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This is a comprehensive guide to the characteristics and use of high resolution optical images from satellite-borne sensors, concentrating on sensors designed for mapping. It considers in detail the SPOT series of satellites and sensors with a ground sample distance (GSD) of less than 15m, operational since SPOT 1 and particularly the commercial sensors launched since 1999 with GSD of less than 1m The book explains to students, anyone working in map production and scientists working in fields other than mapping, the way in which high resolution imagery is obtained and the issues which surround its collection and use. It deals progressively with the fundamentals of mapping from imagery, followed by the key features in the design of sensors and methods of data storage and transmission, including data compression. Subsequent chapters cover the sensors, calibration, sensor models and the methods of determining the orientation elements and extracting coordinates from the images. Rigorous orientation, use of rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) and approximate methods are covered.Results from tests showing the accuracy which can be obtained, generation of digital elevations models, their accuracy and the production of orthoimages are included, as are image processing and data fusion. Finally, future missions and the issues which face further development are discussed. High Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery is written by a team of acknowledged international experts and is the only comprehensive text on the subject.
Himalaya, one of the global biodiversity hotspots, is the abode of a variety of flora and fauna. The Himalayan ecosystems have immense ecological, socioeconomic, and aesthetic significance as they provide a wide range of ecosystem services. The northwest Himalaya (NWH), covering three states of India viz., Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir, starts from the foothills of Shivaliks in the south and extends to the greater Himalaya in the north. This region is also the source of some of the major rivers of India. With the increase in population, the NWH ecosystems have been under threat due to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, expansion of agriculture and settlement, overexploitation of natural resources, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, mining, construction of roads and large dams, and unplanned tourism. The Himalaya being young and geotectonically active, remains inherently unstable, fragile, and prone to natural disasters. Climate change is also likely to impact the Himalayan cryosphere drastically. Recognizing the importance of the Himalaya, a National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, one of the eight missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) of Govt. of India, to conserve biodiversity, forest cover and other ecological values in the Himalayan region has been taken up. Spaceborne remote sensing with its ability to provide synoptic and repetitive coverage has emerged as a powerful tool for assessment and monitoring of the Himalayan resources and phenomena. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun has taken up a number of studies in the fields of geology, water resources, forestry, agriculture, urban settlement, etc., over the last decade. The book summarises the work carried out in different disciplines, illustrated with tables and figures and a host of relevant references. It is hoped that the book serves as an excellent reference of immense value to the students, researchers, professors, scientists, professionals, and decision makers working in the NWH region.
In the twenty-first century, we take the means to measure time for granted, without contemplating the sophisticated concepts on which our time scales are based. This volume presents the evolution of concepts of time and methods of time keeping up to the present day. It outlines the progression of time based on sundials, water clocks, and the Earth's rotation, to time measurement using pendulum clocks, quartz crystal clocks, and atomic frequency standards. Time scales created as a result of these improvements in technology and the development of general and special relativity are explained. This second edition has been updated throughout to describe twentieth- and twenty-first-century advances and discusses the redefinition of SI units and the future of UTC. A new chapter on time and cosmology has been added. This broad-ranging reference benefits a diverse readership, including historians, scientists, engineers, educators, and it is accessible to general readers.
This encyclopedia provides a snapshot of our current geological knowledge on solid-surface Solar System bodies. Each entry contains information about the features' morphology, its interpretation, proposed formation models, distribution and occurrence, planetary or terrestrial analogs, and research history. The entries are fully referenced. All image captions include original image IDs. More than 600 named planetary feature types are discussed in the encyclopedia, covering a wide range of scales--from micrometers to global scale--and also include landform types (structural or topographic features), parts of landforms, terrain types or surface textures, surface patterns, and features identified at wavelengths extending from visible to radio waves (e.g., albedo, thermal infrared, and radar features). The book covers features formed by impact, aeolian, magmatic, volcanic, tectonic, fluvial, lacustrine, marine and coastal, mass movement, sedimentary, desiccation, liquefaction, periglacial, glacial, nival, sublimation, collapse, weathering, and selective erosion or other, including complex processes. Depending on the information and formation models available, the entries have different approaches. Some of them discuss their subject from the point of view of the inferred process or origin, others are morphology or description-based. As a default, entries focus on extraterrestrial landforms, while also mentioning their proposed terrestrial analogs. Most planetary landforms are not body-specific, but some have no known terrestrial counterparts. Named historic (obsolete) landform types are also included to provide reference for previous key research papers. To make it easier to find features with related origins, the encyclopedia contains entries that list landforms based on their formative processes. It also lists body-specific features on Mercury (5 feature types), Venus (40), the Earth (13), the Moon (15), Mars (87), Io (7), Europa (17), Callisto (7), Titan (9), Triton (2), mid-sized satellites (8), and small bodies (3). Also included are entries on the 51 planetary feature descriptor terms approved by IAU.
