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This volume is the outcome of a community-wide review of the field of dynamics and thermodynamics with nuclear degrees of freedom. It presents the achievements and the outstanding open questions in 26 articles collected in six topical sections and written by more than 60 authors. All authors are internationally recognized experts in their fields.
Conceived as a reference manual for practicing engineers, instrument designers, service technicians and engineering students. The related fields of physics, mechanics and mathematics are frequently incorporated to enhance the understanding of the subject matter. Historical anecdotes as far back as Hellenistic times to modern scientists help illustrate in an entertaining manner ideas ranging from impractical inventions in history to those that have changed our lives.
This book gathers the proceedings of The Hadron Collider Physics Symposia (HCP) 2005, and reviews the state-of-the-art in the key physics directions of experimental hadron collider research. Topics include QCD physics, precision electroweak physics, c-, b-, and t-quark physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, and heavy ion physics. The present volume serves as a reference for everyone working in the field of accelerator-based high-energy physics.
Building on its heritage in planetary science, remote sensing of the Earth's at- sphere and ionosphere with occultation methods has undergone remarkable dev- opments since the rst GPS/Met 'proof of concept' mission in 1995. Signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) satellites are exploited by radio occ- tation while natural signal sources are used in solar, lunar, and stellar occultations. A range of atmospheric variables is provided reaching from fundamental atmospheric parameters such as density, pressure, and temperature to water vapor, ozone, and othertracegasspecies. Theutilityforatmosphereandclimatearisesfromtheunique properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultations have become a va- able data source for atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, climate research as well as for space weather and planetary science. The 3rd International Workshop on Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Climate (OPAC-3) was held September 17-21, 2007, in Graz, Austria. OPAC-3 aimed at providing a casual forum and stimulating atmosphere for scienti c disc- sion, co-operation initiatives, and mutual learning and support amongst members of alldifferentoccultationcommunities. Theworkshopwasattendedby40participants from 14 different countries who actively contributed to a scienti c programme of high quality and to an excellent workshop atmosphere. The programme included 6 invited keynote presentations and 16 invited pres- tations, complemented by about 20 contributed ones including 8 posters.
Infrared thermography is a measurement technique that enables to obtain non intrusive measurements of surface temperatures. One of the interesting features of this technique is its ability to measure a full two dimensional map of the surface temperature and for this reason it has been widely used as a flow visualization technique. Since the temperature measurements can be extremely accurate it is possible, by using a heat flux sensor, also to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions on a surface making the technique de facto quantitative. This book, starting from the basic theory of infrared thermography and heat flux sensor guides, both the experienced researcher and the young student, in the correct application of this powerful technique to various practical problems. A significant number of examples and applications are also examined in detail.
The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of 'The Problem of Time', including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. Beyond astrometry, the main fields of application of high-precision astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems and frames are navigation (GPS, interplanetary spacecraft navigation) and global geodynamics, which provide a high-precision Celestial Reference System and its link to any terrestrial spatial-temporal reference system. Mankind's urgent environmental questions can only be answered in the context of appropriate reference systems in which both aspects, space and time, are realized with a sufficiently high level of accuracy. This book addresses all those interested in high-precision reference systems and the various techniques (GPS, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Satellite Laser Ranging, Lunar Laser Ranging) necessary for their realization, including the production and dissemination of time signals.
The field of large-scale dimensional metrology (LSM) deals with objects that have linear dimensions ranging from tens to hundreds of meters. It has recently attracted a great deal of interest in many areas of production, including the automotive, railway, and shipbuilding sectors. Distributed Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology introduces a new paradigm in this field that reverses the classical metrological approach: measuring systems that are portable and can be easily moved around the location of the measured object, which is preferable to moving the object itself. Distributed Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology combines the concepts of distributed systems and large scale metrology at the application level. It focuses on the latest insights and challenges of this new generation of systems from the perspective of the designers and developers. The main topics are: coverage of measuring area, sensors calibration, on-line diagnostics, probe management, and analysis of metrological performance. The general descriptions of each topic are further enriched by specific examples concerning the use of commercially available systems or the development of new prototypes. This will be particularly useful for professional practitioners such as quality engineers, manufacturing and development engineers, and procurement specialists, but Distributed Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology also has a wealth of information for interested academics.
This series of reference books describes sciences of different elds in and around geodesy with independent chapters. Each chapter covers an individual eld and describes the history, theory, objective, technology, development, highlights of research and applications. In addition, problems as well as future directions are discussed. The subjects of this reference book include Absolute and Relative Gravimetry, Adaptively Robust Kalman Filters with Applications in Navigation, Airborne Gravity Field Determination, Analytic Orbit Theory, Deformation and Tectonics, Earth Rotation, Equivalence of GPS Algorithms and its Inference, Marine Geodesy, Satellite Laser Ranging, Superconducting Gravimetry and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry. These are individual subjects in and around geodesy and are for the rst time combined in a unique book which may be used for teaching or for learning basic principles of many subjects related to geodesy. The material is suitable to provide a general overview of geodetic sciences for high-level geodetic researchers, educators as well as engineers and students. Some of the chapters are written to ll literature blanks of the related areas. Most chapters are written by well-known scientists throughout the world in the related areas. The chapters are ordered by their titles. Summaries of the individual chapters and introductions of their authors and co-authors are as follows. Chapter 1 "Absolute and Relative Gravimetry" provides an overview of the gravimetric methods to determine most accurately the gravity acceleration at given locations.
