of the text is dedicated to the review of the behavioral
and biological research in this field. In fact, it is our view that
the most promising heuristic approach for the advancement of our
understanding of this phenomenon and for its management and
treatment is likely the bio-behavioral perspective in which
behavior can be studied at the intersect of learning and the
biological bases of behavior. We will propose an overarching
heuristic model, which we will call the Gene-Brain-Behavior Model
of Self-Injurious Behavior that presents a platform to integrate
disparate, and previously isolated scientific approaches.
Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, Seventh Edition, provides extensive reviews and critical evaluations of research on the social aspects of aging. It also makes available major references and identifies high-priority topics for future research. The book is organized into four parts. Part 1 reviews developments in the field of age and the life course (ALC) studies and presents guidelines on conducting cohort analysis. Part 2 covers the demographic aspects of aging; longevity trends; disability and aging; and stratification and inequality research. Part 3 includes chapters that examine socioeconomic position and racial/ethnic disparities in health at older ages; the role of social factors in the distribution, antecedents, and consequences of depression; and aspects of private wealth transfers and the changing nature of family gift-giving. Part 4 deals with pension reform in Europe; the political activities of older Americans; the future of retirement security; and gender differences in old age. The Handbook is intended for researchers, professional practitioners, and students in the field of aging. It can also serve as a basic reference tool for scholars, professionals, and others who are not presently engaged in research and practice directly focused on aging and the aged. * Contains all the main areas of social science gerontological research in one volume* Begins with a section on theory and methods* Edited by one of the fathers of gerontology (Binstock) and contributors represent top scholars in gerontology
The Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, Seventh Edition, provides a basic reference source on the behavioral processes of aging for researchers, graduate students, and professionals. It also provides perspectives on the behavioral science of aging for researchers and professionals from other disciplines. The book is organized into four parts. Part 1 reviews key methodological and analytical issues in aging research. It examines some of the major historical influences that might provide explanatory mechanisms for a better understanding of cohort and period differences in psychological aging processes. Part 2 includes chapters that discuss the basics and nuances of executive function; the history of the morphometric research on normal brain aging; and the neural changes that occur in the brain with aging. Part 3 deals with the social and health aspects of aging. It covers the beliefs that individuals have about how much they can control various outcomes in their life; the impact of stress on health and aging; and the interrelationships between health disparities, social class, and aging. Part 4 discusses the emotional aspects of aging; family caregiving; and mental disorders and legal capacities in older adults.
The pre-eminent 19th century British ethicist, Henry Sidgwick once
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