Written in an easy-to-follow approach, the text will help the readers to understand the techniques and applications of image fusion for remotely sensed multi-spectral images. It covers important multi-resolution fusion concepts along with the state-of-the-art methods including super resolution and multi stage guided filters. It includes in depth analysis on degradation estimation, Gabor Prior and Markov Random Field (MRF) Prior. Concepts such as guided filter and difference of Gaussian are discussed comprehensively. Novel techniques in multi-resolution fusion by making use of regularization are explained in detail. It also includes different quality assessment measures used in testing the quality of fusion. Real-life applications and plenty of multi-resolution images are provided in the text for enhanced learning.
New In This Edition: This second edition of the Encyclopedia of GIS includes 30% to 50% new content. It provides up-to-date information on emerging topics such as spatial big data, smart-phone GIS, urban computing and mobile recommender systems. It also expands the first edition's rich set of GIS-related commercial and societal applications such as geo-targeting, geo-fencing and understanding climate changes, while enabling more comprehensive coverage of classical GIS topics such as map projections, global positioning systems and spatial cognition. The entries explain the key software, data sets and processes used by geographers and computational scientists. Additionally, the reference emphasizes the role of GIS in business and mobile intelligence. By offering more diversified GIS-related topics from theory and research than most of the other available literature, the authors equip newcomers to the field with principles as well as applications. With an accessible breadth of content and intuitive A-Z organization, this new edition of the encyclopedia is an invaluable reference for newcomers to the field of GIS, as well as researchers, students, developers and professionals who are interested in exploring this new dynamic area. Praise For The First Edition: "The focus here, however, is on the mathematical and computational aspects of GIS ... . This is very welcome to those practitioners who have been less exposed to some of the mathematical and computational aspects of GIS. This is also very welcome to the researcher or graduate student within any of the interdisciplinary areas that use GIS. ... I highly recommend it." (Pascal V. Calarco, ACM Computing Reviews, November, 2008) "This single-volume reference work is a highly welcome ... addition to the rapidly advancing field of geographic information systems. Peer-reviewed entries from over 300 contributors cover 41 topical subfields, with an overall emphasis on computational aspects of GIS. The volume is adequately illustrated with 723 figures and 90 tables in black and white. A full bibliography and concise list of entry terms are provided at the back of the work. ... Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division geography students through professionals." (C. E. Smith, CHOICE, Vol. 45 (11), 2008) "The encyclopedia is divided into 41 fields, each one an important sub-area within GIS. ... the editors' organization of the material and comprehensive and systematic approach are superb and shall give students, eager readers as well as researchers an understanding of the topics in quite full depth and breadth. ... is lavishly illustrated with figures, graphs and tables, the design and execution of which are as perfect as the material they illustrate. ... it is sturdy and opens out nicely for study and reference." (Current Engineering Practice, 2008).
Satellite remote sensing presents an amazing opportunity to inform biodiversity conservation by inexpensively gathering repeated monitoring information for vast areas of the Earth. However, these observations first need processing and interpretation if they are to inform conservation action. Through a series of case studies, this book presents detailed examples of the application of satellite remote sensing, covering both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, to conservation. The authors describe how collaboration between the remote sensing and conservation communities makes satellite data functional for operational conservation, and provide concrete examples of the lessons learned in addition to the scientific details. The editors, one at NASA and the other at a conservation NGO, have brought together leading researchers in conservation remote sensing to share their experiences from project development through to application, and emphasise the human side of these projects.
