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This is the first ever book to analyse outsourcing - contracting out public services to private business interests. It is an unacknowledged revolution in the British economy, and it has happened quietly, but it is creating powerful new corporate interests, transforming the organisation of government at all levels, and is simultaneously enriching a new business elite and creating numerous fiascos in the delivery of public services. What links the brutal treatment of asylum-seeking detainees, the disciplining of welfare benefit claimants, the profits effortlessly earned by the privatised rail companies, and the fiasco of the management of security at the 2012 Olympics? In a word: outsourcing. This book, by the renowned research team at the Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change in Manchester, is the first to combine 'follow the money' research with accessibility for the engaged citizen, and the first to balance critique with practical suggestions for policy reform. -- .
The seventh edition of the bestselling Public Sector Management is a rich and insightful description, analysis and critique of the management of the public sector by the UK government. NEW to the seventh edition: Now set in an international context with comparative global examples throughout Three new chapters covering: strategy and planning in the public sector; transparency, accountability and ethics; and non-profit management, including the role of social enterprise and the voluntary sector Examines the impact of the continuing financial crisis on public spending An updated companion website with tutorial videos, free access to full-text journal articles, policy documents, links to useful websites and social media resources: https://study.sagepub.com/flynn7 Public Sector Management is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying public sector management as part of a business, management or politics degree.
This book considers the ways in which public administration (PA) has been studied in Europe over the last forty years, and examines in particular the contribution of EGPA, the European Group for Public Administration, both to the growth of a truly pan-European PA, and to the future of PA in Europe. The book provides a lively reflection on the state of the art of PA both over the past forty years and over the next forty years. It reflects on the consolidation and institutionalisation of EGPA as the European community for the study of PA in Europe, and demonstrates the need for such a regional group for PA in Europe, as well as for regional groups for the study of PA in other parts of the world. The book also demonstrates the functional, cultural and institutional reasons that underpin the significance of a regional group for researching and studying PA at an `intermediate level of governance' between the national and the global levels. The book provides rich insights about the state of the art of PA in Europe from the leading public administration scholars.
Describing new techniques and novel applications, Handbook of Research Methods in Public Administration, Second Edition demonstrates the use of tools designed to meet the increased complexity of problems in government and non-profit organizations with ever-more rigorous and systematic research. It presents detailed information on conceptualizing, planning, and implementing research projects involving a wide variety of available methodologies. Providing a reference of systematic research methods, this second edition explains how these techniques aid in understanding traditional issues, and reveals how they might be applied to answer emerging theoretical and practical questions.
Following a linear, logical organization, this handbook meets systematic goals and objectives through eight groups of chapters. The first group explains the logic of inquiry and the practical problems of locating existing research. The second group deals with research design and the third examines pitfalls in measurement and data collection. The authors give practical, considered advice in the fourth section to anticipate and solve data management problems. They include numerous illustrations to supplement two separate sections devoted to basic and advanced quantitative analysis. The seventh section covers unique analytical techniques used to gain insight specific to the non-market sector's knotty problems. The final section addresses the impact of research and describes how to overcome illusive, tricky, and sizeable barriers to influence other researchers, decision makers, foundations, and grant making institutions.
With a comprehensive survey of research methods and an examination of their practical andtheoretical application in the past, present, and future, Handbook of Research Methods in Public Administration, Second Edition gives you the tools to make informed decisions.
This book is an analytical examination of financing and public service delivery challenges in a decentralized framework. It also provides critical insights into the effectiveness of public expenditure, through benefit incidence analysis of education and healthcare services in India. The benefits of decentralization always come with conflicts and trade-offs. By unpacking the process of decentralization, the authors identify that 'unfunded mandates', arising from the asymmetry between finances and functions at local levels, are a major challenge. The analysis is carried out by distilling the existing studies in this area, and through an empirical investigation of public finance data at different public sector levels in India, as well as in some selected developing countries. Using the household survey statistics of consumption expenditure, an analysis of utilization or benefit incidence of public spending on social sectors in India is achieved, covering education and health sectors.
