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In the early 1250s Mongke Khan, grandson and successor of the mighty Mongol emperor, Genghis Khan, sent out his youngerbrothers Qubilai and Hulegu to consolidate his grip on power. Hulegu was welcomed into Iran while his older brother, Qubilai, continued to erode the power of the Song emperors of southern China. In 1276 he finally forced their submission and peacefully occupied their capital, Hangzhou. The city enjoyed a revival as the cultural capital of a united China and was soon filled with traders, adventurers, artists, entrepreneurs, and artisans from throughout the great Mongol Empire includinga prosperous, influential and seemingly welcome community of Persians. In 1281, one of their number, Al al-Din, built thePhoenix Mosque in the heart of the city where it still stands today. This study of the mosque and the Ju-jing Yuan cemetery,today as a lake-side public park, casts light on an important and transformative period in Chinese history, and perhaps themost important period in Chinese Islamic history. The book is published in the Persian Studies Series of the British Instituteof Persian Studies.
St George's Chapel, Windsor, is one of the most famous ecclesiastical foundations in Britain. Established in 1348, its origins are closely bound up with those of the Order of the Garter, which was founded by Edward III at the same time.The collection of essays in this volume sets Windsor in its context, at the forefront of the political and cultural developments of mid-fourteenth-century England. They examine the early history of the Chapel, its ties with Edward III's chivalric ambitions, the community of canons who served it, and its place in the institutional development of the English Church. Major themes are the role of the Chapel in the early history of the Order and its influence on other collegiate foundations of the late middle ages; and much attention is devoted to the mighty building campaign at the Castle started by Edward III which made Windsor the grandest royal residence of its day.
Monson's Church Notes, covering 227 parishes, were compiled before the 19th century spirit of renovation in Lincolnshire. Hence their value, for much of what he records disappeared during the passion for renovation.
The round and octagonal churches of Jerusalem were the earliest of their kind. Powerful, monumental structures, recalling imperial mausolea and temples, they enshrined the holiest sites of Christianity. Constantine himself ordered the building of the first ones immediately after the council of Nicaea (325), his main objective being the authentication of Jesus's existence in Jerusalem in accordance with the council's resolutions, but the sites he chose in Palestine also obliterated reminiscences of Jewish or Pagan domination. Holy Sites Encircled demonstrates that all four concentric churches of Jerusalem encircled new holy sites exclusively relating to the corporeal existence of Jesus or Mary, and that they were self-contained, and apse-less because the liturgy, including the Mass, was performed from the venerated centre. Offering intimate concentric spaces, as well as perpetual processions around these sites, they promoted the development of new feasts, shaping the city's liturgy and that of the whole Christian world. They were found especially suitable to compete with former religious landmarks and therefore many of their descendants outside Jerusalem were cathedrals. This volume begins with the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which replaced a pagan temple in Jerusalem city centre, and concludes with the Dome of the Rock, a unique Muslim structure, which was built by the Umayyads on the very site of the ruined Jewish Temple on Mount Moriah, using the concentric architecture of Jerusalem to establish their new authority. Illustrating how architectural form links together culture, politics, and society it explores the perceptions and architectural models that shaped these unusual churches and their impact, in both ideas and design, on future architecture.
An enormous number of churches and other religious structures have been built in Louisiana over the past 250 years, many of which still stand. Today, in New Orleans alone, there are more than 850 churches representing more than seventy denominations. The state's religious buildings encompass not only a wide range of faiths but also a striking diversity of architectural forms. In Religious Architecture in Louisiana, author Robert W. Heck and photographer Otis B. Wheeler provide the first photographic survey of this rich architectural heritage. Their goal has been not to document every religious building in the state (a nearly impossible task) but to isolate prime examples of the historically and architecturally significant.
Robert W. Heck presents a brief history of Louisiana's religious architecture. He describes the dominating influence of Catholicism during the eighteenth century, during which time the original Church of St. Louis was built on the site of the present Cathedral of St. Louis, King of France, in New Orleans. He then discusses the burgeoning construction that accompanied the expansion of religious freedom following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 as Protestants and Jews erected their own places of worship. The author also considers the various architectural influences that have marked Louisiana's religious buildings, from the Colonial style of the eighteenth century, to the Classical Revival and Gothic Revival styles that predominated during the middle part of the nineteenth century, to the Eclectic style that gained currency after the Civil War and persisted until about 1930.
