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Churchyards are everywhere, numbered in their thousands. Some have ancient yew trees while others have intriguing structures like parish stocks, charnel houses and medieval crosses. And beneath the grass lie untold generations of past parishioners, lying in the shadow of the church until the Day of Judgment. There is much to discover in churchyards - one of England's greatest creations. Memorials range from the grandest mausolea to the humblest of stones and wooden markers. From the eighteenth century outdoor memorials started to become the preferred option, encouraged by the Georgian classical revival. A wider range of society sought to be remembered using tombstones. Headstones sported imagery and epitaphs and many of these form the earliest tangible evidence of family history. Craftsmanship created beautiful imagery, and local materials and customs led to memorials distinctive to the places where they are found. This book is part of the Britain's Heritage series, which provides definitive introductions to the riches of Britain's past, and is the perfect way to get acquainted with churchyards in all their variety.
In describing the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic, Johan Huizinga said, "Paintings could be found everywhere . . . everywhere except in churches." Although pictures were ubiquitous in the Dutch world, the official religion expressed a fundamental distrust of visual imagery. Indeed, Calvinism and visual culture were both central modes of self-understanding in Dutch society. Investigating this paradox, The Wake of Iconoclasm takes as its main subject the numerous paintings of austere Calvinist church interiors that proliferated in the seventeenth century. Painstakingly crafted and highly naturalistic images of interiors, these peculiar paintings show spaces that were purged of visual imagery during and after the iconoclast riots of the sixteenth century. In essence, they depict the interface of the histories of art and religion. Angela Vanhaelen argues that the main function of this imagery was to stimulate debate about the transformed role of art in relation to the religious and political upheavals of the Reformation and the Dutch Revolt. Paintings of the emptied churches allowed their beholders to grapple with the significant public influence of Calvinism--especially its suppression of past cultural traditions and the new conditions of possibility it created for the visual arts.
Social groups formed around shared religious beliefs encountered significant change and challenges between the 1860s and the 1970s. This book is the first collection of essays of its kind to take a broad, thematically-driven case study approach to this genre of architecture and its associated visual culture and communal experience. Examples range from Nuns' holy spaces celebrating the life of St Theresa of Lisieux to utopian American desert communities and their reliance on the philosophy of Teilhard de Chardin. Modern religious architecture converses with a broad spectrum of social, anthropological, cultural and theological discourses and the authors engage with them rigorously and innovatively. As such, new readings of sacred spaces offer new angles and perspectives on some of the dominant narratives of the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries: empire, urban expansion, pluralism and modernity. In a post-traditional landscape, religious architecture suggests expansive ways of exploring themes including nostalgia and revivalism; engineering and technological innovation; prayer and spiritual experimentation; and the beauty of holiness for a brave new world. Shaped by the tensions and anxieties of the modern era and powerfully expressed in the space and material culture of faith, the architecture presented here creates a set of new turning points in the history of the built environment.
This volume covers some of the finest landscape and architecture in southern England, much of it set within the South Downs National Park. The county's small towns and villages feature a pleasing mix of stone, timber, and brick houses of every period. Among numerous atmospheric country houses are the Tudor ruins of Cowdray, the Elizabethan mansion at Parham, and the French-inspired Petworth in its great park, famously captured in Turner's paintings. On the grandest scale is the mighty Arundel Castle, seat of the Duke of Norfolk, while Chichester, the only city in West Sussex, boasts one of the country's most important 12th-century cathedrals. Among many major ecclesiastical and educational establishments built in the 19th century, none is more impressive than Lancing College set high above the coast. New research accompanies 130 specially commissioned color photographs in this authoritative and expert guide.
