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Evolving Public Space In South Africa discusses the transformation of public space highlighted in the country. Drawing on examples from major cities, the author demonstrates that these spaces are not only becoming wasted space, but are also adapting and evolving to accommodate new users and uses in various parts of the city.
This process of evolution tends to challenge the more traditional visions and general global views of declining public space in cities and argues that it rather resembles the resilience of these spaces and the potential for regeneration through continuously emerging and mutating forms, functions and meanings.
Including over 20 black-and-white images, this book would be beneficial to academics and students of urban planning and design and those interested in the regeneration of cities.
The fifty years, 1880-1930, saw momentous changes in the economy and social life of Cape Town, the Mother City.
Growth and physical expansion altered the previous character of the city, but this was accompanied by social and cultural developments springing from the opinions and interests of the citizens.
A.B. Reid, in his career as a Master Builder and subsequently as leader in the public life of Cape Town, not only contributed to the changes that took place but also influenced their direction.
Community development both a collective effort and an achievement driven by individual facilitators with the aim of lifting a community out of poverty. The sixth edition of Community Development: Breaking the cycle of poverty continues to be a definitive guide for community development workers, students and practitioners alike. The book contextualises poverty and explains the process of community development.
It pays attention to the development environment and explains concepts such as asset-based community development and the social enterprise sector. In addition to context and process, the book details the skills required by a community development worker to function in the field. It also explains how to empower the development worker to train others in order to build capacity in the community and work towards breaking the cycle of poverty.
This edition of Community Development: Breaking the cycle of poverty is strengthened by the inclusion of extensive support material. More practical case studies, specifically relevant to the South African environment, have been added and questions on the case studies are included in the book.
Transport and Tourism: Global Perspectives investigates the complex relationship between transport provision and tourism, and adopts a global perspective throughout. Maintaining its 4-part structure, this substantially updated third edition addresses all the key issues and new challenges that transport providers, decision-makers, managers and tourists face in the use, operation and management of tourist transport against the backdrop of rapid technological change in the 21st century. Transport and Tourism: Global Perspectives remains the leading, authoritative text in the field; topics covered in this latest edition include up-to-date and contemporary international case material and examples addressing key areas of current concern. Topics covered include the ongoing financial crisis in the US airline industry, challenges posed by low-cost airlines and other innovative forms of transport provision, the climate change and sustainability debate, problems of managing car-based tourism, crime, safety, and security, and the e-travel revolution. A completely revised 'future prospects' chapter emphasises good practice examples and innovative schemes for tourist transport provision Transport and Tourismis an essential text for students on travel and tourism degrees and will be of key interest to students and practitioners in related fields also including strategic management and geography.
This interdisciplinary collection of eleven original essays focuses on the environmental impact of transportation, which is, as Tatiana Prorokova-Konrad and Brian C. Black note in their introduction, responsible for 26 percent of global energy use. Approaching mobility not solely as a material, logistical question but as a phenomenon mediated by culture, the book interrogates popular assumptions deeply entangled with energy choices. Rethinking transportation, the contributors argue, necessarily involves fundamental understandings of consumption, freedom, and self. The essays in Transportation and the Culture of Climate Change cover an eclectic range of subject matter, from the association of bicycles with childhood to the songs of Bruce Springsteen, but are united in a central conviction: ""Transport is a considerable part of our culture that is as hard to transform as it is for us to stop using fossil fuels - but we do not have an alternative.
Over the past century, American demographics and social norms have shifted dramatically. If trends continue, we should expect to see more people living alone, later-in-life marriages, fewer (and smaller) new families, and a majority-minority population that skews older and older. Americans' daily life and preferences have also changed, whether by choice or by force, to become more virtual, more mobile, and less stable. But housing today largely looks the same as it did in 1950. In Brave New Home, Diana Lind shows why the government-subsidized suburbs full of single-family houses are bad for us and our planet, and details the new efforts underway that better reflect the way we live now, to ensure that the way we live next is both less lonely and more affordable. Lind takes readers into the homes and communities that are seeking alternatives to the American norm, from multi-generational living, in-law suites, and co-living to microapartments, tiny houses, and new rural communities. Drawing on Lind's expertise and the stories of Americans caught in or forging their on paths outside of our cookie-cutter housing trap, Brave New Home offers a diagnosis of the current crisis in American housing and a radical re-imagining of the possibilities of housing.