The great part of the book is devoted to 162 religious buildings located throughout the state. In addition to presenting photographs of the structures, each place of worship is identified by name, address, date of construction (when known), and architectural style. For each building the author also provides comments on design, construction materials, and structural and decorative details. To enhance the usefulness of the book, a glossary of architectural terms and an appendix that lists those religious buildings in the state included in the National Register of Historic Places is included as well as another appendix that lists known early religious structures that are no longer standing.
Religious Architecture in Louisiana will prove a valuable resource for architects, religious congregations, historic preservationists, and religious and architectural historians.
Religious Architecture in Latium and Etruria c. 900-500 BC presents the first comprehensive treatment of cult buildings in western central Italy from the Iron Age to the Archaic Period. By analysing the archaeological evidence for the form of early religious buildings and their role in ancient communities, it reconstructs a detailed history of early Latial and Etruscan religious architecture that brings together the buildings and the people who used them. The first part of the study examines the processes by which religious buildings changed from huts and shrines to monumental temples, and explores apparent differences between these processes in Latium and Etruria. The second part analyses the broader architectural, religious, and topographical contexts of the first Etrusco-Italic temples alongside possible rationales for their introduction. The result is a new and extensive account of when, where, and why monumental cult buildings became features of early central Italic society and set precedents for the great temples of republican Rome.
For more than 1500 years, from the Indian subcontinent to the
islands of the Indonesian archipelago, the temple has embodied and
symbolized the Hindu worldview at its deepest level and inspired
the greatest architectural and artistic achievements in Hindu Asia.
In "The Hindu Temple," considered the standard introduction to the
subject, George Michell explains the cultural, religious, and
architectural significance of the temple. He illustrates his points
with a profusion of photographs, building plans, and drawings of
architectural details, making the book a useful guide for travelers
to Asia as well as an illuminating text for students of
architecture, religion, and Asian civilizations.
Winner of the DAM Architectural Book Award 2017 This book - an astonishing achievement following five years of detailed and original research - presents the first systematic survey of the fifty most important medieval parish church towers and spires in England, covering a period of some five hundred years. The introduction provides an overview of the technological and aesthetic development of towers and spires, and examines the evolution of their major architectural elements. The process of medieval steeple construction is also explored. The main part of the book is devoted to a richly illustrated survey of the fifty most important medieval steeples in England, from renowned Saxon churches such as Earls Barton, Northamptonshire, to those of almost cathedral-like proportions such as Salle in Norfolk or Chipping Campden in the heart of the Cotswolds. With over 250 high-quality photographs and around 175 immaculate explanatory line drawings, this book will appeal to the many thousands who visit England's parish churches and who find in them some of the greatest pleasures that buildings can offer.
In America between 1946 and 1953, the German-Jewish architect Eric Mendelsohn planned seven synagogues, of which four were built, all in the Midwest. In this book, photographer Michael Palmer has recorded in exquisite detail Mendelsohn's four built synagogues in Saint Paul, Saint Louis, Cleveland, and Grand Rapids. These photographs are accompanied by an insightful contextual essay by Ita Heinze-Greenberg which reflects on Eric Mendelsohn and his Jewish identity. Mendelsohn's post-war commitment to sacred architecture was a major challenge to him, but one on which he embarked with great enthusiasm. He sought and found radically new architectural solutions for these "temples" that met functional, social, and spiritual demands. In the post-war and post-Holocaust climate, the old references had become obsolete, while the founding of the State of Israel in 1948 posed a claim for the redefinition of the Jewish diaspora in general. The duality of Jewish and American identity became more crucial than ever and the congregations were keen to express their integration into a modern America through these buildings. Hardly anyone could have been better suited for this task than Mendelsohn, as he sought to justify his decision to move from Israel and adopt the USA as his new homeland. The places he created to serve Jewish identity in America were a crowning conclusion of his career. They became the benchmark of modern American synagogue architecture, while the design of sacred space added a new dimension in Mendelsohn's work.