Reducing residential segregation is the best way to reduce racial inequality in the United States. African American employment rates, earnings, test scores, even longevity all improve sharply as residential integration increases. Yet far too many participants in our policy and political conversations have come to believe that the battle to integrate America's cities cannot be won. Richard Sander, Yana Kucheva, and Jonathan Zasloff write that the pessimism surrounding desegregation in housing arises from an inadequate understanding of how segregation has evolved and how policy interventions have already set many metropolitan areas on the path to integration. Scholars have debated for decades whether America's fair housing laws are effective. Moving toward Integration provides the most definitive account to date of how those laws were shaped and implemented and why they had a much larger impact in some parts of the country than others. It uses fresh evidence and better analytic tools to show when factors like exclusionary zoning and income differences between blacks and whites pose substantial obstacles to broad integration, and when they do not. Through its interdisciplinary approach and use of rich new data sources, Moving toward Integration offers the first comprehensive analysis of American housing segregation. It explains why racial segregation has been resilient even in an increasingly diverse and tolerant society, and it demonstrates how public policy can align with demographic trends to achieve broad housing integration within a generation.
Jayasuriya explores the dynamics of a new social agenda conceived within the boundaries of neo liberalism. The enhanced focus on issues such as poverty through strategies of inclusion, and frames new terms of engagement for social policy, different from that which existed in the terrain of the post war welfare state. The author argues that this represents a form of neo liberal sociability built around a diverse complex of welfare reform extending from the advanced industrial states to East Asia, all of which creates a new social contract within a market model.
Most of the world's population lives in cities in developing countries, where access to basic public services, such as water, electricity, and health clinics, is either inadequate or sorely missing. Through the lens of urban water provision, this book shows how politicians fail to provide reliable and high quality public services because they often benefit politically from manipulating public service provision for electoral gain. In many young democracies, politicians exchange water service for votes or political support, attempting to reward allies or punish political enemies. Surprisingly, the political problem of water provision has become more pronounced in many young democracies, as water service represents a valuable political currency in resource-scarce environments. When do politicians forgo the clientelistic manipulation of water services and invest in programmatic and universal service provision? Water and Politics finds that middle-class and industrial elites play an important role in generating pressure for public service reforms. Based on extensive field research and combining process tracing with a subnational comparative analysis of eight Mexican cities, Water and Politics constructs a framework for understanding the construction of universal service provision in these weak institutional settings.
Simulation and Decision Making, Multi-Agent Applications, Management and e-Business, Mobile Agents and Robots, and Machine Learning. In addition to the main tracks of the symposium there were the following five special sessions: Agent- Based Optimization (ABO2010), Agent-Enabled Social Computing (AESC2010), Digital Economy (DE2010), Using Intelligent Systems for Information Technology Assessment (ISITA2010) and a Doctoral Track. Accepted and presented papers highlight new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research. We hope these results will be of value to the research com- nity working in the fields of artificial intelligence, collective computational intel- gence, robotics, machine learning and, in particular, agent and multi-agent systems technologies and applications. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the Honorary Chairs, Romuald Cwilewicz, President of the Gdynia Maritime University, Poland, and Lakhmi C. Jain, University of South Australia, Australia, for their support. Our special thanks go to the Local Organizing Committee chaired by Ireneusz Czarnowski, who did very solid and excellent work. Thanks are due to the Program Co-chairs, all Program and Reviewer Committee members and all the additional - viewers for their valuable efforts in the review process, which helped us to guarantee the highest quality of selected papers for the conference. We cordially thank the - ganizers and chairs of special sessions, which essentially contributed to the success of the conference.