This comprehensive Handbook summarizes existing work and presents new concepts and empirical results from leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of behavioral and cognitive geography, the study of the human mind, and activity in and concerning space, place, and environment. It provides the broadest and most inclusive coverage of the field so far, including work relevant to human geography, cartography, and geographic information science. Behavioral and cognitive geography originated as a contrast to aggregate approaches to human geography that treat people as homogenous and interchangeable; to models of human activity based on simplistic and psychologically implausible assumptions; and to conceptualizations of humans as passive responders to their environment. This Handbook is highly multi- and interdisciplinary, featuring scholars from geography, geographic information science, and more than ten other academic disciplines; including: psychology, linguistics, computer science, engineering, architecture and planning, anthropology, and neuroscience. The contributors adhere to scientific rigor in their approach, while fully engaging with issues of emotion, subjectivity, consciousness, and human variability. Thoroughly informed by the history of geography and of the cognitive sciences but also providing guideposts for future research and application, this Handbook will be an essential resource for researchers, lecturers and students in geography, psychology, and other social, behavioral, cognitive, and design sciences.
At the convergence of the land and sea, coastal environments are some of the most dynamic and populated places on Earth. This book explains how the many varied forms of spatial analysis, including mapping, monitoring and modelling, can be applied to a range of coastal environments such as estuaries, mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs. Presenting empirical geographical approaches to modelling, which draw on recent developments in remote sensing technology, geographical information science and spatial statistics, it provides the analytical tools to map, monitor and explain or predict coastal features. With detailed case studies and accompanying online practical exercises, it is an ideal resource for undergraduate courses in spatial science. Taking a broad view of spatial analysis and covering basic and advanced analytical areas such as spatial data and geostatistics, it is also a useful reference for ecologists, geomorphologists, geographers and modellers interested in understanding coastal environments.
This book presents reviews, examples and case studies of innovative applications in solid and hazardous waste management. The economics of waste management have since become a significant research area in their own right, and two chapters address these issues. In addition, dedicated chapters cover specific categories of waste such as biomedical and institutional waste, plastics and e-waste. The book subsequently discusses newer analytical methods like SEM, EDX, XRD and optical microscopy, along with selected "older" methods for sampling and characterizing different types of waste. The various applications of mathematical tools like linear optimization, various software/models like WISCLeach, and DRASTIC, and tools like remote sensing and GIS are illustrated in many of the chapters. Lastly, since composting is one of the most popular treatment methods for managing the organic component of municipal solid waste, the book provides an overview of composting and the fundamentals of microbiology that are essential to understanding waste-related biological processes. The book was primarily written for students and practitioners in the field who are already familiar with the basics. All chapters were prepared by practicing experts and scholars in the field, and are intended to help readers better understand and apply these principles and practices in their own endeavours. Key topics covered in the book: * The circular economy and the economics of solid waste management * Various remote sensing and GIS applications for managing municipal solid waste, coal fires in mines, changes in land use and land cover in industrial areas, etc. * Treatment and management of different types of solid waste: institutional (including biomedical), residential, e-waste, plastic, and ash from thermal power plants * Sampling and characterization of municipal waste and compost * Fundamentals of microbiology * Overview of environmental regulations, especially those pertaining to solid and hazardous waste management
A summary of the results achieved in the geological-structural mapping, by potential fields and airborne gamma spectrometry data, of the units of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the western regions (Havana-Matanzas), central (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara-Sancti Spiritus) and central-eastern (Camaguey-Las Tunas-Holguin) of Cuba is presented. In addition, the structural- tectonic regionalization with hydrocarbon exploration purposes, focusing mapping of possible new oil-gas targets in the regions of Land Blocks 9, 23 and 17-18 are detailed in this volume. In certain case study locations (Majaguillar, North Motembo, Guamutas and Maniabon) reconnaissance work by a profile of Redox Complex (complex of unconventional geophysical-geochemical exploration techniques) was performed with positive results. In an attempt to contribute to the geological-structural mapping of the metamorphic massif Isla de la Juventud, with emphasis on acid magmatism, the gravi-magnetometric data is used. According to the results, the presumed post metamorphic granitic bodies of low density are located, mainly, in the central and southwestern part of the massif. The granitic bodies apparently were introduced through the system of longitudinal faults (syn metamorphic) and transverse (post metamorphic) at the end of the process multyfolding and metamorphism of the massif sequences, taking a leading role the deep longitudinal fracture zones of sublatitudinal direction in the central and southern part of the massif. On the map of the magnetic field vertical derivative the anomalies, basically, reflected the direction and limits of the folded tectonic structure, the development area of volcanogenic rocks, the presumed development zones of migmatitic rocks and tectonised rocks in North and center of the massif, respectively, and the prevailing direction of the main tectonic dislocations.
