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European rural landscapes as we experience them today are the result of ongoing processes and interactions between nature and society. These are changing fast: the future landscapes will be different from those we know currently. Written for academics, policy-makers and practitioners, this book is the first to explore the complex histories of rural landscapes in Europe as a basis for their sound governance in future. Tensions between the needs of agricultural spaces driven by economic incentives and a variety of non-agricultural functions are explored to demonstrate current challenges and the shortfalls in the policies that address them. Using inspiring case studies that highlight the roles of regional agents and communities, the authors go further than the usual analyses to illustrate the importance of local context. Written by experts currently working to revitalise the rural landscapes of Europe, the text concludes with suggestions for improving landscape policy and planning practice.
Conflicts over the conservation of biodiversity, changing patterns in land use, pollution, climate change, public access and increasing demands for food and energy security lead to the creation of policies designed to reconcile interests and promote society's objectives. This book examines the origins and evolution of the institutions that determine the use and management of land and the delivery of ecosystem services, through private property rights, markets and public policies. Divided into five accessible parts, the book provides detailed coverage of the institutions, property and governance of the countryside, historical models, governance under sectoral policies and alternative approaches. It is carefully developed to meet the needs of anyone studying or interested in agricultural sciences, countryside management, rural environment and geography. Students, lecturers, policy makers, managers and consultants in these areas will find this a valuable resource.
Rural Regeneration in the UK provides an accessible yet critical overview of rural regeneration policy and governance in the UK. It charts the key patterns and processes of rural change since 1945 and the emergence and evolution of rural regeneration policy and governance in shaping rural spaces. A key objective of the book is to highlight how, and to what extent, rural regeneration policy and governance are responsive to an increasingly differentiated and uneven rural economy and society. Part One considers the context for rural regeneration, including theoretical frameworks of relevance and the ways in which rural regeneration policy and governance have been framed. In particular, it includes a consideration of how the rural has been made 'thinkable', and the extent to which this has moved beyond traditional concerns with agricultural development. Part Two highlights the key dimensions and spaces of rural regeneration. This includes responses to rural change from 'within the rural', including community-led approaches, the use of culture and the extent to which approaches may be converging or diverging within a devolved UK. Rural Regeneration in the UK provides a comprehensive and integrated analysis of responses to rural change that will appeal to a broad audience of students, scholars and practitioners both in the UK and abroad.
This book provides an up-to-date account of the many processes shaping and transforming rural space in various parts of the world. The various case studies focus on the multi-functionality of the rural world and the driving forces behind it. The book demonstrates that rural areas are no longer simply characterized by an agricultural economy, and instead accommodate multiple complementary activities. It also touches upon two major changes that have taken place. The first is the process of rurbanization, which has led to the clear distinction between town and countryside becoming blurred: urban traits have penetrated rural areas, and rural traits have invaded towns. The second change is that rural areas are increasingly seen as multi-functional, providers not only of food and other natural resources but also locations for the generation of renewable energy (wind farms, solar farms, biogas) and regions for the preservation of biodiversity. These transformations have resulted in a new understanding and self-image of rural areas and their populations.
This book is a critical account of the disconnected nature of governance, conservation and livelihood initiatives in the Indian Sundarbans, an active delta that spreads over 25,500 sq. km across India and Bangladesh and lies in the Bay of Bengal. It draws a holistic picture of the disaster-prone delta in eastern India, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and also one of the largest tracts of mangrove forests in the world. The author juxtaposes the vulnerable lives and frequently displaced existence of the islanders against the dominant strategies of conservation and development followed by the state.
How is it that rural poverty in southern Tanzania appears both easy to explain and yet also mystifying? Why is it that 'development' is such a touchstone, when actual attempts at fostering development have been largely ephemeral and/or unpopular for decades? In this book, Felicitas Becker traces dynamics of rural poverty based on the exportation of foodstuffs rather than the better-known problems connected to exportation of migrant labour, and examines what has kept the development industry going despite its failure to break these dynamics. Becker argues that development planners often exaggerated their prospects to secure funding, repackaged old strategies as new to maintain their promise, and shifted blame onto rural Africans for failing to meet the expectations they had raised. But the rural poor, too, pursued conversations on the causes and morality of poverty and wealth. Despite their dependence and deprivation, officials found repeatedly that they could not take them for granted.