This compact and accessible book is for anyone who would like to understand more about the architectural history of English churches. Clear and easy to use, the text explains the key components of church architecture-stylistic developments, functional requirements, regional variations, and arcane vocabulary. Readers can equip themselves to explore historic churches knowledgeably, evaluate dates and restoration phases, interpret stained glass and monuments, and make their own discoveries. Written by one of the editors of the Pevsner Architectural Guides and distilling years of experience visiting churches, the book includes explanations of how to learn more from building plans, tips for further research, searching for clues, and analyzing the evidence.
Westminster Abbey has a history stretching back over a thousand years. Founded as a Benedictine monastery in the mid-tenth century, it is the coronation church where monarchs have been crowned amid great splendour since 1066. The present church, begun by Henry III in 1245, is a treasure house of architectural and artistic achievement on which each succeeding century has left its mark. The medieval and Renaissance tombs within the Abbey, though among the most important in Europe, form only a small part of the extraordinary collection of gravestones, memorials and monumental sculpture for which it has long been famous. Ranging from the thirteenth-century shrine of St Edward and the Renaissance splendour of Henry VII's Lady Chapel, to the literary memorials of Poets' Corner and the statues of twentieth-century martyrs on the Abbey's west front, this book describes the stained glass, furniture, sculpture, textiles, wallpaintings and many other historic artefacts found within this remarkable church.
In 1881, after decades of mouldering into ruin, the grand fifteenth-century church of Blythburgh, Suffolk, "The Cathedral of the Marshes", was closed as unsafe. The church was saved - but its rescue involved a bitter twenty-five year long dispute between Blythburgh vicars and committees, and William Morris and his Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, who feared that the medieval fabric would be over-restored and the character of the building lost forever. This volume presents an edition, with notes and introduction, of original documents from both sides - providing unique insights into a rancorous conflict, with vicars pitted against patrons as well as the Society. The need was local, but the significance national, with elites ranged against another. From a description of the Blythburgh committee headed by a royal princess, to accounts of lavish fund-raising fetes and garden parties, the story is vividly brought to life. Alan Mackley, an honorary research fellow at the University of East Anglia, studied history after a career as a scientist in the oil industry. He has lived in Suffolk for over 35 years.
The cathedral church of Christ in Oxford - better known as Christ Church Cathedral - was established in 1546. It forms one half of Christ Church, the unique joint foundation of cathedral and university college created by King Henry VIII. Today's cathedral occupies the site of a monastery founded in the late seventh century by Frideswide, patron saint of Oxford and its university. In the early twelfth century it was re-founded as an Augustinian priory, and 400 years later it met its nemesis in Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, whose plan for an Oxford college grander than any other caused its dissolution. But when the cardinal fell from royal favour, the priory church was saved. The King's Cathedral is the first account of the convent, priory and cathedral for nearly a century. Judith Curthoys - author of two previous volumes on Christ Church - has drawn widely on scholarly research into the cathedral's archaeology, architecture and history for her fascinating and accessible new study of this historic building.
This first comprehensive overview of the process of commissioning and financing the construction of cathedrals in the Middle Ages reveals a financing system almost as monumental as the cathedrals themselves. Here we follow the historian on a fascinating examination of construction accounts and other sources - extant but never so minutely explored - bringing the bishop and the chapter to account, as it were. The book is divided into two parts. The first gives a broad overview of the resources on which medieval commissioners could draw, including contributions from the bishop, chapter, sovereign, city and, above all, the faithful of the diocese in which the cathedral was erected. The second part is a case study of the financing of construction at Utrecht Cathedral, whose archives are among the best preserved in Europe, followed by a brief discussion of the financing of several other cathedral building projects throughout Europe and of the church of St Peter's in Rome.
The Exeter Cathedral Fabric Accounts document the history of Exeter Cathedral during a period when it was being extensively rebuilt by a series of active bishops. They show how the rebuilding was financed and give a detailed account of what was involved in a medieval building project, listing workers' wages, the cost of materials, and they show how building materials were transported to Exeter from Devon and from other parts of England. This information tells us much not only about the history of Exeter Cathedral and its bishops, but also about the relationship between the Cathedral and the surrounding area, and the economic history of the region. This volume presents the accounts from 1279 to 1326, and Volume Two (new series 26) presents the accounts from 1328 to 1353.
