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This book is not available as a print inspection copy. To download an e-inspection copy click here or for more information contact your local sales representative. Now in an updated second edition, Social Inequality continues to be an essential guide to understanding social inequality and stratification, helping readers to understand what inequality is, how it is defined, explored and measured, and what the key social divisions are at both global and national level. The new edition includes: A global context, offering a comparative discussion on social inequalities, policy, and justice. NEW CHAPTER: 'Youth and Age' discusses age as a social construct and form of division. NEW CHAPTER: 'Health and disability' defines health inequalities and analyses the current thinkers on health inequalities and their proposed solutions. Updated coverage of sexuality and transgender issues. Enhanced discussion of migration and asylum seeking.
This book points out why organisational or governance aspects are essential for implementing a broad and integrated flood risk management approach. It provides key conclusions on resilient, efficient and legitimate flood risk governance arrangements in vulnerable urban areas in Europe. These are translated into concrete recommendations and good practices that can give you new insights and inspire you to improve policies and practices. The book is a way of spreading the results of the EU 7th Framework Project STAR-FLOOD. The project investigated strategies for dealing with flood risks in 18 vulnerable urban regions in 6 European countries: England, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. STAR-FLOOD focused on governance aspects, from a combined public administration and legal perspective.
Grants play a significant role in implementing and funding federal programs. The federal government's use of grants to achieve national objectives and to respond to emerging trends, such as changing demographics and changing threats to homeland security, has grown significantly in the last two decades. While federal grant funding has been increasing, long-standing concerns remain about the federal government's grants management and the lack of effective oversight tools to reasonably assure that grants are used for their intended purposes and that risks of fraud, waste and abuse are minimised. This book presents the grant management process as well as ways to improve oversight and accountability of federal grants.
As government management in Israel is gradually replaced by private sector management, it is becoming apparent that the collective-oriented mission of government cannot be fulfilled by the private sector or by the non-profit organizations of civil society. This book provides an analysis of the machinery of government in Israel, highlighting the inadequacy of the private sector as an alternative and how public management will need to cope with the new challenges and pressures of the 21st century.
Providing hitherto unpublished data and analysis in English for the first time, this book gives a comprehensive analysis of the issue of public and private-sector management. The author examines the tasks of the civil service; the legal foundation of the public management machinery; and the profile of civil servants, and looks at the unwieldy budget process; the prevalence (and absence) of regulation; and external and internal mechanisms of oversight. This analysis is balanced by a detailed exposition of Israel's political-administrative culture with its excessive centralization, secrecy, turf protection, and legacy of improvisation, and their effect on policymaking and administration.
This comprehensive and detailed examination of public management in Israel will be of great interest both to students and scholars of business and management, government and politics, and to policymakers in the region.
This two volume set on Governance provides a one-stop point of reference for the diverse and complex topics surrounding governance for the period between the collapse of the post-war consensus and the rise of neoliberal regimes in the 1970s. This comprehensive resource concentrates primarily on topics related to the changing nature and role of national governments in recent times and the ways in which their roles have been conceptualized in the areas of political science, public administration, political economy and sociology. Key features include: - an examination the changes in national governments associated with the transfer of powers, rights and functions to organizations within the private sector and with the rise of new types of regional and international linkages and problems therein; - an exploration of how national governments have become both increasingly dependent on organizations inthe private sector and increasingly constrained by international linkages. The Encyclopedia of Governance avoids the jargon that characterizes most of the writing in this field and translates the common language used into a more familiar and commonsense vocabulary, so as to make it intelligible to the broadest possible audience. This collection is an essential purchase for all reference libraries around the world.
In The Political Economy of Public Sector Governance, Anthony Michael Bertelli introduces core ideas in positive political theory as they apply to public management and policy. Though recent literature that mathematically models relationships between politicians and public managers provides insight into contemporary public administration, the technical way these works present information limits their appeal. This book helps readers understand public-sector governance arrangements and the implications these arrangements have for public management practice and policy outcomes by presenting information in a non-technical way.
A new structure of local government, the contemporary village panchayat, has emerged in rural India as a consequence of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992. This new statistical domain requires databases for the development functions that have been allocated to it. This book is a study of panchayat-level databases and their potential use in local-level administration, planning, and policy implementation. It examines the overall status of local-level data available in two contrasting village panchayats: Raina gram panchayat, Barddhaman district, West Bengal; and Warwat Khanderao gram panchayat, Buldhana district, Maharashtra, drawing on interviews on the process of record-keeping and use of accumulated data with officials. The study attempts to understand the current and potential use of such records in decentralized development planning, the periodicity at which the records are updated, and the reliability and accuracy of such records. A specific and unique aspect of the book is its attempt to evaluate the accuracy of certain panchayat-level databases.