Written for both majors and non-majors alike, Introduction to Geospatial Technologies demonstrates the wide range of geographic technologies available to and used by geographers today. Each chapter contains an introduction to the key concepts and a lab activity, so that in addition to gaining a basic foundation of knowledge students also obtain hands-on experience with the relevant software. This new edition stays current with its rapidly moving field, with coverage and lab activities revised to reflect is the most up-to-date ideas and innovations in GST.
This book departs from typical cartography textbooks, which tend to focus on the characteristics of the methods and means of expression. Instead, it offers an explanation of the individual perspective on the map as a specific product of civilization, one that constitutes a component of social communication. The layout highlights the essential property of cartographic notation, namely: the way of forming the map's content elements, adjusted to its purpose. This property is ensured thanks to the dimension of reference units in relation to the observation scale of the objects, and by topological consistency between the reference units system and real layout of the objects. An exploration of the characteristics of various ways of depicting a map's content elements, organized in the reference units dimension, is preceded by a general section accentuating the position of cartography among other sciences, as well as the definition and general properties of a map. The book's closing chapter includes a separate textbook overview of the applications of taxonomic methods in cartography.
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
This text in the series "Innovations in GIS", continues the theme of directions in geographical information systems research established by the four previous Research UK (GISRUK) conferences. The chapters reflect the interdisciplinary nature of GIS research and includes coverage of such themes as: virtual GIS; spatial analysis; artificial intelligence; spatial agents and fuzzy systems; and space-time GIS and GIS applications.
Recent advances in theory and observations using passive microwave remote sensing have hightlighted the potential of spaceborne sensors for contributing to the required land surface measurements of soils, vegetation, snow cover and precipitation. Furthermore, the spatial resolution of passive microwave observations matches the special scales of large-scale models of land-atmosphere interactions both for data assimilation and validation. In order to stimulate and focus this research a workshop, sponsored by ESA and NASA, was organized to review the state-of-the-art in microwave radiometry related to land applications and to exchange ideas leading into new directions for future research. This volume contains the refereed papers from the aforementioned ESA/NASA workshop, which are arranged by topic, as well as the (edited) working group reports.
This is a book about how ecologists can integrate remote sensing and GIS in their daily work. It will allow ecologists to get started with the application of remote sensing and to understand its potential and limitations. Using practical examples, the book covers all necessary steps from planning field campaigns to deriving ecologically relevant information through remote sensing and modelling of species distributions. All practical examples in this book rely on OpenSource software and freely available data sets. Quantum GIS (QGIS) is introduced for basic GIS data handling, and in-depth spatial analytics and statistics are conducted with the software packages R and GRASS. Readers will learn how to apply remote sensing within ecological research projects, how to approach spatial data sampling and how to interpret remote sensing derived products. The authors discuss a wide range of statistical analyses with regard to satellite data as well as specialised topics such as time-series analysis. Extended scripts on how to create professional looking maps and graphics are also provided. This book is a valuable resource for students and scientists in the fields of conservation and ecology interested in learning how to get started in applying remote sensing in ecological research and conservation planning.
This book contributes to the transformative and revolutionary use of small, unmanned vehicle systems for three-dimensional geospatial data acquisition and mapping, which is considered to be a paradigm shift in the science and technology of geomatics.The book presents a systematic and comprehensive approach for the use of small mobile unmanned systems for robotic geomatics research and applications. Emphasis is placed on aerial unmanned mapping systems as aerial data collection provides better perspective and coverage of an area, and offers the ability for targeted coverage.After considering background information on current systems and technologies, the book presents photogrammetric fundamentals and advanced methodologies, addresses both platform and control segments, discusses sensors, communication, and payload aspects, emphasises automatic aspects of sensor localization and exploration and mapping of the environment It offers several application cases, from monitoring changes in arctic regions to precision agriculture and archaeology, presents challenges and emerging technologies and discusses the market trends and the roadmap ahead.
Represents the first encyclopedic work dedicated to remote sensing Serves as the best point of entry for anyone wishing to explore the world of remote sensing Offers clear, reliable descriptions and plenty of references to help readers continue their research Fulfills the need for a scholarly, yet accessible resource for scientists, engineers, educators, managers, policy makers and anyone interested in the impact and implications of remote sensing Remote sensing has revolutionized the scientific study of the Earth by enabling measurements of more detailed and hitherto unexplored phenomena with spatially-extensive and global perspectives. Various disciplines and industries have benefited from the dramatic discoveries enabled by remote sensing. This volume cuts across these disciplines and describes the basic foundations, principles and state of the art of remote sensing. It covers the development of remote sensing, the theoretical underpinnings, forward modeling, commercial applications, and global and international coordination and policy. This first encyclopaedic reference on remote sensing describes the concepts, techniques, instrumentation, data analysis, interpretation, and applications of remote sensing, both airborne and space-based. Scientists, engineers, academics, and students can quickly access answers to their reference questions and direction for further study.