A fundamental resource for anyone interested in the Abbey's architecture and contents.' Dr Richard Mortimer. The papers of the nineteenth-century Surveyors of the Fabric are an essential resource for anyone interested in the building and contents of Westminster Abbey. The Surveyors, Edward Blore, George Gilbert Scott and his son J .O. Scott, J. L. Pearson and J. T. Micklethwaite, wrote an annual report describing their activities, and these are the core of the volume, supplemented with letters and other papers. Christine Reynolds, the Abbey's Assistant Keeper of Muniments, adds invaluable notes from many other sources in the archives to round out a fascinating account of interventions in the stonework and monuments of the most historically significant church in England. On the way we learn what Gilbert Scott thought of William Morris, what the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings thought of J. L. Pearson's reconstruction of the north rose window, and the dim view of Pearson taken by his successor Micklethwaite. Richard Halsey's introduction sets these eminent Victorians and their work at Westminster in the wider context of the great age of cathedral restoration.
South Wales is an area blessed with an eclectic, but largely unknown, monumental heritage, ranging from plain cross slabs to richly carved effigial monuments on canopied tomb-chests. As a group, these monuments closely reflect the turbulent history of the southern march of Wales, its close links to the West Country and its differences from the 'native Wales' of the north-west. As individuals, they offer fascinating insights into the spiritual and secular concerns of the area's culturally diverse elites. Church Monuments in South Wales is the first full-scale study of the medieval funerary monuments of this region offering a much-needed Celtic contribution to the growing corpus of literature on the monumental culture of late-medieval Europe, which for the British Isles has been hitherto dominated by English studies. It focuses on the social groups who commissioned and were commemorated by funerary monuments and how this distinctive memorial culture reflected their shifting fortunes, tastes and pre-occupations at a time of great social change. Rhianydd Biebrach has taught medieval history at the universities of Swansea, Cardiff and South Wales and edited the journal Church Monuments. She currently works for Amgueddfa Cymru-National Museum Wales.
Following Spains democratic transition during the late 1970s, political and business elites strategically exploited Spains rich Islamic heritage in order to further projects of national redefinition, tourist promotion, and urban revitalization. Large and ornate mosques were built in several Spanish regions, and the State granted Muslim communities an extensive array of rights and privileges that was arguably without parallel in Europe. Toward the onset of the 21st century, however, tensions surrounding Islams growing presence in Spain became increasingly common, especially in the northeastern region of Catalonia. These tensions centered largely around the presence, or proposed establishment, of mosques in Barcelona and its greater metropolitan area. This book examines how Islam went from being an aspect of Spains national heritage to be recovered and commemorated to a pressing social problem to be managed and controlled. It traces the events and developments that gave rise to this transformation, the diverse actors involved in the process, and the manner in which disputes over Muslim incorporation have become entangled with deeply-divisive debates over churchstate relations and territorial autonomy. The core of Rebuilding Islam in Contemporary Spain centers on the shifting political and social dynamics surrounding the establishment of mosques, and the question of why anti-mosque mobilizations have been more prevalent and intense in Catalonia than other Spanish regions.