This book explores the legitimacy of political asylum applications in the US and UK through an examination of the varieties of evidence, narratives, and documentation with which they are assessed. Credibility is the central issue in determining the legitimacy of political asylum seekers, but the line between truth and lies is often elusive, partly because desperate people often have to use deception to escape persecution. The vetting process has become infused with a climate of suspicion that not only assesses the credibility of an applicant's story and differentiates between the economic migrant and the person fleeing persecution, but also attempts to determine whether an applicant represents a future threat to the receiving country. This innovative text approaches the problem of deception from several angles, including increased demand for evidence, uses of new technologies to examine applicants' narratives, assessments of forged documents, attempts to differentiate between victims and persecutors, and ways that cultural misunderstandings can compromise the process. Essential reading for researchers and students of Political Science, International Studies, Refugee and Migration Studies, Human Rights, Anthropology, Sociology, Law, Public Policy, and Narrative Studies.
The dramatic decline of democracy in East-Central Europe (ECE) has attracted worldwide attention, presenting a significant challenge to European models of liberal democracy. This timely book tackles the heart of this region's complexity, unpacking the socio-economic, political and cultural developments of the ECE countries. Atilla Agh demonstrates the key turning point in 2010, when the region's political trajectory shifted from chaotic democracy to authoritarian rule. Moving beyond the narrow spectrum of political `event history' deployed by ECE parties and governments, the author offers a complex analysis of the changes to the region, exploring the deep, systemic causes of hard populism. Examining the fascinating relationship between ECE countries, Europe and the world, Agh outlines the future of democracy in the region, exploring perspectives of re-democratisation by the new generation raised under the auspices of EU democracy. Declining Democracy in East-Central Europe provides researchers in both political and European studies with a unique insight into the rapidly diverging pathways of European democracies. Agh's detailed approach to the ECE region will also benefit experts in regional studies, moving beyond political narratives of individual countries and analyzing the region as a whole.
After two decades of dominating the public sector reform agenda, privatization is on the wane as states gradually reassert themselves in many formerly privatized sectors. The change of direction is a response to the realization that privatization is not working as intended, especially in public service sectors.
This landmark volume brings together leading social scientists, including B. Guy Peters, Anthony Cheung and Jon Pierre, to systematically discuss the emerging patterns of the reassertion of the state in the delivery of essential public services. The state under these emerging arrangements assumes overall responsibility for and control over essential public service delivery, yet allows scope for market incentives and competition when they are known to work. The recent reforms thus display a more pragmatic and nuanced understanding of how markets work in public services .
The first part of the book provides the theoretical context while the second provides sectoral studies of recent reforms in healthcare, education, transportation, electricity and water supply. It includes case studies from a range of countries: Brazil, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, USA, Hong Kong and the UK.
This book will be of interest to students and scholars in Political Science, Public Administration, Public Policy, Geography, Political Economy, Sociology, and Urban Planning.
This book promotes an in-depth understanding of the key mechanisms that govern the functioning of capitalist economies, pursuing a Classical Political Economics approach to do so. It explores central theoretical issues addressed by the classical economists Smith and Ricardo, as well as Marx, while also operationalizing more recent theoretical developments inspired by the works of Sraffa and other modern classical economists, using actual data from major economies. On the basis of this approach, the book subsequently provides alternative explanations for various microeconomic issues such as the determination of equilibrium prices and their movement induced by changes in income distribution; the dynamics of competition of firms within and between industries; the law of tendential equalization of interindustry profit rates; and international exchanges and transfers of value; as well as macroeconomic issues concerning capital accumulation and cyclical economic growth. Given its scope, the book will benefit all researchers, students, and policymakers seeking new explanations for observed phenomena and interested in the mechanisms that give rise to surface economic categories, such as prices, profits, the unemployment rate, interest rates, and long economic cycles.