The aim of this book is to investigate contemporary processes of metropolitan change and approaches to planning and governing metropolitan regions. To do so, it focuses on four central tenets of metropolitan change in terms of planning and governance: institutional approaches, policy mobilities, spatial imaginaries, and planning styles. The book's main contribution lies in providing readers with a new conceptual and analytical framework for researching contemporary dynamics in metropolitan regions. It will chiefly benefit researchers and students in planning, urban studies, policy and governance studies, especially those interested in metropolitan regions. The relentless pace of urban change in globalization poses fundamental questions about how to best plan and govern 21st-century metropolitan regions. The problem for metropolitan regions-especially for those with policy and decision-making responsibilities-is a growing recognition that these spaces are typically reliant on inadequate urban-economic infrastructure and fragmented planning and governance arrangements. Moreover, as the demand for more 'appropriate'-i.e., more flexible, networked and smart-forms of planning and governance increases, new expressions of territorial cooperation and conflict are emerging around issues and agendas of (de-)growth, infrastructure expansion, and the collective provision of services.
"The first edition of Municipal finance and accounting was published in 2007, and was the first comprehensive text on the principles and best practice of municipal finance and accounting to appear since Dr Jack Cowden's 1968 treatment of more or less the same subject matter. The first edition was revised in 2011, the main changes being the inclusion of considerable additional material on the legislative framework governing municipalities, an extensive revision of the chapter on municipal budgets in order to incorporate the approaches introduced by the 2009 regulations on budgets and reporting requirements, and various amendments to chapters 3 and 4 to reflect the advent of further GRAP standards and changes in important local government statutes. The example of the annual financial statements contained in Chapter 5 was entirely redone to accord with the requirements of GRAP, and the chapter itself amended to include summaries of most of the prescribed GRAP standards. The many changes in municipal finance that occurred since 2011 have now necessitated a second revision. All new enacted legislation and amendments to existing legislation have been included, as well as important impending legislation and new regulations, particularly those issued in terms of the Municipal Systems Act and Municipal Finance Management Act. Important MFMA circulars are also covered, as are other significant guidelines issued by the National Treasury. Various other matters of importance in relation to the financial administration and governance of municipalities are also dealt with, including municipal public accounts committees (MPACs), new approaches to grants, the supply chain management reporting framework and several significant court cases. An updated version of the annual financial statements has also been prepared. As with the original edition, this revised version deals holistically with all the key features of municipal finance and accountancy, with emphasis on the principles of sound financial governance in municipalities. It is designed for use in tertiary education and also for regular consultation by accounting officers, financial and non-financial officials and councillors in the performance of their duties. Municipal finance and accounting should be useful to anyone involved with, or interested in, the financial administration and governance of municipalities."
This open access book provides in-depth insights into participatory research and planning by presenting practical examples of its use. In particular, it describes theoretical and methodological aspects of participatory research and planning, as well as the implementation of participatory processes in fields such as transport planning, cultural heritage management, environmental planning and post-earthquake recovery. Further, it compares participatory planning experiences from different territorial levels - from the macro-regional, e.g. Southeastern Europe, Mediterranean or European metropolitan regions, to national, regional and local levels. The book will help researchers, planners, public administration officials, decision-makers and the general public to understand the advantages, disadvantages and constraints of participatory planning and research. Using various examples, it will guide readers through the theory of participatory planning and research, its methods, and different perspectives on how to use it in practice.