Rural development researchers and practitioners have argued in recent years that investing in a broad range of assets is a critical component of long-term economic growth in rural communities. Wealth can contribute to people's welfare in many ways beyond increasing income, such as providing economic resilience in adverse circumstances or enhancing one's power and prestige. Understanding the distribution of wealth across and within rural communities is critical. Additionally, population loss is a longstanding concern among rural development practitioners. Nearly half of today's non-metropolitan counties lost population through net out-migration over the past 20 years. Population loss tends to increase tax burdens, reduce property values, and reduce both the demand for and supply of local goods and services. Rural out-migration is also troublesome because it is highly concentrated among young adults, especially those possessing or acquiring education and skills. This book examines rural America, with a focus on rural wealth, out-migration, population and transportation issues.
Rural Development is a textbook that critically examines economic, social and cultural aspects of rural development efforts both in the global north and in the global south. By consistently using examples from the north and the south the book highlights similarities of processes as well as differences in contexts. The authors' knowledge of Afghanistan and Sweden respectively creates a core for the discussions which are complemented with a wide range of other empirical examples. Rural Development is divided into nine chapters, each with a thematic focus, ranging from concepts and theories through rural livelihoods and natural resources to discussions on policy and processes of change. The book sees rural development as a multi-level, multi-actor and multi-faceted subject area that needs multidisciplinary perspectives both to support it and to analyse it. Throughout the book examples of rural development interventions are discussed using analytical concepts such as power, discourse, consequences and context to grasp rural development as practices that are more than what is presented in policy documents. The book is written in a way that makes it accessible for undergraduates while at the same time caters for the kind of deeper reading used by master students and Ph.D.'s. Every chapter is linked to discussion questions as well as suggested further readings and useful websites.
Agricultural Landscapes: Seeing Rural Through Design follows on from the author's previous books, Rural Design and Architecture and Agriculture, to encourage using design thinking to provide greater meaning and understanding of places where humans live and work with the rural landscape. Rural areas around the world are often viewed as special places with cultural, historical and natural significance for people. Dewey Thorbeck emphasizes the importance of these rural sites and their connections to urban areas through full-color case studies of these places with particular emphasis on Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), as identified by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, to document and explore personal experiences, lessons learned, and implications for the future. Rural landscapes are part of everyone's heritage, and the book shows these connections and the unique GIAHS land use systems and landscapes as models for a more sustainable and prosperous rural and urban future. It includes practical examples of working places where growing food, raising animals, or harvesting from the sea has been the primary economy for centuries to exhibit a clear and sustainable local relationship between humans, animals, buildings, climate and place. Aimed at students, teachers and professionals, this book investigates how design thinking can be used to integrate rural and urban sites to shape land use for more sustainable futures.
Teaching Landscape: The Studio Experience gathers a range of expert contributions from across the world to collect best-practice examples of teaching landscape architecture studios. This is the companion volume to The Routledge Handbook of Teaching Landscape in the two-part set initiated by the European Council of Landscape Architecture Schools (ECLAS). Design and planning studio as a form of teaching lies at the core of landscape architecture education. They can simulate a professional situation and promote the development of creative solutions based on gaining an understanding of a specific project site or planning area; address existing challenges in urban and rural landscapes; and often involve interaction with real stakeholders, such as municipality representatives, residents or activist groups. In this way, studio-based planning and design teaching brings students closer to everyday practice, helping to prepare them to create real-world, problem-solving designs. This book provides fully illustrated examples of studios from over twenty different schools of landscape architecture worldwide. With over 250 full colour images, it is an essential resource for instructors and academics across the landscape discipline, for the continuously evolving process of discussing and generating improved teaching modes in landscape architecture.
What agency can landscape architects and garden designers have in conserving or restoring wildlife diversity? This book gathers essays by designers, scientists, and historians to explore how they might better collaborate to promote zoological biodiversity and how scientific ambitions might be expressed in culturally significant and historically informed design.