This comprehensive textbook explores the policy process from a multitude of perspectives, including rationalism, culturalism, institutionalism and from a political point of view. This allows students to discover key concepts from the policy science literature and gain a deeper understanding of how public policy is discussed academically and shaped empirically. Public Policy in Action gives a detailed breakdown of all stages of the policy process by discussing the emergence of policy problems affecting the agenda, the formulation of policy alternatives, the decision-making process, the implementation of policies and the progression to evaluation, learning and policy change. The authors also outline the sets of factors which influence the steps of the policy process internally and externally. The book is supported by a wide variety of case studies from a number of national and international contexts of relevance to an international audience. Key features include: * Up-to-date review of the literature on the policy process * Coverage on all key elements of the policy cycle * Insight into the complexity of policy making in practice * Multiple perspectives of the policy process * Critical reflections on the roles of policy analysts * Multiple case studies including water management, migration and social policies. This extensive and detailed textbook will be an invaluable resource for undergraduate and masters students of public policy, policy analysis and public administration, by providing an insight into the complexity of policy making in the real world.
The remarkable changes in China over the past three decades are mostly considered at the national level, whereas local government - which has played and continues to play a key role in these developments - is often overlooked. The themes of China's local administrative hierarchy, and its historical evolution, have until now received scant attention; this book fills that gap, and presents a comprehensive survey of China's local administration, from the province down to the township. It examines the political and functional definitions and historical origins of the nine local administrative levels or categories in contemporary China: the province, the centrally-administered municipality, the ethnic minority autonomous region, the special administrative region, the deputy-provincial city, the prefecture, the county, township and urban district. It investigates how each of the different levels of China's local administration has developed historically, both before and after 1949; and it explores the functions, political and economic, that the different levels and units carry out, and how their relationships with superior and subordinate units have evolved over time. It also discusses how far the post-Mao reforms have affected local administration, and how the local administrative hierarchy is likely to develop going forward.
This book examines accountability in the EU from different perspectives and considers whether EU citizens have real opportunities for holding decision-makers accountable. This book critically analyses five arguments which claim there are sufficient means for holding decision-makers to account in the Union. The authors examine:
The main conclusion is that the current institutional set-up and practice of decision-making in the EU is one that merely creates an illusion of accountability.
Using a strict framework focusing on the difference between formal mechanisms and actual opportunities for accountability, this highly coherent volume will be of interest to students and scholars of European politics, especially those interested in the democratic foundations of the European political system.
This book is dedicated to a fundamental conflict in modern states: those persons holding public office are no more than ordinary citizens. Therefore, their activities must - as a matter of principle - be subject to full judicial control. But at the same time, democratically legitimated politicians need some discretion in their decision-making. Allegations of politicians committing criminal offences in office quickly attract a great deal of media attention. Even politicians themselves frequently use such allegations to discredit their political opponents. However, to date this topic has not been fully addressed on an academic level. This book is a first step in this direction. The individual contributions cover topics such as: "bad" political decisions that result in a waste of taxpayers' money corruption and conflicts of interest in political decision-making immunities and procedural obstacles to the effective prosecution of politicians abuse of criminal law and criminal proceedings in the political arena criminal liability for decisions taken in situations of state emergency the role of criminal law in public opinion. Leading experts examine these and other issues from a comparative perspective.
Real property disposal is the process by which federal agencies identify and then transfer, donate, or sell real property they no longer need. Disposition is an important asset management function because the costs of maintaining unneeded properties can be substantial, consuming financial resources that might be applied to long-standing real property needs, such as repairing existing facilities, or other pressing policy issues, such as reducing the national debt. Also, timely and proper disposal of obsolete ships in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, is critical to protecting the environment. Because these ships often contain hazardous materials, members of Congress and others have raised issues about the environmental concerns. This is also true for the management of civilian radioactive waste, and defence surplus equipment disposal.
Policy design efforts are often hampered by an inadequate understanding of how policy tools and actions promote effective policies. This book addresses this gap by proposing a causal theory of the linkages between policy actions and policy effects. Adopting a mechanistic perspective, it identifies the causal processes that activate policy effects and help achieve policy goals. Bringing together established and emerging scholars in the field, Making Policies Work introduces new concepts of first- and second- order policy mechanisms developed from epistemological and theoretical perspectives, and considers how they can be activated through design. Theoretical concepts are explored through empirical cases from different policy arenas and contemporary policy issues such as partnerships in healthcare, food waste prevention, retirement savings, EU regulations and public sector reform. Graduate students in public policy, public administration and political science will find the powerful analytical tools offered in this book useful in exploring the theoretical elements of effective policy design. Policymakers and practitioners in governmental and non-governmental organisations interested in the practical applications will also benefit from reading this timely book.