Buildings and landscapesare as much a part of the Christian church as its creedsareflecting the faith and proclaiming God. The architecture of the church'sstructures and the curating of its groundsare unique windows into the church's history and the shape of its theological commitments. Birthed in the iconoclastic spirit of the Reformation, the scapes of Protestant churcheshave experienced massive shifts in design and scope. From humble beginningsasmall buildings and cemeteriesachurches today can occupy thousands of square feet across hundreds of acres. The modern megachurch, with itsextensivecampuses,parking lots, and sprawling lawns,has changedhow we think about the church and its spaces. Form follows function, and theology is in both. The shifts inscale,style, and symbolwithin the church's common spacesreflect changes in ecclesial priorities, even as theyformthe theological imagination in new ways. In ChurchScape , Susan Bratton chronicles the story of the Protestant church's transformation of landscape and building. Citing the influence of college campuses on megachurch architecture, Bratton examines the features that are a part of many megachurch complexes, including waterscapes, iconography, and outdoor art. Taking readers on a cross-country journey to over two hundred churches, Brattontracesthe movement from the small parish building of the nineteenthcentury to the extensive complexes that form today's churchscapes. As she moves from church to church, Bratton describes howallthe church's spacesabuildings,greens, gardens, and gatewaysatogethershape its practices, name its beliefs, and form its life together. Bratton's work offers the first historical and theological analysis for the megachurch and itsphysical planners and planters. She demands that all of us look with new eyes at the ways the church may be an innovator without being disruptive, a place of communitywithoutbecomingexclusive, and a site of abundancewithoutdecadence. The church-in-place mustconsider how its scapes and spaces reflectits sacred life.
The Gothic Revival movement in architecture was intimately entwined with 18th- and 19th-century British cultural politics. By the middle of the 19th century, architects and theorists had transformed the movement into a serious scholarly endeavor, connecting it to notions of propriety and "truth," particularly in the domain of religious architecture. Simultaneously, reform within the Church of England had worked to widen the aesthetic and liturgical appeal of "correct" gothic forms. Coinciding with these developments, both architectural and religious, was the continued expansion of Britain's empire, including a renewed urgency by the English Church to extend its mission beyond the British Isles.
In this groundbreaking new study, G. A. Bremner traces the global reach and influence of the Gothic Revival throughout Britain's empire during these crucial decades. Focusing on religious buildings, he examines the reinvigoration of the Church of England's colonial and missionary agenda and its relationship to the rise of Anglican ecclesiology, revealing the extraordinary nature and extent of building activity that occurred across the British world.
The Framing of Sacred Space offers the first topical study of canopies as essential spatial and symbolic units in Byzantine-rite churches. Centrally planned columnar structures-typically comprised of four columns and a roof-canopies had a critical role in the modular processes of church design, from actual church furnishings in the shape of a canopy to the church's structural core. As architectonic objects of basic structural and design integrity, canopies integrate an archetypical image of architecture and provide means for an innovative understanding of the materialization of the idea of the Byzantine church and its multi-focal spatial presence. The Framing of Sacred Space considers both the material and conceptual framing of sacred space and explains how the canopy bridges the physical and transcendental realms. As a crucial element of church design in the Byzantine world, a world that gradually abandoned the basilica as a typical building of Roman imperial secular architecture, the canopy carried tectonic and theological meanings and, through vaulted, canopied bays and recognizable Byzantine domed churches, established organic architectural, symbolic, and sacred ties between the Old and New Covenants. In such an overarching context, the canopy becomes an architectural parti, a vital concept and dynamic design principle that carries the essence of the Byzantine church. The Framing of Sacred Space highlights significant factors in understanding canopies through specific architectural settings and the Byzantine concepts of space, thus also contributing to larger debates about the creation of sacred space and related architectural taxonomy.
Kishwar Rizvi, drawing on the multifaceted history of the Middle East, offers a richly illustrated analysis of the role of transnational mosques in the construction of contemporary Muslim identity. As Rizvi explains, transnational mosques are structures built through the support of both government sponsorship, whether in the home country or abroad, and diverse transnational networks. By concentrating on mosques - especially those built at the turn of the twenty-first century - as the epitome of Islamic architecture, Rizvi elucidates their significance as sites for both the validation of religious praxis and the construction of national and religious ideologies. Rizvi delineates the transnational religious, political, economic, and architectural networks supporting mosques in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as in countries within their spheres of influence, such as Pakistan, Syria, and Turkmenistan. She discerns how the buildings feature architectural designs that traverse geographic and temporal distances, gesturing to far-flung places and times for inspiration. Digging deeper, however, Rizvi reveals significant diversity among the mosques - whether in a Wahabi-Sunni kingdom, a Shi'i theocratic government, or a republic balancing secularism and moderate Islam - that repudiates representations of Islam as a monolith. Mosques reveal alliances and contests for influence among multinational corporations, nations, and communities of belief, Rizvi shows, and her work demonstrates how the built environment is a critical resource for understanding culture and politics in the contemporary Middle East and the Islamic world.