Between 1817 and 1898, New York City evolved from a vital Atlantic port of trade to the center of American commerce and culture. With this rapid commercial growth and cultural development, New York came to epitomize a nineteenth-century metropolis. Although this important urban transformation is well documented, the critical role of select Union soldiers turned New York engineers has, until now, remained largely unexplored. In Designing Gotham, Jon Scott Logel examines the fascinating careers of George S. Greene, Egbert L. Viele, John Newton, Henry Warner Slocum, and Fitz John Porter, all of whom studied engineering at West Point, served in the United States Army during the Civil War, and later advanced their civilian careers and status through the creation of Victorian New York. These influential cadets trained at West Point in the nation's first engineering school, a program designed by Sylvanus Thayer and Dennis Hart Mahan that would shape civil engineering in New York and beyond. After the war, these industrious professionals leveraged their education and military experience to wield significant influence during New York's social, economic, and political transformation. Logel examines how each engineer's Civil War service shaped his contributions to postwar activities in the city, including the construction of the Croton Aqueduct, the creation of Central Park, and the building of the Brooklyn Bridge. Logel also delves into the administration of New York's municipal departments, in which Military Academy alumni interacted with New York elites, politicians, and civilian-trained engineers. Examining the West Pointers' experiences, as cadets, military officers during the war, and New Yorkers, Logel assesses how these men impacted the growing metropolis, the rise of professionalization, and the advent of Progressivism at the end of the century.
Based on fieldwork in Malaysia, this book provides a critical examination of the country's main urban region. The study first provides a theoretical reworking of geographies of modernity and details the emergence of a globally-oriented, 'high-tech' stage of national development. The Multimedia Super Corridor is framed in terms of a political vision of a 'fully developed' Malaysia before the author traces an imagined trajectory through surrounding landscapes in the late 1990s. As the first book length giving an academic analysis of the development of Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area and the construction of the Multimedia Super Corridor, this work offers a situated, contextual account which will appeal to all those with research interests in Asian Urban Studies and Asian Sociology.
Peter Hall s seminal Cities of Tomorrow remains an unrivalled account of the history of planning in theory and practice, as well as of the social and economic problems and opportunities that gave rise to it. Now comprehensively revised, the fourth edition offers a perceptive, critical, and global history of urban planning and design throughout the twentieth-century and beyond. * A revised and updated edition of this classic text from one of the most notable figures in the field of urban planning and design * Offers an incisive, insightful, and unrivalled critical history of planning in theory and practice, as well as of the underlying socio-economic challenges and opportunities * Comprehensively revised to take account of abundant new research published over the last decade * Reviews the development of the modern planning movement over the entire span of the twentieth-century and beyond * Draws on global examples throughout, and weaves the author s own fascinating experiences into the text to illustrate this authoritative story of urban growth
Since the 1990s, a burgeoning literature has emerged on the politics and governance of urban climate. It is now evident that urban responses to climate change involve a diverse range of actors as well as forms of agency that cross traditional boundaries, and which have diverse consequences for (dis)empowering different social groups. This book provides an overview of the forms of agency in urban climate politics, discussing the friction and power dynamics between them. Written by renowned scholars, it critically assesses the advantages and limitations of increasing agency in urban climate governance. In doing so, it sheds critical new light on the existing literature, advances the state of knowledge of urban climate governance and discusses ways to accelerate urban climate action. With chapters building on case studies from across the world, it is ideal for scholars and practitioners working in the area of urban climate politics and governance. This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance.
European rural landscapes as we experience them today are the result of ongoing processes and interactions between nature and society. These are changing fast: the future landscapes will be different from those we know currently. Written for academics, policy-makers and practitioners, this book is the first to explore the complex histories of rural landscapes in Europe as a basis for their sound governance in future. Tensions between the needs of agricultural spaces driven by economic incentives and a variety of non-agricultural functions are explored to demonstrate current challenges and the shortfalls in the policies that address them. Using inspiring case studies that highlight the roles of regional agents and communities, the authors go further than the usual analyses to illustrate the importance of local context. Written by experts currently working to revitalise the rural landscapes of Europe, the text concludes with suggestions for improving landscape policy and planning practice.