Presented experiments show that usage ofevolutionary approach to feature - duction is justi?ed.Feature selection as well as construction gives goodresults. It is noticeable that attribute construction's best results assign higher classi?- tion accuracy than feature selection alone.That is why, carrying out selection before construction to decrease searchingspace isagoodsolution. Because of indeterministicbehavior of neuralnetworks,it was di?cultto - ducefeaturesetincaseofusingthemto evaluatecandidateresults.Forexample, aneuralnetworklearntverywellondatathatwasdescribedbyfullattributeset, but when thisset was decreased it had huge problems to do this duringrequired number ofepochs.That suggests that usingC4.5 ismuchmore preferred. Numerous experiments havebeen performed and observed.Analysis ofabove results allowsto put the hypothesisthat it is worth to use Construction module as the feature set reduction. But experiments show that Constructormodule does not work sowell whenitusesthe whole initial set offeatures - the search space istoo large.Soit is worth to use ?rstly Selectorand nextConstructor. The second important issue isthatConstructor destructs the semanticmeaning of the features.New constructed features are notunderstandableforusers.In some real-liveproblems measuring offeature values isquite expensive, forsuch problems selector seems to be more suitable because itdiminishes a number of realfeatures.To constructonefeaturesa number ofreal(measured)featurescan be required. Obtainedresults haveencouragedus to extendour system,especiallythe c- structormodule.Weplan to developenlarged set offunctionsFwhich allowsto use the system with data containingdi?erenttype offeatures,not only nume- cal. Such system will be veri?ed usingagreater number ofbenchmark data sets as well as real data. Acknowledgments. This work ispartially ?nanced fromthe Ministryof S- ence and Higher Education Republic of Polandresources in 2008-2010 years as a Poland-Singapore joint research project 65/N-SINGAPORE/2007/0.
The best decisions made by public managers are based not on instinct, but on an informed understanding of what's happening on the ground. Policy may be directed by ideology, but it must also be founded on reality. The challenge of making the right decisions as a public manager is often, therefore, based on the need for rigorous, actionable research. Now in a thoughtfully revised second edition, this textbook shows students of Public Administration exactly how to use both qualitative and quantitative research techniques to give them the best chance to make the right decisions. Uniquely, Eller, Gerber, and Robinson present research methodologies through a series of real-life case studies, with each chapter exploring situations where a public manager can use research to answer specific questions, demonstrating how that research can inform future policy. Taking readers through the key concepts, from research design and sampling to interviews, survey data, and more statistical-based approaches, this new edition provides a complete guide to using research in the public and voluntary sectors. New to this edition: To better orient the student, the second edition is thematically arranged. Five sections, each with a short essay, provide not only previews of the content of each section, but more importantly guide the reader through how the concepts and techniques covered relate to real-world use and application. A new chapter on applied quantitative analyses has been added to offer coverage of several commonly-used and valuable analytic techniques for decision making for policy and management: benefit-cost analysis, risk assessment, and forecasting. The second edition is accompanied by online materials containing suggested course plans and sample syllabi, PowerPoint lecture slides, and student support materials to illustrate the application of key concepts and analytic techniques. Each chapter also includes discussion questions, class exercises, end of chapter review questions, and key vocabulary to provide students with a range of further tools to apply research principles to practical situations.
This is a comprehensive introduction to research design for university students at all levels across the whole range of political science, including international relations and public administration. It covers the key steps in the research process and explains the logic and detail of a variety of classic and cutting-edge methods. Based on a pluralistic approach, the text endorses both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, and outlines the strengths and limitations of different designs for addressing particular research goals. Giving accessible and practical advice, without use of mathematical formulas or formalized notation, this clear and engaging book features many examples of real political science research, and will enable readers to design their own research projects as well as to critically evaluate existing research in the social sciences.
This book presents the latest trends in attacks and protection methods of Critical Infrastructures. It describes original research models and applied solutions for protecting major emerging threats in Critical Infrastructures and their underlying networks. It presents a number of emerging endeavors, from newly adopted technical expertise in industrial security to efficient modeling and implementation of attacks and relevant security measures in industrial control systems; including advancements in hardware and services security, interdependency networks, risk analysis, and control systems security along with their underlying protocols. Novel attacks against Critical Infrastructures (CI) demand novel security solutions. Simply adding more of what is done already (e.g. more thorough risk assessments, more expensive Intrusion Prevention/Detection Systems, more efficient firewalls, etc.) is simply not enough against threats and attacks that seem to have evolved beyond modern analyses and protection methods. The knowledge presented here will help Critical Infrastructure authorities, security officers, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) personnel and relevant researchers to (i) get acquainted with advancements in the field, (ii) integrate security research into their industrial or research work, (iii) evolve current practices in modeling and analyzing Critical Infrastructures, and (iv) moderate potential crises and emergencies influencing or emerging from Critical Infrastructures.