Learning from Schools focuses on the work of the practice given their award-winning school building programme, which includes St Mary Magdalene Academy, Chelsea Academy, Isaac Newton Academy and Northampton Academy, amongst many others. Learning from Schools is organised in three sections: Pedagogy, Technology and Architecture . Each of these sections provides a way into Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios work across a wide variety of school buildings. Learning from Schools touches on how concerns such as acoustics, circulation spaces and the use of different materials have been deployed in the practice s architecture so as to improve student performance and wellbeing. Learning from Schools will be followed by a further publication which focuses on the work of the practice that concerns buildings for cultural activities in a wider sense."
Among the most magnificent buildings of England are its Anglican cathedrals, great symbols of spiritual and architectural power. There are few experiences more uplifting and humbling than standing in the nave of a cathedral, and no one can fail to marvel at Durham's incomparable Romanesque masterpiece, the elegant stylistic unity of Salisbury, the world-famous stained glass of Canterbury or the striking Gothic scissor arch at Wells. Britain is the top foreign tourist destination for Americans, with 3 million visiting each year, and historic buildings are the top visitor sites. Canterbury Cathedral alone receives over 40,000 visitors each year from the United States and, together with Durham, is a World Heritage Site. In this truly breathtaking book, award-winning Magnum photographer, Peter Marlow, has captured the nave of each of England's 42 Anglican cathedrals. Taken in natural light at dawn, usually looking towards the east window, these remarkable images bring into sharp relief the full splendour of the buildings. Marlow first took up photography as a student, after visiting an exhibition of the photographs of Walker Evans at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The impetus to begin photographing cathedrals came from a commission in 2007 from the Royal Mail for photographs of the interiors or six cathedrals, for use on a set of commemorative stamps. Once the commission was complete, Marlow was inspired to continue the project in his own time. Approaching the Dean and Chapter of each cathedral, he gained permission to enter each building in the early hours of the morning and to turn off all artificial lights. Marlow adopted a kind of ritual, waking as early as 3.00 am to drive to the location and begin working from 6.00 am. In this window of opportunity, he watched the cathedral interior emerge from the darkness and come to life. Marlow's spellbinding photographs are accompanied by his commentary on the project, including sketches, preparatory shots and technical notes; an introduction by curator Martin Barnes on the tradition of church photography, especially the work of Frederick Evans and Edwin Smith; and a concise summary of each cathedral interior by architectural historian John Goodall.
From the middle ages to the present day the houses of local clergy - parsonages, vicarages and rectories - have been among the most significant buildings in parishes throughout England. Architecturally some of the best and most fully documented domestic buildings, their history is that of the small and medium sized house, from medieval vernacular to the bespoke designs of leading Victorian architects and the more modest homes of today's clergy. The lives lived in the parsonage, factual and fictional (from Austen to Trollope and the televised struggles of 'Rev' in London's East End in the 2010s) reveal not just a building, but a hub of spiritual and secular activity, at the heart of local life and linking it to wider, national history. In this engaging introduction, Kate Tiller brings together the architectural and social histories of the parsonage, drawing on the evidence of buildings, archival and literary accounts, and contemporary and modern images, to depict parsonages, their occupants and how their histories may be traced.
Modern life is marred by hectic pace, stress and negative environmental influences. Places to get away from the routine, where body and soul can find harmony again, to breathe deeply and feel good with oneself are sought out more and more. Beautifully designed retreats are turning up across the globe - usually in special locations in the midst of breathtaking, pristine nature. This volume presents buildings and spaces devoted specifically to contemplation, meditation, regeneration and the enjoyment of quietude. The designs are guided by lighting and color schemes, natural materials and views into nature, providing energy on the way to complete relaxation, self-awareness and inner illumination. Archi - tecture creates the connection between the human being, space and nature.
From the veils of the first-century Jewish temple, to the Orthodox iconostasis, to the tramezzi of Renaissance Italy, screens of various shapes, sizes, and materials have been used to separate spaces and order communities in religious buildings. Drawn from papers presented at a recent Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Studies symposium, the contributors to this volume use a variety of perspectives to approach the history of religious screens and examine the thresholds that they mark. Focusing on the Middle Ages and Renaissance in the East and West, the volume includes discussions of screens in Egypt, Byzantium, the Gothic West and Italy. Some authors argue that screens, and particularly the one marking the threshold between the sanctuary/choir and nave, were conduits rather than barriers. Other authors emphasize the critical role of screens in dividing the laity and clergy, men and women, the pure and impure.
