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On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society's Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium "Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century." The symposium was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting and discussing the fundamental scientific problems that will be addressed in the next few decades.
This book helps dispel the notion that collective phenomena, which have become increasingly important in modern storage rings, are an obscure and inaccessible topic. The book serves as a valuable guide on how to improve synchrotrons and other storage rings. Despite an emphasis on synchrotron light sources, the basic concepts presented here are valid for other facilities as well.
Over the last decades, technological progress has brought about a multitude of standardization problems. For instance, compatibility standards ensure the interoperability of goods, which is of decisive importance when users face positive externalities in consumption. Consumers' expectations are key to the problem of whether a new technology will prevail as de-facto standard or not. Early adopters must be confident that the network good will be successful. Thus, it may be worthwhile for firms to influence consumers' expectations. Consisting of three models on various aspects of standardization and expectations, this book aims at deepening our understanding of how standards and expectations interact. The models are applied to problems such as "Inter-Technology vs. Intra-Technology Competition" and "Standardization of Nascent Technologies."
A discussion of recently developed experimental methods for noise research in nanoscale electronic devices, conducted by specialists in transport and stochastic phenomena in nanoscale physics. The approach described is to create methods for experimental observations of noise sources, their localization and their frequency spectrum, voltage-current and thermal dependences. Our current knowledge of measurement methods for mesoscopic devices is summarized to identify directions for future research, related to downscaling effects.
The directions for future research into fluctuation phenomena in quantum dot and quantum wire devices are specified. Nanoscale electronic devices will be the basic components for electronics of the 21st century. From this point of view the signal-to-noise ratio is a very important parameter for the device application. Since the noise is also a quality and reliability indicator, experimental methods will have a wide application in the future.
This book constitutes the Proceedings of the 26th Symposium on Acoustical Imaging held inWindsor, Ontario, Canada during September 9-12, 2001. This traditional scientific event is recognized as a premier forum for the presentation of advanced research results in both theoretical and experimental development. The lAIS was conceived at a 1967Acoustical Holography meeting in the USA. Since then, these traditional symposia provide an opportunity for specialists who are working in this area to make new acquaintances, renew old friendships and present recent results of their research. Our Symposium has grown significantly in size due to a broad interest in various topics and to the quality of the presentations. For the firsttime in 40 years, the IAIS was held in the province of Ontario in Windsor, Canada's Automotive Capital and City of Roses. The 26th IAIS attracted over 100specialists from 13countries representing this interdisciplinary field in physical acoustics, image processing, applied mathematics, solid-state physics, biology and medicine, industrial applications and quality control technologies. The 26th lAIS was organized in the traditional way with only one addition-a Special Session "History of Acoustical Imaging" with the involvement of such well known scientists as Andrew Briggs, Noriyoshi Chubachi, Robert Green Jr., Joie Jones, Kenneth Erikson, and Bernhard Tittmann. Many of these speakers are well known scientists in their fields and we would like to thank them for making this session extremely successful.
This second open access volume of the handbook series deals with detectors, large experimental facilities and data handling, both for accelerator and non-accelerator based experiments. It also covers applications in medicine and life sciences. A joint CERN-Springer initiative, the "Particle Physics Reference Library" provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the well-known Landolt-Boernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Why psychology is in peril as a scientific discipline--and how to save it Psychological science has made extraordinary discoveries about the human mind, but can we trust everything its practitioners are telling us? In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that a lot of research in psychology is based on weak evidence, questionable practices, and sometimes even fraud. The Seven Deadly Sins of Psychology diagnoses the ills besetting the discipline today and proposes sensible, practical solutions to ensure that it remains a legitimate and reliable science in the years ahead. In this unflinchingly candid manifesto, Chris Chambers draws on his own experiences as a working scientist to reveal a dark side to psychology that few of us ever see. Using the seven deadly sins as a metaphor, he shows how practitioners are vulnerable to powerful biases that undercut the scientific method, how they routinely torture data until it produces outcomes that can be published in prestigious journals, and how studies are much less reliable than advertised. He reveals how a culture of secrecy denies the public and other researchers access to the results of psychology experiments, how fraudulent academics can operate with impunity, and how an obsession with bean counting creates perverse incentives for academics. Left unchecked, these problems threaten the very future of psychology as a science--but help is here. Outlining a core set of best practices that can be applied across the sciences, Chambers demonstrates how all these sins can be corrected by embracing open science, an emerging philosophy that seeks to make research and its outcomes as transparent as possible.
