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A revealing exploration of political disruption and violence in a rural Chinese county during the Cultural Revolution A Decade of Upheaval chronicles the surprising and dramatic political conflicts of a rural Chinese county over the course of the Cultural Revolution. Drawing on an unprecedented range of sources-including work diaries, interviews, internal party documents, and military directives-Dong Guoqiang and Andrew Walder uncover a previously unimagined level of strife in the countryside that began with the Red Guard Movement in 1966 and continued unabated until the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. Showing how the upheavals of the Cultural Revolution were not limited to urban areas, but reached far into isolated rural regions, Dong and Walder reveal that the intervention of military forces in 1967 encouraged factional divisions in Feng County because different branches of China's armed forces took various sides in local disputes. The authors also lay bare how the fortunes of local political groups were closely tethered to unpredictable shifts in the decisions of government authorities in Beijing. Eventually, a backlash against suppression and victimization grew in the early 1970s and resulted in active protests, which presaged the settling of scores against radical Maoism. A meticulous look at how one overlooked region experienced the Cultural Revolution, A Decade of Upheaval illuminates the all-encompassing nature of one of the most unstable periods in modern Chinese history.
Urban Dependency investigates the risks of urban populations that cannot survive without the massive consumption of basic rural products like food, textiles, fossil fuels, and other energy-rich goods that are harvested by a shrinking rural base. Thomas and Fulkerson argue that though essential, rural workers and communities are poorly compensated for their labor that is both dangerous and highly exploitative. While the rural population is already shrinking, the authors predict that harsh political-economic conditions will only fuel further rural-urban migration, worsening the problem of urban dependency. The authors apply their theory of the energy economy to explore a balance between the supply and demand of energy resources that promotes rural justice.
The term gender is a buzz word among rural development professionals now days. Gender mainstreaming finds its way into various plans and programmes erected by national as well as state government. Many organizations made the gender related training programmes compulsory in their training agenda. The research scholars need the secondary data for forming the base for gender related studies. Keeping this in mind the authors have tried to put forth some related literature from various notes and references to formulate a book on gender mainstreaming in farm sector. 1. Status of Farm Women and Empowerment 2. Gender Issues in Agriculture 3. Mainstreaming Gender Through SHG 4. Rural Women and Empowerment
This study considers the extent to which economic modernisation has transformed the rural community. In doing so it discusses whether the distinctive character of rural identity has been eroded by powerful and distant political and cultural forces. This is the first full-length ethnography of an Irish community for a number of years. Since the early 1980s, the anthropological analysis of community life in Ireland has been limited to brief articles whilst major community studies have been published in other European countries. The author has regularly worked in Ireland.
Booklist Editors' Choice "Best Books of 2019" An intimate portrait of the joys and hardships of rural life, as one man searches for community, equality, and tradition in Appalachia Charles D. Thompson, Jr. was born in southwestern Virginia into an extended family of small farmers. Yet as he came of age he witnessed the demise of every farm in his family. Over the course of his own life of farming, rural education, organizing, and activism, the stories of his home place have been his constant inspiration, helping him identify with the losses of others and to fight against injustices. In Going Over Home, Thompson shares revelations and reflections, from cattle auctions with his grandfather to community gardens in the coal camps of eastern Kentucky, racial disparities of white and Black landownership in the South to recent work with migrant farm workers from Latin America. In this heartfelt first-person narrative, Thompson unpacks our country's agricultural myths and addresses the history of racism and wealth inequality and how they have come to bear on our nation's rural places and their people.