This book, the 32nd volume in the Canada Among Nations series, looks to the wide array of foreign policy challenges, choices and priorities that Canada confronts in relations with the US where the line between international and domestic affairs is increasingly blurred. In the context of the Canada-US relationship, this blurring is manifest as a cooperative effort by officials to manage aspects of the relationship in which bilateral institutional cooperation goes on largely unnoticed. Chapters in this volume focus on longstanding issues reflecting some degree of Canada-US coordination, if not integration, such as trade, the environment and energy. Other chapters focus on emerging issues such as drug policies, energy, corruption and immigration within the context of these institutional arrangements.
Arguing that sound is integral to Virginia Woolf's understanding of literature, Elicia Clements highlights how the sonorous enables Woolf to examine issues of meaning in language and art, elaborate a politics of listening, illuminate rhythmic and performative elements in her fiction, and explore how music itself provides a potential structural model that facilitates the innovation of her method in The Waves. Woolf's investigation of the exchange between literature and music is thoroughly intermedial: her novels disclose the crevices, convergences, and conflicts that arise when one traverses the intersectionality of these two art forms, revealing, in the process, Woolf's robust materialist feminism. This book focuses, therefore, on the conceptual, aesthetic, and political implications of the musico-literary pairing. Correspondingly, Clements uses a methodology that employs theoretical tools from the disciplines of both literary criticism and musicology, as well as several burgeoning and newly established fields including sound, listening, and performance studies. Ultimately, Clements argues that a wide-ranging combination of these two disciplines produces new ways to study not only literary and musical artifacts but also the methods we employ to analyze them.
The Federal Government administers a wide array of programs on behalf of the American people: financial aid to assist with college attendance, social insurance programs and tax incentives to promote retirement security, health insurance programs to ensure access to healthcare and financial protection for families, disclosure requirements to help people obtain safer mortgages, and others. But Americans are best served by these programs only if the programs are easy to participate in and present options and information clearly. When programs are designed without these considerations in mind, Americans can incur costs that go beyond lost time and frustration. Research from behavioral science demonstrates that seemingly small barriers to engagement -- such as hard-to- understand information, burdensome applications, or poorly presented choices -- can prevent programs from working effectively for the very people they are intended to serve. In 2014, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) established the Social and Behavioral Sciences Team (SBST) to ensure that our best understanding of behavior -- how people engage with, participate in, and respond to policies and programsis integrated into the policymaking process. This book examines the social and behavioral sciences used in the advancement of policy.
Environmental policy cannot be seen in just black and white, but instead contains many shades of gray. Environmental battles-even the most heated-are essentially conflicts among those with fundamentally different values, and how problems are framed in politics plays a central role in shaping how these values are translated into policies. Sara Rinfret explores these two main themes in environmental policy making in the anticipated fifth edition of The Environmental Case. Through its 15 carefully constructed cases, the book gives readers a first-hand look at some of the most interesting landmark and illuminating new controversies in U.S. environmental policy making.
In fiscal year 2013, the federal government obligated over $555 billion for grants. Effective oversight of internal controls is important for providing reasonable assurance that grants are awarded properly, recipients are eligible, and federal grant funds are used as intended. This book examines whether the five largest grant-making agencies' internal control oversight processes for their grant programs were consistent with OMB requirements and describes internal control issues that have been reported related to the grants management process and key grant programs. The book also examines federal, state, and local experiences with implementing grants funded by the Recovery Act by identifying examples of good practices employed and challenges faced in meeting the act's accountability and transparency requirements. Finally, the book examines the extent to which selected federal agencies and grantees have mechanisms and guidance in place to distinguish between administrative and program costs and to facilitate the availability of these data to Congress and the public; and the extent to which there are challenges that hinder the comparability of grant administrative cost data.
Public administration ensures the development and delivery of the essential public services required for sustaining modern civilization. Covering areas from public safety and social welfare to transportation and education, the services provided through the public sector are inextricably part of our daily lives. However, mandatory budgetary cuts in recent years have caused public administrators to radically re-think how they govern in the modern age. In this Very Short Introduction Stella Theodoulou and Ravi Roy offer practical insight into the major challenges confronting the public sector in the globalized era. Tackling some of the most hotly debated issues of our time, including the privatization of public services and government surveillance, they take the reader on a global journey through history to examine the origins, development, and continued evolution of public administration. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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