"In wildness is the preservation of the world," wrote Henry David Thoreau. But how the wild and the managed or artificially arranged environments co-exist has been a matter of intense debate among foresters and landscape professionals at least since the era of Frederick Law Olmsted Sr.
In Forest and Garden, Melanie L. Simo ranges through a period of landscape history that has been underexamined, between Olmsted and mid-twentieth-century modernism, when the contours of the debate were formed and the landscape professions came of age. Simo's book spans half a century, from the year that Charles Sprague Sargent's influential Garden and Forest magazine ceased publication in 1897 to the appearance in 1949 of two unusual books about land and landscape--Aldo Leopold's Sand County Almanac and Jens Jensen's The Clearing--that marked the beginning of a new ecological awareness.
Forest and Garden covers this middle ground by focusing on the apparent oppositions between culture and nature, city and country, science and art, and between professions peopled with figures such as John Muir, Gifford Pinchot, the Olmsteds, Mary Austin, Willa Cather, Bernard Maybeck, Frank Lloyd Wright, Henry Beston, and Benton MacKaye. In this earlier era when novelists, conservationists, foresters, and landscape designers still shared a common language, Simo finds areas of overlap in how their writings express their perceptions of the land, its uses, its beauty, and its fate. Organizing her study by region and landscape type, from desert and prairie to Metropolitan New York and Boston, and extending from ecological concerns in garden design to Leopold's call for a land ethic, Simo moves beyond the polarized views of current environmental debate.
Building in Arcadia: The case for well-designed rural development is a reasoned, impassioned and ultimately practical book identifying key barriers to rural development, and how planning applicants (whether householders, developers and landowners), and most particularly their agents who make the applications - architects, landscape architects or planners - can address, and overcome, them. Focusing on the positive aesthetic role buildings can play in the landscape, and proposing sensitive development, Building in Arcadia also explores the essential economic, social and environmental case for more building in the countryside to make the countryside more viable. In so doing, it will actively engage, challenge and provoke debate - as well as offering practical ways forward.
"Few places on Earth, and none elsewhere in Ireland, have yielded such a concentrated inventory of knowledge about the natural world." Michael Viney One hundred years ago, Irish naturalist Robert Lloyd Praeger led a survey of the natural history and cultural heritage of Clare Island at a level of detail greater than any area of comparable size at that time. Almost a century later, the Royal Irish Academy set about repeating the exercise with the intention of assessing and evaluating change on the island over the intervening years. In this book John Feehan distils the results of the two great surveys with elegance and enthusiasm to shine a spotlight on the richness of life surviving on Clare Island. In easy, affectionate prose Feehan interweaves the natural and cultural heritage of the island and shares his wider ecological knowledge to help us understand the role each species plays in the life of this remarkable place.
Lack of water is the limiting factor for many household and community-based activities for millions of people living in dryland areas. Rural water supply programmes tend to focus on only two social aspects: improved access to domestic supply and improved sanitation. Less attention has been paid to how communities prefer to use water to develop their own livelihoods. This is due partly to the difficulties of abstracting sufficient reliable groundwater in dryland areas and partly to a misunderstanding of why wells and boreholes fail, which leads to a general belief that abstraction should be limited to domestic supply to conserve the resource. When more water is available, not only are basic drinking and washing needs satisfied but also other activities with a high economic value become feasible, such as small-scale irrigation, fruit orchards, livestock feedlots, small-scale dairy units, fish farming, brick-making, etc. Such diversification avoids over-reliance on rain-fed cropping of marginal lands.;This book aims to show how research in Southern Africa has shed light on why conventional wells and boreholes fail, on the potential of the groundwater resource to support production through improved siting and selection of more appropriate well designs and on the positive impacts and some problems that can emerge at productive water points. The findings are presented in a practical manner to encourage planners and practitioners in rural water supply to consider developing productive water points in drought-prone areas, and to provide the information they need to follow this through.