"The Fight for Fairfax" presents the story of a group of local citizens in Fairfax County, Virginia, and their efforts over the past half-century to invent a place that would be more than simply a Washington, D.C., suburb. Told from the group's point of view, the book chronicles their vision of Fairfax and the steps they took to bring it to life. The group faced many opponents, including populist politicians and anti-growth forces, and this book examines those clashes as part of the overall story.
The Fairfax pro-development group--a zoning attorney, a university president, two defense contractors, a homebuilder and several county officials, real estate developers, and engineers--believed their work would transform Fairfax's rural landscape into what might be called the cradle of the Information Age. And indeed, Fairfax has become a vibrant economic hub that boasts of modern industries, high-paying jobs, superior public schools, a multicultural workforce, and abundant open spaces. In making the case for these architects of change, the author, who extensively researched the subject and conducted numerous interviews with key players, produces an eloquent account that must be considered by all--those who agree with and even those who question the development.
"The Fight for Fairfax" will appeal to a diverse audience, including local Virginia history buffs and scholars and those with an interest in business history, especially in terms of the challenges and opportunities that are often linked to growth and change.
"Distributed for George Mason University Press"
Phoenix, Arizona, is one of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States. The city's expansion--at the rate of one acre per hour--comes at the expense of its Sonoran Desert environment. For some residents, the American Dream has become a nightmare.
In this provocative book, Janine Schipper examines the cultural forces that contribute to suburban sprawl in the United States. Focusing on the Phoenix area, she examines sustainable development in Cave Creek, various master-planned suburbs, and the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Reservation to explore suburbanization and ecological destruction. She also explains why sprawl continues despite the heavy toll it takes on the environment.
Schipper gives voice to community members who have experienced the pressures of sprawl and questioned fundamental assumptions that sustain it. She presents the perspectives of the many players in the sprawl debate--from developers and politicians to environmentalists and property-rights advocates--not merely to document the phenomenon but also to reveal how seemingly natural ways of thinking about the land are influenced by cultural forces that range from notions of a "rational society" to the marketing of the American Dream.
"Disappearing Desert" speaks to land-use dilemmas nationwide and shows that curtailing suburban development requires both policy shifts and new ways of relating to the land. For anyone seeking to understand the cultural basis for rampant development, this book uncovers the forces that drive sprawl and searches for solutions to its seeming inevitability.
This book presents an overview of urban and regional planning in Turkey. It discusses the fundamental topics and contemporary issues in the field. The book is organized in two parts and it includes 14 chapters. Chapter 1 is designed as an introduction defining the framework of urbanisation in Turkey, and the evolution of urban planning providing a background for the remaining chapters. In Part I, contemporary issues of urban and regional planning in Turkey are covered (i.e., new route taken by regional planning, the role of the planner in the process of shaping the urban form of Turkish cities, the specific features of Turkish city centres, large-scale public investments and their effects on urban areas, urban growth of Turkish cities from an urban morphological viewpoint, and problems and recent planning discussions related to the conservation of archaeological heritage). The challenges faced by urban and regional planning in Turkey are discussed in Part II (i.e., major challenges in residential transformation, excess housing production and the future of housing markets, challenges posed by increasing (global) immigration and refugees, challenges due to integration of a resilience thinking framework into the planning systems, development and planning activities of settlements in hazard prone areas, and the current state of climate policy and governance). In the concluding chapter an overall assessment of the contemporary issues and challenges for urban and regional planning in Turkey is made with special emphasis on the last 15 years of the country. Discussions on the case of Turkey could be useful examples both for developed and developing countries.