Common Ground, Common Future: Moral Agency in Public
Administration, Professions, and Citizenship examines the public
and private roles of the citizen as a moral agent. The authors
define this agent as a person who recognizes morality as a motive
for action, and not only follows moral principles but also
acknowledges morality as his or her principal. The book explains
that public administration is a fundamentally moral enterprise that
exists to serve the values that society considers significant, and
that this moral nature makes public administration a prototype for
other professions to emulate, a model of moral governance in
Public administration is concerned with the implementation of public policy, as laid down by the competent authority, economically and efficiently for the benefit of the people. This book deals with the Indian administrative system at the Central, State, district and local levels. NEW TO THE SECOND EDITION The second edition presents an all-encompassing and comprehensive account of the recent administrative developments. A thorough discussion on the structure of the civil services. Functions and roles of the President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Finance, Home and External Affairs Ministries, and Central Secretariat. Explains vividly the roles of the state administration with special emphasis on the Governor, Chief Minister, Chief Secretary, State Secretariat and District Collector. Incorporates detailed analyses on Kolkata Municipal Corporation, Changing Nature of Planning- NITI Aayog, MGNREGA, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), NRHM, Gender and Administration. Introduces a new chapter on `Some Recent Developments in the Concept of Administration'.
In 2005, beekeepers in the United States began observing a mysterious and disturbing phenomenon: once-healthy colonies of bees were suddenly collapsing, leaving behind empty hives full of honey and pollen. Over the following decade, widespread honeybee deaths - some of which have come to be called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) - have continued to bedevil beekeepers and threaten the agricultural industries that rely on bees for pollination. Scientists continue to debate the causes of CCD, yet there is no clear consensus on how to best solve the problem. Vanishing Bees takes us inside the debates over widespread honeybee deaths, introducing the various groups with a stake in solving the mystery of CCD, including beekeepers, entomologists, growers, agrichemical companies, and government regulators. Drawing from extensive interviews and first-hand observations, Sainath Suryanarayanan and Daniel Lee Kleinman examine how members of each group have acquired, disseminated, and evaluated knowledge about CCD. In addition, they explore the often-contentious interactions among different groups, detailing how they assert authority, gain trust, and build alliances. As it explores the contours of the CCD crisis, Vanishing Bees considers an equally urgent question: what happens when farmers, scientists, beekeepers, corporations, and federal agencies approach the problem from different vantage points and cannot see eye-to-eye? The answer may have profound consequences for every person who wants to keep fresh food on the table.
Mobility justice is one of the crucial political and ethical issues of our day. We are in the midst of a global climate crisis and extreme challenges of urbanization. At the same time it is difficult to ignore the deaths of thousands of migrants at sea or in deserts, the xenophobic treatment of foreign-born populations, refugees and asylum seekers, as well as the persistence of racist violence and ethnic exclusions on our front doorstep. This, in turn, is connected to other kinds of uneven mobility: relations between people, access to transport, urban infrastructures and global resources such as food, water, and energy. In Mobility Justice, Mimi Sheller makes a passionate argument for a new understanding of the contemporary crisis of mobility. She shows how power and inequality inform the governance and control of movement, connecting these scales of the body, street, city, nation, and planet into one overarching theory of mobility justice. This can be seen on a local level in the differential circulation of people, resources, and information, as well as on an urban scale, with questions of public transport and 'the right to the city'. On the planetary scale, she demands that we rethink the reality where tourists and other kinetic elites are able to roam freely, the military origins of global infrastructure, and the contested politics of migration and restricted borders. Mobility Justice offers a new way to understand the deep flows of inequality and uneven accessibility of a world in which the mobility commons has been enclosed.