The touchstones of Gothic monumental art in France - the abbey church of Saint-Denis and the cathedrals of Chartres, Reims, and Bourges - form the core of this collection dedicated to the memory of Anne Prache. The essays reflect the impact of Prache's career, both as a scholar of wide-ranging interests and as a builder of bridges between the French and American academic communities. Thus the authors include scholars in France and the United States, both academics and museum professionals, while the thematic matrix of the book, divided into architecture, stained glass, and sculpture, reflects the multiple media explored by Prache during her long career. The essays employ a varied range of methodologies to explore Gothic monuments. The chapters in the architectural section include an intensive archeological analysis of the foundations of Reims Cathedral, the close reading of a late medieval literary text for a symbolic understanding of Paris, and essays that explore the medieval use of practical geometry in designing entire buildings and their components. Saint-Denis, Reims, and Chartres, all monuments studied by Prache, are discussed in the next part, on stained glass. These chapters demonstrate how old problems can be clarified by new evidence, whether from the accessibility of previously unknown archival information, for Reims, or through revelations that arise from restoration, at Chartres. These essays also include a study showing the complexity of making attributions for the storied glass of Saint-Denis. The final set of essays likewise takes different approaches to sculpture, whether constructing links to the liturgy at Reims, or discussing the meaning of a sculptural ensemble studied by Prache early in her career, the cloister of Notre-Dame-en-Vaux in ChAclons-en-Champagne, or scrupulously examining the faAade sculpture at Bourges Cathedral for insights into the design process. As a whole, the volume provides a window onto key directions in the study of
The annual reports of the Surveyors of the Fabric in the twentieth century give much detailed information about the maintenance and major restoration of Westminster Abbey and its contents. The Surveyors, William Lethaby, Walter Tapper, Charles Peers and Stephen Dykes Bower, had to deal with many problems and challenges between 1906 and 1973. Not least of these were two World Wars and the most extensive programme of cleaning and re-decoration since the time of Sir Christopher Wren. Lethaby brought to light original decoration on medieval tombs, lost to sight for centuries under grime and shellac used by his predecessor Gilbert Scott; Tapper had to carry out emergency restoration to the fan vault of Henry VII's chapel after a stone crashed to the floor; Peers was required to deal with the evacuation of hundreds of treasures during the 1939-45 war and with repairs to bomb damaged areas after it. Dykes Bower, meanwhile, was the most controversial of the Surveyors of this period. His replacement of medieval roof timbers drew criticism, although these were riddled with decay and death watch beetle. The nave could have looked vastly different if his design for a Cosmati work floor had gone ahead. But the Abbey interior would not look as it does today without his massive contribution to the cleaning of the brown stonework and re-decoration of the dirty and damaged Tudor and Jacobean monuments. The Abbey's current Surveyor, Ptolemy Dean, outlines the legacies of the work of these Surveyors of the modern age in his introduction; Christine Reynolds, the Abbey's Assistant Keeper of the Muniments, adds valuable notes from other sources within the archives to supplement the fascinating accounts of work carried out in the most historically significant church in England.
The Exeter Cathedral Fabric Accounts document the history of Exeter Cathedral during a period when it was being extensively rebuilt by a series of active bishops. They show how the rebuilding was financed and give a detailed account of what was involved in a medieval building project, listing workers' wages, the cost of materials, and they show how building materials were transported to Exeter from Devon and from other parts of England. This information tells us much not only about the history of Exeter Cathedral and its bishops, but also about the relationship between the Cathedral and the surrounding area, and the economic history of the region. This volume presents the accounts from 1328 to 1353, and Volume One (new series 24) presents the accounts from 1279 to 1326.
Reading Abbey was built by King Henry I to be a great architectural statement and his own mausoleum, as well as a place of resort and a staging point for royal itineraries for progresses in the west and south-west of England. From the start it was envisaged as a monastic site with a high degree of independence from the church hierarchy; it was granted enormous holdings of land and major religious relics to attract visitors and pilgrims, and no expense was spared in providing a church comparable in size and splendour with anything else in England. However, in architectural terms, the abbey has, until recently, remained enigmatic, mainly because of the efficiency with which it was destroyed at the Reformation. Only recently has it become possible to bring together the scattered evidence - antiquarian drawings and historic records along with a new survey of the standing remains - into a coherent picture. This richly illustrated volume provides the first full account of the abbey, from foundation to dissolution, and offers a new virtual reconstruction of the church and its cloister; it also shows how the abbey formed the backdrop to many key historical events. Ron Baxter is the Research Director of the Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland.