African Underclass examines the social, political, and administrative repercussions of rapid urbanization in colonial Dar es Salaam, and the evolution of official policy that viewed urbanization as inextricably linked with social disorder. This policy marginalized numbers of young Africans entering the town---and thus, paradoxically, the policy itself subverted the colonial order. "Well researched and sharply written---one of the best and most stimulating accounts of urbanization in Eastern Africa to have been produced in recent years."---John McCracken, emeritus professor of history, University of StirlingAndrew Burton is assistant director of the British Institute in Eastern Africa.
This unique, multilingual, encyclopedic dictionary in two volumes covers terms regularly used in landscape and urban planning, as well as environmental protection. The languages are American and British English, Spanish (with many Latin-American equivalents), French, and German.
The encyclopedia also provides various interpretations of the terms at the planning, legal or technical level, which make its meaning more precise and its usage clearer.
4D Hyperlocal: A Cultural Tool Kit for the Open-source City The evolution of digital tools is revolutionising urban design, planning and community engagement. This is enabling a new hyperlocal mode of design made possible by geolocation technologies and GPS-enabled mobile devices that support connectivity through open-source applications. Real-time analysis of environments and individuals input and feedback bring a new immediacy and responsiveness. Established linear design methods are being replaced by adaptable mapping processes, real-time data streams and experiential means, fostering more dynamic spatial analysis and public feedback. This shifts the emphasis in urban design from the creation of objects and spaces to collaboration with users, and from centralised to distributed participatory systems. Hyperlocal tools foster dynamic relational spatial analysis, making their deployment in urban and rural contexts challenged by transformation particularly significant. How can hyperlocal methods, solutions including enterprise-driven uses of technology for bioclimatic design and contexts influence each other and support the evolution of participatory architectural design? What issues, for example, arise from using real-time data to test scenarios and shape environments through 3D digital visualisation and simulation methods? What are the advantages of using GIS with its integrative and visualising capacities and relational, flexible definition of scale with GPS for multi-scalar mapping? Contributors: Saskia Beer, Moritz Behrens, John Bingham-Hall, Mark Burry, Will Gowland and Samantha Lee, Adam Greenfield, Usman Haque, Bess Krietemeyer, Laura Kurgan, Lev Manovich and Agustin Indaco, Claudia Pasquero and Marco Poletto, Raffaele Pe, Jose Luis de Vicente, Martijn de Waal, Michiel de Lange and Matthijs Bouw, Katharine Willis, and Alejandro Zaera-Polo. Featured architects and designers: AZPML, ecoLogicStudio, Foster + Partners, Interactive Design and Visualization Lab/Syracuse University Center of Excellence for Environmental Energy Systems, Software Studies Initiative/City University of New York (CUNY), Spatial Information Design Lab/Columbia University, Umbrellium, and Universal Assembly Unit.