This Open Access book is for scientists and experts who work on urban food policies. It provides a conceptual framework for understanding the urban food system sustainability and how it can be tackled by local governments. Written by a collective of researchers, this book describes the existing conceptual frameworks for an analysis of urban food policies, at the crossroads of the concepts of food system and sustainable city. It provides a basis for identifying research questions related to urban local government initiatives in the North and South. It is the result of work carried out within Agropolis International within the framework of the Sustainable Urban Food Systems program and an action research carried out in support of Montpellier Mediterranee Metropole for the construction of its agroecological and food policy.
Today, the work of government often involves coordination at the federal, state, and local levels as well as with contractors and citizens' groups. This process of governance across levels of government, jurisdictions, and types of actors is called intergovernmental relations, and intergovernmental management (IGM) is the way work is administered in this increasingly complex system. Leading authority Robert Agranoff reintroduces intergovernmental management for twenty-first-century governance to a new generation of scholars, students, and practitioners. Agranoff examines IGM in the United States from four thematic perspectives: law and politics, jurisdictional interdependency, multisector partners, and networks and networking. Common wisdom holds that government has "hollowed out" despite this present era of contracting and networked governance, but he argues that effective intergovernmental management has never been more necessary or important. He concludes by offering six next steps for intergovernmental management.
Offering strategies for a new generation of administrative systems, this book explores the impact of recent managerial reforms and shifting societal values on the stability, legitimacy, and progress of democratic governments. The chapters highlight innovations in consumer communication management and marketing, evolving methods of policy planning, formation, and implementation, and the role of high-information/high-technology in public agencies. Providing insight into the changing environment present in most governing structures, the book covers ethical dilemmas in public service, the definition of work for public sector employees, and population behavior during mass disasters.
The increasing penetration of IT in organizations calls for an integrative perspective on enterprises and their supporting information systems. MERODE offers an intuitive and practical approach to enterprise modelling and using these models as core for building enterprise information systems. From a business analyst perspective, benefits of the approach are its simplicity and the possibility to evaluate the consequences of modeling choices through fast prototyping, without requiring any technical experience. The focus on domain modelling ensures the development of a common language for talking about essential business concepts and of a shared understanding of business rules. On the construction side, experienced benefits of the approach are a clear separation between specification and implementation, more generic and future-proof systems, and an improved insight in the cost of changes. A first distinguishing feature is the method's grounding in process algebra provides clear criteria and practical support for model quality. Second, the use of the concept of business events provides a deep integration between structural and behavioral aspects. The clear and intuitive semantics easily extend to application integration (COTS software and Web Services). Students and practitioners are the book's main target audience, as both groups will benefit from its practical advice on how to create complete models which combine structural and behavioral views of a system-to-be and which can readily be transformed into code, and on how to evaluate the quality of those models. In addition, researchers in the area of conceptual or enterprise modelling will find a concise overview of the main findings related to the MERODE project. The work is complemented by a wealth of extra material on the author's web page at KU Leuven, including a free CASE tool with code generator, a collection of cases with solutions, and a set of domain modelling patterns that have been developed on the basis of the method's use in industry and government.
In this book the author introduces a novel approach to securing exam systems. He provides an in-depth understanding, useful for studying the security of exams and similar systems, such as public tenders, personnel selections, project reviews, and conference management systems. After a short chapter that explains the context and objectives of the book, in Chap. 2 the author introduces terminology for exams and the foundations required to formulate their security requirements. He describes the tasks that occur during an exam, taking account of the levels of detail and abstraction of an exam specification and the threats that arise out of the different exam roles. He also presents a taxonomy that classifies exams by types and categories. Chapter 3 contains formal definitions of the authentication, privacy, and verifiability requirements for exams, a framework based on the applied pi-calculus for the specification of authentication and privacy, and a more abstract approach based on set-theory that enables the specification of verifiability. Chapter 4 describes the Huszti-Petho protocol in detail and proposes a security enhancement. In Chap. 5 the author details Remark!, a protocol for Internet-based exams, discussing its cryptographic building blocks and some security considerations. Chapter 6 focuses on WATA, a family of computer-assisted exams that employ computer assistance while keeping face-to-face testing. The chapter also introduces formal definitions of accountability requirements and details the analysis of a WATA protocol against such definitions. In Chaps. 4, 5, and 6 the author uses the cryptographic protocol verifier ProVerif for the formal analyses. Finally, the author outlines future work in Chap. 7. The book is valuable for researchers and graduate students in the areas of information security, in particular for people engaged with exams or protocols.