This book presents a rigorous empirical study of various aspects of poverty alleviation in rural Bangladesh. The themes include the trend and structure of rural poverty and the role of microfinance in alleviating rural poverty through participation of the rural poor in NGOs and microfinance institutions (MFIs). It also includes different challenges of participation of rural poor women in NGO-MFIs. In probing those issues, this book employs a different approach of investigation. In comparison with other poverty studies, this book can claim a number of distinct features. First, this book probes the participation behavior of rural poor women who face different socioeconomic, cultural and psycho-attitudinal challenges to participate in NGO-MFIs which ultimately prevented the attainment of the prime objective of poverty alleviation in Bangladesh. In analyzing those issues, this book uses a social psychological theory named the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical model upon which the research framework was grounded upon. Second, unlike other studies which are based on relatively small and unrepresentative samples, this book is based on a nationally representative large-scale survey. Third, even though it employs a cross-sectional survey, the study explored in this book attempts to infuse an element of dynamics by employing information on both current and initial condition of resources of households being defined as the resource-base a household had inherited at the time it was formed. This type of data-set helped analyze the dynamics of resource adequacy of the participants in NGO-MFIs which yielded key insights into the challenges of poverty alleviation. Fourth, a concern with the possible influence of microfinance in the economy runs as an intrinsic theme throughout the book. In addition to devoting a long chapter of emergence of NGO-MFIs in Bangladesh, the author analyzes the role of microfinance in its specific contexts in each subsequent chapter, for example, in shaping the trends in poverty, inequality, resource accumulation and in influencing participation of the rural poor in NGO-MFIs and in affecting the ability of the rural poor to be free from poverty and to cope with environmental shocks. Some remarks on possible prospects or recommendations are provided at the end of the book.
After Ross Benes left Nebraska for New York, he witnessed his polite home state become synonymous with 'Trump country.' Long dismissed as 'flyover' land, the area where he was born and raised suddenly became the subject of TV features and frequent opinion columns. With the rural-urban divide overtaking the national conversation, Benes knew what he had to do: go home. In Rural Rebellion, Benes explores Nebraska's shifting political landscape to better understand what's plaguing America. He clarifies how Nebraska defies red-state stereotypes while offering readers insights into how a frontier state with a tradition of nonpartisanship succumbed to the hardened right. Extensive interviews with US senators, representatives, governors, state lawmakers, and other power brokers illustrate how local disputes over health-care coverage and education funding became microcosms for our current national crisis. Rural Rebellion is also the story of one man coming to terms with both his past and present. Benes writes about the dissonance of moving from the most rural and conservative region of the country to its most liberal and urban centers as they grow further apart at a critical moment in history. He seeks to bridge America's current political divides by contrasting the conservative values he learned growing up in a town of three hundred with those of his liberal acquaintances in New York City, where he now lives. At a time when social and political differences are too often portrayed in stark binary terms, and people in the Trump-supporting heartland are depicted in reductive, one-dimensional ways, Benes tells real-life stories to add depth and nuance to our understanding of rural Americans' attitudes about abortion, immigration, big government, and other contentious issues. His argument and conclusion are simple but powerful: that Americans in disparate places would be less hostile to one another if they just knew each other a little better. Part memoir, journalism, and social science, Rural Rebellion is a book for our times.
This anthology is based on a symposium which had as its key issue a critical discussion of different theories of modernisation from the perspective of people's activities in local manorial societies. Modernisation can be studied in terms of changing values, norms and social relationships. From a theoretical point of view the book makes use of the possibility to change main macro-conceptions of the modernisation process, using dichotomies such as feudal/capitalist and individual/collective, and it also tries to integrate tradition and continuity perspective.
India is now the world s tenth most productive industrialized country, and the second-largest exporter of computer software. Its middle class is larger than the total population of the U.S. But, as this new book shows, the lands, rights, and livelihoods of the rural poor have been sacrificed to commercial ventures such as mining and forestry; in the cities, economic liberalization has led to social conflict and deepening deprivation. Pamela Bhagat, a well-known Indian journalist, visited many Oxfam-supported communities to see for herself how local voluntary groups are establishing development programs with some of the most marginalized members of society: ethnic minorities and tribal peoples, Dalits (former Untouchables ), low-caste women, and people with disabilities. Her book draws on the life stories of a wide range of inspiring individuals, presenting them in the context of India s ancient and recent history, and explaining how local communities are affected by the impact of national and global economic trends."