The neighborhoods and the biophysical, political, and cultural environments all play a key role in affecting health outcomes of individuals. Unequal spatial distribution of resources such as clinics, hospitals, public transportation, fresh food markets, and schools could make some communities as a whole more vulnerable and less resilient to adverse health effects. This somber reality suggests that it is rather the question of "who you are depends upon where you are" and the fact that health inequality is both a people and a place concern. That is why health inequality needs to be investigated in a spatial setting to deepen our understanding of why and how some geographical areas experience poorer health than others. This book introduces how spatial context shapes health inequalities. Spatial Health Inequalities: Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis demonstrates the spatial health inequalities in six most important topics in environmental and public health, including food insecurity, birth health outcomes, infectious diseases, children's lead poisoning, chronic diseases, and health care access. These are the topics that the author has done extensive research on and provides a detailed description of the topic from a global perspective. Each chapter identifies relevant data and data sources, discusses key literature on appropriate techniques, and then illustrates with real data with mapping and GIS techniques. This is a unique book for students, geographers, clinicians, health and research professionals and community members interested in applying GIS and spatial analysis to the study of health inequalities.
This is an introductory textbook on spatial analysis and spatial statistics through GIS. Each chapter presents methods and metrics, explains how to interpret results, and provides worked examples. Topics include: describing and mapping data through exploratory spatial data analysis; analyzing geographic distributions and point patterns; spatial autocorrelation; spatial clustering; geographically weighted regression and OLS regression; and spatial econometrics. The worked examples link theory to practice through a single real-world case study, with software and illustrated guidance. Exercises are solved twice: first through ArcGIS, and then GeoDa. Through a simple methodological framework the book describes the dataset, explores spatial relations and associations, and builds models. Results are critically interpreted, and the advantages and pitfalls of using various spatial analysis methods are discussed. This is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers analyzing geospatial data through a spatial analysis lens, including those using GIS in the environmental sciences, geography, and social sciences.
Documentation of our cultural heritage is experiencing an explosion of innovation. New tools have appeared in recent decades including laser scanning, rapid prototyping, high dynamic range spherical and infrared imagery, drone photography, augmented and virtual reality and computer rendering in multiple dimensions. These give us visualisations and data that are at once interesting, intriguing and yet sometimes deceptive. This text provides an objective and integrated approach to the subject, bringing together the techniques of conservation with management, photographic methods, various modelling techniques and the use of unmanned aerial systems. This interdisciplinary approach addresses the need for knowledge about deploying advanced digital technologies and the materials and methods for the assessment, conservation, rehabilitation and maintenance of the sustainability of existing structures and designated historic buildings. Furthermore, this book actively provides the knowhow to facilitate the creation of heritage inventories, assessing risk, and addressing the need for sustainability.In so doing it becomes more feasible to mitigate the threats from inherent and external causes, not only for the built heritage but also for moveable objects and intangible heritage that suffer abandonment and negligence as well as looting and illegal trafficking. The book is written by a team of international experts based upon their practical experience and expertise. It therefore creates a unique book that encapsulates the knowledge of this discipline required by anyone working in this field.
The early 21st century marks a new era in space exploration. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States, The European Space Agency (ESA), as well as space agencies of Japan, China, India, and other countries have sent their probes to the Moon, Mars, and other planets in the solar system. Planetary Remote Sensing and Mapping introduces original research and new developments in the areas of planetary remote sensing, photogrammetry, mapping, GIS, and planetary science resulting from the recent space exploration missions. Topics covered include: Reference systems of planetary bodies Planetary exploration missions and sensors Geometric information extraction from planetary remote sensing data Feature information extraction from planetary remote sensing data Planetary remote sensing data fusion Planetary data management and presentation Planetary Remote Sensing and Mapping will serve scientists and professionals working in the planetary remote sensing and mapping areas, as well as planetary probe designers, engineers, and planetary geologists and geophysicists. It also provides useful reading material for university teachers and students in the broader areas of remote sensing, photogrammetry, cartography, GIS, and geodesy.
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