Small farms represent important components of food systems and rural areas, as sources of occupation and livelihood, factors of socio-economic diversity, cradles of grass-roots innovation and experimentation. Their capacity to adapt and to contribute positively to societal challenges depends on the strategies they can develop and their ability to innovate. The book provides an in-depth exploration of the determinants, dynamics and outcomes of rural and agricultural change processes, with a special focus on the role of small and family farming. Covering both the system and the farm level of analysis, the authors offer a comprehensive view of approaches and models capable to grasp different complementary aspects of the development trajectories followed by farms, food systems and territories facing multi-dimensional drivers of change and exposed to a range of vulnerability factors. The emerging characters and roles of innovation networks and social learning, as well as the decision-making processes at the farm level are explored in particular depth, with attention to the multi-dimensional societal expectations vis-a-vis agriculture, small farms and rural areas, with specific attention to food and nutrition security concerns.
Planning Practice: Critical Perspectives from the UK provides the only comprehensive overview of contemporary planning practice in the UK. Drawing on contributions from leading researchers in the field, it examines the tools, contexts and outcomes of planning practice. Part I examines planning processes and tools, and the extent to which theory and practice diverge, covering plan-making, Development Management, planning gain, public engagement and place-making. Part II examines the changing contexts within which planning practice takes place, including privatisation and deregulation, devolution and multi-level governance, increased ethnic and social diversity, growing environmental concerns and the changing nature of commercial real estate. Part III focuses on how planning practice produces outcomes for the built environment in relation to housing, infrastructure, economic progress, public transport and regeneration. The book considers what it means to be a reflective practitioner in the modern planning system, the constraints and opportunities that planners face in their daily work, and the ethical and political challenges they must confront.
Locating Neoliberalism in East Asia: Neoliberalizing Spaces in Developmental States examines the influence of neo-liberal ideologies on urban and regional policies and practices in several Asian Pacific nations. * Represents one of the few studies of neoliberal changes in East Asia, one of the most important topics in social science research over the past two decades * Considers the Asian perspective by focusing on readings from Asian experts * Pays special attention to the spatial' dimension of the East Asian neoliberalization * Examines the influence of neo-liberal ideologies on urban and regional policies and practices in several Asian Pacific nations * Explores the evolving relationship between the two political economies
This book will seek to close the gaps on the role of France in exporting Eurocentric spatial and environmental design principles and practice. It does so by analyzing the major spatial and physical development projects that French colonial authorities implemented in France's colonial empire and elsewhere from the 15th to the 20th century. French urban planning ideology, principles and practice were not exported exclusively to territories under French colonial suzerainty. Accordingly, the book focuses on major physical and spatial planning schemes inspired by French planning thought in territories without a history of French colonialism.
This collection offers a comprehensive selection of journal articles and book chapters that provide readers with an historical overview of rural planning, collating the canonical writings on the subject in one essential reference work. Each volume begins with an editorial introduction by the editor explaining the context and choice of contents, with the set organised thematically, from the concept of the rural, to the policy and governance aspects, through to the considerations of environmental change. Sections will consider the key concepts of rural development with a broad range of representative published sources included. Reflecting various approaches in the best scholarship, this will be of major assistance for students of planning and geography quickly locating the best information on the built environment in rural locations.
Fundamentals of Rural Development is a concise yet thorough text which strives to impart a good comprehension of rural development (RD) in India. It presents the theories of RD, structure of rural economy, policy instruments, and strategies in poverty alleviation globally, planning issues and programs for implementation, institutional and organizational roles and involvement, and the overall management of rural development. In particular, it emphasizes the pivotal role of human resources as both a means and an end of development.
The discourse around derelict, former industrial and military sites has grown in recent years. This interest is not only theoretical, and landscape professionals are taking new approaches to the design and development of these sites. This book examines the varied ways in which the histories and qualities of these derelict sites are reimagined in the transformed landscape and considers how such approaches can reveal the dramatic changes that have been wrought on these places over a relatively short time scale. It discusses these issues with reference to eleven sites from the UK, Germany, the USA, Australia and China, focusing specifically on how designers incorporate evidence of landscape change, both cultural and natural. There has been little research into how these developed landscapes are perceived by visitors and local residents. This book examines how the tangible material traces of pastness are interpreted by the visitor and the impact of the intangible elements - hidden traces, experiences and memories. The book draws together theory in the field and implications for practice in landscape architecture and concludes with an examination of how different approaches to revealing and reimagining change can affect the future management of the site.
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