"Corbett's work makes a welcome addition to the regional history of upstate New York as well as the exploding interest in American resorts. Corbett's book . . . not only summarizes more recent work but adds new perspectives on the built environment, the make-up of the visitors, the role of women, and the nuts and bolts of resort development. . . . An indispensable work for anyone broadly interested in the history of leisure it he early republic, or upstate New York resorts in particular. Certainly, no one with an interest in the history of Saratoga Springs will be able to do without it."-New York History "Corbett takes readers on a grand trip into the history of three upstate New York resorts communities, Ballston Spa, Caldwell at Lake George and Saratoga Springs. Ballston Spa and Caldwell on Lake George were products of land developers who saw tourism as a way to success. But neither town invested in the infrastructure to make tourism work. Saratoga Springs did provide the amenities, with lavish hotels amid parks and pleasure gardens. It was also blessed with a strong work force, particularly in the numbers of Irish women ready to staff the resorts."-Waterbury Republican (CT) "Corbett cuts through the nostalgic haze and localized thought surrounding usual resort histories with the searching investigations and rigorous scholarship we have come to expect from the very best of modern urban studies."-Ellen Weiss, author of City in the Woods: The Life and Design of an American Camp Meeting on Martha's Vineyard "A book notable for its attention to the development of the infrastructure of resorts-hotels and boarding houses, public spaces, and service facilities-as well as the African American and Irish women and men whose labors supported the leisure of visitors." - David Schuyler, Franklin & Marshall College How did the rise of lavish hotels and spas reflect the changing values of American society during the nineteenth century? Historians have argued that resorts were created to meet the demands of a leisured social elite. Theodore Corbett demonstrates that resorts created and re-created themselves to keep pace with changing times. Success came with anticipating demands, not just reacting to them Corbett focuses on the conditions underlying the rise-and demise-of the resorts at Ballston Spa and Caldwell on Lake George. Both towns' major landlord-developers saw tourism as only one vehicle that could lead to success. As a result of their divided policies, neither town invested in the proper infrastructure to make tourism work. Saratoga Springs, however, was able to supply the amenities needed to attract the well-heeled. The town provided visitors with lavish hotels, parks, and pleasure gardens. It also had a workforce that was available for the five-month period per year that the spas were active. Corbett examines the participation of African Americans, Irish, and Native Americans in the resort's service sector The book also stresses middle-class America's emulation of the leisure habits of the English aristocracy. Even though these pursuits (hunting and horse racing) were dominated by men, social rituals were dominated by women, and resorts that accommodated "public domesticity" thrived as the century progressed. Theodore Corbett teaches history at Adirondack Community College and is former director of the Saratoga Springs Preservation Foundation.
With over half of the world's population now living in urban areas, the ability to model and understand the structure and dynamics of cities is becoming increasingly valuable. Combining new data with tools and concepts from statistical physics and urban economics, this book presents a modern and interdisciplinary perspective on cities and urban systems. Both empirical observations and theoretical approaches are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis placed on derivations of classical models and results, along with analysis of their limits and validity. Key aspects of cities are thoroughly analyzed, including mobility patterns, the impact of multimodality, the coupling between different transportation modes, the evolution of infrastructure networks, spatial and social organisation, and interactions between cities. Drawing upon knowledge and methods from areas of mathematics, physics, economics and geography, the resulting quantitative description of cities will be of interest to all those studying and researching how to model these complex systems.
A thoroughly researched and extensively documented look at race relations in Arkansas druing the forty years after the Civil War, Town and Country focuses on the gradual adjustment of black and white Arkansans to the new status of the freedman, in both society and law, after generations of practicing the racial etiquette of slavery. John Graves examines the influences of the established agrarian culture on the developing racial practices of the urban centers, where many blacks living in the towns were able to gain prominence as doctors, lawyers, successful entrepreneurs, and political leaders. Despite the tension, conflict, and disputes within and between the voice of the government and the voice of the people in an arduous journey toward compromise, Arkansas was one of the most progressive states during Reconstruction in desegregating its people. Town and Country makes a significant contribution to the history of the postwar South and its complex engagement with the race issue.
How can we bring people together? Sociologist and best-selling author Eric Klinenberg introduces a transformative and powerfully uplifting new idea for health, happiness, safety and healing our divided, unequal society. 'This wonderful book shows us how democracies thrive' Steven Levitsky & Daniel Ziblatt, authors of How Democracies Die Too often we take for granted and neglect our libraries, parks, markets, schools, playgrounds, gardens and communal spaces, but decades of research now shows that these places can have an extraordinary effect on our personal and collective wellbeing. Why? Because wherever people cross paths and linger, wherever we gather informally, strike up a conversation and get to know one another, relationships blossom and communities emerge - and where communities are strong, people are safer and healthier, crime drops and commerce thrives, and peace, tolerance and stability take root. Through uplifting human stories and an illuminating tour through the science of social connection, Palaces for the People shows that properly designing and maintaining this 'social infrastructure' might be our single best strategy for a more equal and united society.
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