Written by three leading experts in the field, this textbook describes and explains all aspects of the scanning probe microscopy. Emphasis is placed on the experimental design and procedures required to optimize the performance of the various methods. Scanning Probe Microscopy covers not only the physical principles behind scanning probe microscopy but also questions of instrumental designs, basic features of the different imaging modes, and recurring artifacts. The intention is to provide a general textbook for all types of classes that address scanning probe microscopy. Third year undergraduates and beyond should be able to use it for self-study or as textbook to accompany a course on probe microscopy. Furthermore, it will be valuable as reference book in any scanning probe microscopy laboratory. Novel applications and the latest important results are also presented, and the book closes with a look at the future prospects of scanning probe microscopy, also discussing related techniques in nanoscience. Ideally suited as an introduction for graduate students, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for practising researchers developing and using scanning probe techniques.
Introduces readers to the concept of opposites through the pairing of high and low. Simple text, straightforward photos, and a photo glossary make this title the perfect primer on a common pair of opposites.
Devised at the beginning of the 20th century by french physicists Charles Fabry and Alfred Perot, the Fabry-Perot optical cavity is perhaps the most deceptively simple setup in optics, and today a key resource in many areas of science and technology. This thesis delves deeply into the applications of optical cavities in a variety of contexts: from LIGO's 4-km-long interferometer arms that are allowing us to observe the universe in a new way by measuring gravitational waves, to the atomic clocks used to realise time with unprecedented accuracy which will soon lead to a redefinition of the second, and the matterwave interferometers that are enabling us to test and measure gravity in a new scale. The work presented accounts for the elegance and versatility of this setup, which today underpins much of the progress in the frontier of atomic and gravitational experimental physics.
Semiconductors and Modern Electronics is a brief introduction to the physics behind semiconductor technologies. Chuck Winrich, a physics professor at Babson College, explores the topic of semiconductors from a qualitative approach to understanding the theories and models used to explain semiconductor devices. Applications of semiconductors are explored and understood through the models developed in the book. The qualitative approach in this book is intended to bring the advanced ideas behind semiconductors to the broader audience of students who will not major in physics. Much of the inspiration for this book comes from Dr. Winrich's experience teaching a general electronics course to students majoring in business. The goal of that class, and this book, is to bring forward the science behind semiconductors, and then to look at how that science affects the lives of people.
The first part of this book overviews the physics of lasers and describes some of the more common types of lasers and their applications. Applications of lasers include CD/DVD players, laser printers and fiber optic communication devices. Part II of this book describes the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation. The experimental techniques used to create a Bose-Einstein condensate provide an interesting and unconventional application of lasers; that is, the cooling and confinement of a dilute gas at very low temperature.
This proceedings book presents dual approaches to examining new theoretical models and their applicability in the search for new scintillation materials and, ultimately, the development of industrial technologies. The ISMART conferences bring together the radiation detector community, from fundamental research scientists to applied physics experts, engineers, and experts on the implementation of advanced solutions. This scientific forum builds a bridge between the different parts of the community and is the basis for multidisciplinary, cooperative research and development efforts. The main goals of the conference series are to review the latest results in scintillator development, from theory to applications, and to arrive at a deeper understanding of fundamental processes, as well as to discover components for the production of new generations of scintillation materials. The book highlights recent findings and hypotheses, key advances, as well as exotic detector designs and solutions, and includes papers on the microtheory of scintillation and the initial phase of luminescence development, applications of the various materials, as well as the development and characterization of ionizing radiation detection equipment. It also touches on the increased demand for cryogenic scintillators, the renaissance of garnet materials for scintillator applications, nano-structuring in scintillator development, trends in and applications for security, and exploration of hydrocarbons and ecological monitoring.
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