"A humdinging page-turner of a book" The Spectator "This book will give great pleasure" Country Life Traditional English rectories and vicarages have been neglected by the Church in the post-war years, but have become highly desirable to property buyers, and are now cherished by their new private owners. They combine many coveted qualities: their fine architecture, their air of civilisation, their charm and character, the traditional values and the essential "Englishness" they evoke, their large gardens and often splendidly rural locations. This book is about these fine houses, their place in English history and the history of the Church, their architecture, their architects, their contribution to our culture, and their sometimes eccentric occupants-both clerical and secular. This new edition has includes additional material and 68 plates (most of which are in full colour).
Jerusalem - earthly and heavenly, past, present and future - has always informed the Christian imagination: it is the intersection of the divine and human worlds, of time and eternity. Since the fourth century, it has been the site of the round Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built over the empty tomb acknowledged by Constantine as the tomb of Christ. Nearly four hundred years later, the Sepulchre's rotunda was rivalled by the octagon of the Dome of the Rock. The city itself and these two glorious buildings within it remain, to this day, the focus of pilgrimage and of intense devotion. Jerusalem and its numinous buildings have been distinctively re-imagined and re-presented in the design, topography, decoration and dedications of some very striking and beautiful churches and cities in Western Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Ethiopia. Some are famous, others are in the West almost unknown. The essays In this richly illustrated book combine to do justice to these evocative buildings' architecture, roles and history. The volume begins with an introduction to the Sepulchre itself, from its construction under Constantine to the Crusaders' rebuilding which survives to this day. Chapters follow on the Dome of the Rock and on the later depiction and signifcance of the Jewish Temple. The essays then move further afeld, uncovering the links between Jerusalem and Byzantium, the Caucasus, Russia and Ethiopia. Northern Europe comes finally into focus, with chapters on Charlemagne's chapel at Aachen, the role of the military orders in spreading the form of the Sepulchre, a gazetteer of English rounds, and studies of London's New Temple. ROBIN GRIFFITH-JONES is Master of the Temple at the Temple Church in London and Senior Lecturer (Theology and Religious Studies) at King's College London. He co-edited The Temple Church in London with David Park (2010). ERIC FERNIE is Director Emeritus of The Courtauld Institute of Art, London. Contributors: Alan Borg, Antony Eastmond, David Ekserdjian, Eric Fernie, Jaroslav Folda, Emmanuel Fritsch, Michael Gervers, Robin Griffith-Jones, Nicole Hamonic, Cecily Hennessy, Robert Hillenbrand, Catherine E. Hundley, Philip J. Lankester, Robin Milner-Gulland, Robert Ousterhout, David W. Phillipson, Denys Pringle, Sebastian Salvado.
The religious attachments and charitable activity of women in and around late medieval Norwich are used here as a case study to consider women and religion in the period more generally. Drawing on uniquely rich and varied sources, the book demonstrates, far more fully and effectively than studies for other cities have been able to do, how links with continental Europe enriched female life. Norwich's successful status as an international depot - especially its trade with the Low Countries and with Germany -- became the vehicle for the transmission of various cults, artistic expression and books related to continental female mysticism. Norwich women's special attraction to aspects of incarnational piety is demonstrated by their devotion to the Body of Christ and to his earthly family, exemplified by the popular cults of St Anne and her daughter, the Virgin Mary. The wealth of fifteenth-century literature, much of local provenance, which survives highlights both this and other religious preoccupations of Norwich women. Among them are, of course, Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe, who are here reinterpreted within the wider context of the religious life of the medieval city, and of women's contributions to it. CAROLE HILL gained her PhD from the University of East Anglia.