This volume provides new research on the history of religious screen and important insights into the many ways in which the sacred and profane are separated within ecclesiastical contexts.
An Exhibit at the Bernard and Anne Spitzer School of Architecture City College of New York, September 2014- May 2015.Curator: George Ranalli. More than a century after Catalan architect Antoni Gaudi began working on The Expiatory Church of the Holy Family, Sagrada Familia remains under construction. This catalogue focuses on that dynamic and ongoing process and on the successive builders' incorporation of new technologies into the structures magnificent design, a living work of performance in itself. It documents the cathedral's evolution using handmade drawings, plaster models, digital imaging and 3D modeling. It examines the geometries and formal languages that have informed generations of architects and builders. At the same time, it shows the integration of traditional craftsmanship with the most cutting age computer graphics and robotic engineering. Originally situated on the outskirts of the city, La Sagrada Familia today serves as the enduring symbol of Barcelona. But unlike the Eiffel Tower or Brooklyn Bridge, Barcelona's icon is still a work in progress and a magnetic center of spiritual life.
More poeple than ever are visiting churchs, but they are often baffled by the architectural and technical terms that abound in guidebooks.This book helps to identify ecclesiastical architecture. It is a dictionary explaining in simple language over 600 terms likely to be encountered on a church visits and is illustrated with more than 300 drawings.
Architecture and religion come together in this never-before-published record of Japanese culture. The book presents the 63rd restoration of the Shrine, beautifully captured by photographs of all the ritual ceremonies, along with descriptive texts. The restoration of the sanctuary takes place every 20 years and lasts over a period of 8 years since 690 A.D. An extraordinary variety of large format photographs depict profound spirituality and festive local participation. Including drawings of the main buildings and maps of the area, this is a book not only for architects, but also for those with a strong interest in Japanese religion and culture.
Built by Spanish Franciscan missionaries in the seventeenth century, the magnificent mission church at Acoma Pueblo in west-central New Mexico is the oldest and largest intact adobe structure in North America. But in the 1920s, in danger of becoming a ruin, the building was restored in a cooperative effort among Acoma Pueblo, which owned the structure, and other interested parties. Kate Wingert-Playdon's narrative of the restoration and the process behind it is the only detailed account of this milestone example of historic preservation, in which New Mexico's most famous architect, John Gaw Meem, played a major role.
To-day, King s College Chapel is the iconic image of the City of Cambridge. The chapel was founded in 1446 by the mystically-inclined King Henry VI, known in his time as "the royal saint." The king gave his builders complete instructions for a magnificent chapel of cathedral dimensions, every part of which had a mystical and spiritual meaning. This "final flowering of the Great Work" was designed from the principles of sacred geometry, laid out and orientated by the ancient geomantic practice of the operative masons who built it. This book gives an historic overview of the chapel, and a summary of its construction, notable for its stunningly beautiful fan-vaulting and exceptional stained glass which still exists in its entirety. Although the chapel s original significance as a symbolic structure has been eroded over the centuries, it remains a place of wonder and reverence for countless thousands of visitors and those who watch on television the annual Christmas carol festival broadcast from there every year."
Among the most magnificent buildings of England are its Anglican cathedrals, great symbols of spiritual and architectural power. No one can fail to marvel at Durham's incomparable Romanesque masterpiece, the elegant stylistic unity of Salisbury, the world- amous stained glass of Canterbury or the striking Gothic scissor arch at Wells. In this breathtaking new book, award-winning Magnum photographer Peter Marlow has captured the nave of each of England's 42 Anglican cathedrals. Taken in natural light at dawn, usually looking towards the east end of the building, these remarkable images bring into sharp relief the full splendour of the architecture, whatever the style. Marlow's spellbinding photographs are accompanied by his commentary on the project, including sketches and preparatory shots; an introduction by curator Martin Barnes on the tradition of church photography in England, particularly the work of Frederick Evans and Edwin Smith; and a concise summary of each cathedral interior by architectural historian John Goodall. A special collector's edition comprising a blocked, cloth-bound hardback edition of the book and a signed, hand-finished print, 30.5 x 25.4 cm (10 x 12 in.) , placed together in a handmade, blocked, cloth-bound slip case.
This essay seeks to understand Gothic architecture as an image, more precisely, as the representation of supernatural reality. To those who designed the cathedrals, as to their contemporaries who worshiped in them, this symbolic aspect or function of sacred architecture overshadowed all others. To us, it has become the least comprehensible.
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