American Indian Education/indigenous education is still faltering today and is not producing significant differences in results where school practices follow those for the dominant culture. Inroads have been made in some classrooms/schools where Culturally Responsive/Relevant Pedagogy (CRP) is practiced. However, the drop-out rates for American Indian/indigenous populations are still extremely high in comparison to other ethnically diverse groups of students. here are two factors that can make or break indigenous students' abilities to be resilient in the face of many educational negatives in their lives and enable them to continue on to graduate from high school and in many instances, go on to complete undergraduate and graduate degrees in institutions of higher learning. This book is intended to be used for undergraduate and graduate students in education, anthropology, sociology, and American Indian studies. It is also intended for use by educators working in areas with large concentrations of American Indian students, whether in rural, rural reservation, urban, or states with large Native populations, such as California and Oklahoma. It is a useful tool for policy makers and those involved in American Indian education at the national and state levels, as well as organizations such as the Nation Council on American Indians, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the National Indian Education Association.
In the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, the Congress required that the Commission report on rural Medicare beneficiaries' access to care, rural providers' quality of care, special rural Medicare payments, and the adequacy of Medicare payments to rural providers. In addition to the findings presented on each of the four topics, this book presents a set of principles designed to guide expectations and policies with respect to rural access, quality, and payments for all sectors. This book also discusses multi-enterprising farm households and the importance of their alternative business ventures in the rural economy. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers the greatest number of rural development programs and has the highest average of program funds going directly to rural counties (approximately 50%). An overview of the USDA rural development programs is provided in this book.
'Rural India Facing the 21st Century' is a unique study of rural development in South India, concluded over a twenty-year period. Set against the context of international, national and state policies, the book focuses on a wide number of themes, including the stagnation of the 'green revolution', growing differentiation and inequality, the ecological crisis, resistance to reform, corruption and the enduring need for state intervention in rural development. Written by an international team of young scholars under the direction of Dr Harris-White, 'Rural India Facing the 21st Century' draws together a profound analysis of a broad range of issues to provide a masterly overview of overall rural development. Its highly original methodology and findings will be of considerable interest for development policy.
This title combines the concept, practice and application of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in a comprehensive manner. The author views PRA as a means of opening up new ways of approaching various problems within the development process. He defines it as a growing body of methods to enable local people to share, enhance and analyse their knowledge of life and conditions in order to plan, act, monitor and evaluate their actions. The basic premise of PRA is that poor and marginalized people are capable of analysing their own realities and that they should be enabled to do so.;The book provides examples from experiences, material with directions for use, as well as possibilities for innovation. It contains insight from actual practice in the field, and contains useful tips on the best practices which readers and practitioners should find valuable.;The book is divided into four parts. Part 1 deals with the concept of participation and explores its multiple dimensions. Parts 2 and 3 deal with the methods of PRA. Each method is explained with an introduction, applications, examples, a process outlining the steps, the time and material required, and the advantages and limitations of
Upstate New York is in a malaise. This husband and wife team of sociologists, Alexander Thomas and Polly Smith, wanted to know why. They take the reader on a tour of New York in order to diagnose the problems affecting the state and what can be done to address the issues. New York was built on the strengths of its strategic location and growing population to become the 'Empire State' during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. But a combination of unfortunate decisions and the creation of new technologies in which New York was no more competitive than other states translated into New York losing its dominant position in the world economy. The result has been several decades of deindustrialization and population loss. This book includes recommendations for ideas that can be further developed by the public.
Social, economic, and technological changes disrupt many Indigenous, ethnic, and rural communities even when offering progress. Under these conditions, social and psychological dysfunctions are likely to emerge. This book provides insights regarding how to anticipate, prevent, and, when necessary, provide mitigation strategies to communities and individuals who suffer as a result. This book, the first of its kind, provides an overview of strategic and policy issues involving the relationship between change and dysfunction, enabling the reader to more effectively deal with potentially hurtful influences in proactive, equitable, and culturally sensitive ways. After providing a theoretical overview, methods for anticipating the hurtful impacts of change are discussed, along with techniques for mitigating its negative effects upon communities and individuals. Learning objectives and discussion questions are included with each chapter, and the book can serve as a text for courses on indigenous economic development, Native studies, culturally appropriate business, and culturally competent therapy. It can also be used as a professional handbook for practitioners working with communities affected by these issues.