Mosques are among the greatest architectural feats and have a profound beauty: their spiritual purpose adds to their mystery and lustre. This visually stunning volume illustrates the development of the basic mosque structural and decorative elements through sixty examples including the most venerated, such as the Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain; the Imam Mosque of Isfahan, Iran; and Istanbul s Suleymaniye Mosque along with such innovative new expressions as Doha s Abu al-Qabib Mosque. Mosques from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, North America, North Africa and the sub-Sahara, the Middle East, and Russia and the Caucasus are showcased, from their origins in Mecca and Medina through their major stylistic transformations under the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires up to the present. Stunning original and archival photographs show striking exterior and interior views as well as adjacent gardens and fountains that grace these magnificent structures. Essays by prominent architecture and design authorities cover topics such as the iconographic and decorative elements of the mosque, including the calligraphy and tilework that adorn these important sanctuaries, as well as regional architecture styles. This important volume is a must for those interested in architecture and design, as well as lovers of Islamic art.
A highly original architectural history of Solomon's Temple and Islam's Dome of the Rock that doubles as a social and cultural history of the region The most extensive study of the interrelated history of two monuments, Solomon's Temple and The Dome of the Rock, drawing on an exhaustive review of all the visual and textual evidence Relayed as a gripping narrative, allowing readers to re-enter and experience the emotions and the visceral reality of the major events in its history Integrates illustration with the text to offer a highly detailed and accurate portrait of the major structures and figures involved in the history of the temple Opens up a fascinating line of questioning into the conventional interpretation of events, particularly Christ's actions in the Temple Reproduces rarely seen detailed drawings of the subterranean passages beneath Temple Mount as part of the British survey in the 19th century
Florence Cathedral, familiarly called "Il Duomo," is an architectural masterpiece and home to celebrated works of art. The interrelationship between the brilliant art and architecture and the Cathedral's musical program is explored in depth in this beautiful book. Perhaps the most beloved example is Luca della Robbia's sculptural program for the organ loft, comprising ten sculptural relief panels that depict children singing, dancing, and making music. Luca's charming sculptures are examined alongside luxurious illuminated manuscripts commissioned for musical performances. Essays by distinguished scholars provide new insights into the original function and meaning of Luca's sculptures; organs and organists during the 15th century; the roles played by women and girls--as well as men and boys--in making music throughout Renaissance Florence; and the Cathedral's illuminated choir books.
Church towers are a prominent feature of the English landscape and stand as a testament to the skill and ingenuity of medieval masons. The Northern Province, namely the ecclesiastical province of York, contains a rich and varied array of these remarkable constructions. This vast area of England, comprising of the twelve dioceses of Blackburn, Carlisle, Chester, Durham, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield, Southwell & Nottingham and York, contains no less than 500 medieval examples. Every medieval church tower within the Northern Province is beautifully illustrated here by a watercolour painting and is accompanied by detailed information relating to its location and date and an architectural description. Provided with an index and a glossary of terms, this book can be used both as a visitor's guide and as a reference work for the study of medieval church architecture. Includes 500 colour illustrations. DAVID RYAN is a retired architect and a former member of the Royal Institute of British Architects.
The Struggle for Jerusalem's Holy Places investigates the role of architecture and urban identity in relation to the political economy of the city and its wider state context seen through the lens of the holy places. Reflecting the broad disciplinary backgrounds of the authors, this book provides perspectives from architecture, urbanism, and politics, and provides in-depth investigations of historical, ethnographic and policy-related case studies. The research is substantiated by fieldwork carried out in Jerusalem over the past ten years as part of the ESRC Large Grants project `Conflict in Cities'. By analysing new dynamics of radicalisation through land seizure, the politicisation of parklands and tourism, the strategic manipulation of archaeological and historical narratives and material culture, and through examination of general appropriation of Jerusalem's varied rituals, memories and symbolism for factional uses, the book reveals how possibilities of co- existence are seriously threatened in Jerusalem. Shedding new light on the key role played by everyday urban life and its spatial settings for any future political agreements about the city and its religious sites, this book is a useful reference work for students and scholars of Middle East Studies, Architecture, Religion and Urban Studies.
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