A new structure of local government, the contemporary village panchayat, has emerged in rural India as a consequence of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992. This new statistical domain requires databases for the development functions that have been allocated to it. This book is a study of panchayat-level databases and their potential use in local-level administration, planning, and policy implementation. It examines the overall status of local-level data available in two contrasting village panchayats: Raina gram panchayat, Barddhaman district, West Bengal; and Warwat Khanderao gram panchayat, Buldhana district, Maharashtra, drawing on interviews on the process of record-keeping and use of accumulated data with officials. The study attempts to understand the current and potential use of such records in decentralized development planning, the periodicity at which the records are updated, and the reliability and accuracy of such records. A specific and unique aspect of the book is its attempt to evaluate the accuracy of certain panchayat-level databases.
Gender quotas are a controversial policy measure. However, over the past twenty years they have been widely adopted around the world and especially in Europe. They are now used in politics, corporate boards, state and local public administration and even in civil society organizations. This book explores this unprecedented phenomenon, providing a unique comparative perspective on gender quotas' adoption across thirteen European countries. It also studies resistance to gender quotas by political parties and supreme courts. Providing up-to-date comprehensive data on gender quotas regulations, Transforming Gender Citizenship proposes a typology of countries, from those which have embraced gender quotas as a new way to promote gender equality in all spheres of social life, to those who have consistently refused gender quotas as a tool for gender equality. Reflecting on divergences and commonalities across Europe, the authors analyze how gender quotas may transform dominant conception of citizenship and gender equality.
A decade into the 21st century, our world is more interconnected than ever before. Yet even as the global community becomes increasingly more complex and competitive, the world is changing at a rapid pace. Just consider some of the major events of the 21st century: intense climate change accompanied by significant weather extremes; deadly tsunamis caused by submarine earthquakes; unprecedented terrorist attacks in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere; costly wars in Iraq and Afghanistan; a terrible and overlooked conflict in Equatorial Africa costing millions of lives; an economic crisis threatening the stability of the international system. And that's just the tip of the iceberg. With all this international upheaval, is there a conceptual framework that can accommodate these global changes, help us understand the transformations and interconnections, and inform our thoughts and decisions through a comprehensive perspective? In Why Geography Matters: More Than Ever, acclaimed author Harm de Blij answers this question with one resounding affirmation: geography. In this new and revised edition of the immensely popular Why Geography Matters, de Blij shows how and why the U.S. has become the world's most geographically illiterate society of consequence--and demonstrates that this geographic illiteracy is a direct risk to America's national security.Despite the current state of global entwinement and rapid change, Americans seem to be less informed and less knowledgeable about the rest of the world than ever. In 2011, the Nation's Report Card showed that only 20 percent of high school seniors were found to be proficient in geography. De Blij shows why this dispiriting picture needs to change, and change now. Insightful and thought-provoking, de Blij's book tackles topics from the burgeoning presence of China to the troubling disarray of the European Union, from the concerning nuclear ambitions of North Korea to the revolutionary Arab Spring. By improving our understanding of the world's geography, de Blij shows, we can better respond to the events around us, and better prepare ourselves to face the global challenges ahead. Peppering his writing with anecdotes from his own professional travels, de Blij expands upon his original argument in a new edition that is as engaging as it is eye opening. Casual students of geography and professional policy makers alike will benefit from this stimulating and crucial perspective on geography and the way it informs our understanding of the world.
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