This book presents a new perspective on attempts by the contemporary Chinese government to transform the diverse conditions found in countless rural villages into what the state's social welfare program deems 'socialist new villages'. Lili Lai argues that an ethnographic focus on the specifics of village life can help destabilize China's persistent rural-urban divide and help contribute to more effective welfare intervention to improve health and hygienic conditions of village life.
A charming guide to the story of the English village, celebrating this beloved heart of the countryside. The village remains a quintessential and much-loved treasure that is often representative of England. This rural idyll has inspired generations of great poets, novelists and artists including the likes of Constable, Hardy and Wordsworth. The English Village champions all that is unique and loved about a typical village - the pub, the green, the school, the church, the pond, the local shop and more - as well as exploring how the village has changed over the centuries, and how it has adjusted to modern-day life. A fascinating compendium of interesting details, facts, customs and lore, this is an unabashed toast to the English village, as well as a record of a disappearing world.
An investigative journalist and editor of the "Boulder Weekly" presents an expose of today's growing antigovernment movement and the connection between the farm crisis of the 1980s and the massive buildup of militia groups in the United States. "Harvest of Rage" also exposes the underlying economic policies that helped trigger the current heartland revolt.
The book clearly illustrates the fundamental concepts related to the aspect of social research in the context of Extension Education. The book is divided into 4 parts Foundations of social research deals with universal and basic units of social research like scientific approach, meaning, process and development of scientific research problem. It also deals with defining and measurement of variables and testing of reliability and validity of measuring instruments. Research Methods section deals with the three major research methods used in extension education/ Agricultural extension, namely Survey research, Action research and case study. This section discusses in detail the process, relative advantages and limitations of each of these three methods. There are numerous research methods used in social research. Tools and techniques of data collection deals with situation suitability, relative advantages and limitation of various data collections techniques like face to face interview, mailed questionnaire, observation method, content analysis, sociometry and projective methods. Data processing and report writing section deals with making the collected data amenable for statistical analysis i.e. coding. This section discusses in detail the various types of codes and their utility. It also deals with formulation and testing of hypothesis and writing of the research report.
English rural society underwent fundamental changes between the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries with urbanization, commercialization and industrialization producing new challenges and opportunities for inhabitants of rural communities. However, our understanding of this period has been shaped by the compartmentalization of history into medieval and early-modern specialisms and by the debates surrounding the transition from feudalism to capitalism and landlord-tenant relations. Inspired by the classic works of Tawney and Postan, this collection of essays examines their relevance to historians today, distinguishing between their contrasting approaches to the pre-industrial economy and exploring the development of agriculture and rural industry; changes in land and property rights; and competition over resources in the English countryside.
How do societies negotiate the apparently competing agendas of environmental protection and social justice? Why do some countries perform much better than others on this front? Democracy in the Woods addresses these question by examining land rights conflicts-and the fate of forest-dependent peasants-in the context of the different forest property regimes in India, Tanzania, and Mexico. These three countries are prominent in the scholarship and policy debates about national forest policies and land conflicts associated with international support for nature conservation. This unique comparative study of national forestland regimes challenges the received wisdom that redistributive policies necessarily undermine the goals of environmental protection. It shows instead that the form that national environmental protection efforts take-either inclusive (as in Mexico) or exclusive (as in Tanzania and, for the most part, in India)-depends on whether dominant political parties are compelled to create structures of political intermediation that channel peasant demands for forest and land rights into the policy process. This book offers three different tests of this theory of political origins of forestland regimes. First, it explains why it took the Indian political elites nearly sixty years to introduce meaningful reforms of the colonial-era forestland regimes. Second, it successfully explains the rather counterintuitive local outcomes of the programs for formalization of land rights in India, Tanzania, and Mexico. Third, it provides a coherent explanation of why each of these three countries proposes a significantly different distribution of the benefits of forest-based climate change mitigation programs being developed under the auspices of the United Nations. In its political analysis of the control over and the use of nature, this book opens up new avenues for reflecting on how legacies of the past and international interventions interject into domestic political processes to produce specific configurations of environmental protection and social justice. Democracy in the Woods offers a theoretically rigorous argument about why and in what specific ways politics determine the prospects of a socially just and environmentally secure world.
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