Precision Nanometrology describes the new field of precision nanometrology, which plays an important part in nanoscale manufacturing of semiconductors, optical elements, precision parts and similar items. It pays particular attention to the measurement of surface forms of precision workpieces and to stage motions of precision machines. The first half of the book is dedicated to the description of optical sensors for the measurement of angle and displacement, which are fundamental quantities for precision nanometrology. The second half presents a number of scanning-type measuring systems for surface forms and stage motions. The systems discussed include: * error separation algorithms and systems for measurement of straightness and roundness, * the measurement of micro-aspherics, * systems based on scanning probe microscopy, and * scanning image-sensor systems. Precision Nanometrology presents the fundamental and practical technologies of precision nanometrology with a helpful selection of algorithms, instruments and experimental data. It will be beneficial for researchers, engineers and postgraduate students involved in precision engineering, nanotechnology and manufacturing.
The search for table-top and repetitive pump schemes during the last decade has been the driving force behind the spectacular advances demonstrated during the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, organized in 2006 in Berlin. The proceedings of this series of conferences constitute a comprehensive source of reference of the acknowledged state-of the-art in this specific area of laser and plasma physics.
This volume comprises a collection of invited papers presented at the interna tional symposium "The Future of Muon Physics", May 7-9 1991, at the Ruprecht Karls-Universitat in Heidelberg. In the inspiring atmosphere of the Internationales Wissenschaftsforum researchers working worldwide at universities and at many inter national accelerator centers came together to review the present status of the field and to discuss the future directions in muon physics. The muon, charged lepton of the second generation, was first oberved some sixty years ago~ Despite many efforts since, the reason for its existence still remains a secret to the scientific community challenging both theorists and experimentalists. In modern physics the muon plays a key role in many topics of research. Atomic physics with negative muons provides excellent tests of the theory of quantum electrodynamics and of the electro-weak interaction and probes nuclear properties. The. purely leptonic hydrogen-like muonium atom allows tests of fun damental laws in physics and the determination of precise values for fundamental constants. New measurements of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon will probe the renormalizability of the weak interaction and will be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. The muon decay is the most carefully studied weak process. Searches for rare decay modes of muons and for the conversion of muonium to antimuonium examine the lepton number conservation laws and new speculative theories. Nuclear muon capture addresses fundamental questions like tests of the CPT theorem.
This book provides an in-depth overview of on chip instrumentation technologies and various approaches taken in adding instrumentation to System on Chip (ASIC, ASSP, FPGA, etc.) design that are collectively becoming known as Design for Debug (DfD). On chip instruments are hardware based blocks that are added to a design for the specific purpose and improving the visibility of internal or embedded portions of the design (specific instruction flow in a processor, bus transaction in an on chip bus as examples) to improve the analysis or optimization capabilities for a SoC. DfD is the methodology and infrastructure that surrounds the instrumentation. Coverage includes specific design examples and discussion of implementations and DfD tradeoffs in a decision to design or select instrumentation or SoC that include instrumentation. Although the focus will be on hardware implementations, software and tools will be discussed in some detail.
The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for any other researcher in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possible way, with the working details of a specific technique.
Nuclear reactions at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier have found much interest since unexpectedly large cross sections of fusion for heavy ions were discovered around 1980. This book covers the more important experimental and theoretical aspects such as sub-barrier fusion, sub- and near-barrier transfer, couplings of various reaction channels, neck-formation, the threshold anomaly, spin distributions and fusion of polarized ions. The symposium also included a session devoted to mass spectrometry for fast reaction products.
This course-tested text is an ideal starting point for engineers and physicists entering the field of particle accelerators. The fundamentals are comprehensively introduced, derivations of essential results are provided and a consistent notation style used throughout the book allows readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the field, providing a solid theoretical basis for further studies.
Emphasis is placed on the essential features of the longitudinal motion of charged particle beams, together with the corresponding RF generation and power amplification devices for synchrotron and storage ring systems. In particular, electrical engineering aspects such as closed-loop control of system components are discussed.
The book also offers a valuable resource for graduate students in physics, electronics engineering, or mathematics looking for an introductory and self-contained text on accelerator physics.
This volume presents measurement uncertainty and uncertainty budgets in a form accessible to practicing engineers and engineering students from across a wide range of disciplines. The book gives a detailed explanation of the methods presented by NIST in the "GUM" - Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement. Emphasis is placed on explaining the background and meaning of the topics, while keeping the level of mathematics at the minimum level necessary. Dr. Colin Ratcliffe, USNA, and Bridget Ratcliffe, Johns Hopkins, develop uncertainty budgets and explain their use. In some examples, the budget may show a process is already adequate and where costs can be saved. In other examples, the budget may show the process is inadequate and needs improvement. The book demonstrates how uncertainty budgets help identify the most cost effective place to make changes. In addition, an extensive fully-worked case study leads readers through all issues related to an uncertainty analysis, including a variety of different types of uncertainty budgets. The book is ideal for professional engineers and students concerned with a broad range of measurement assurance challenges in applied sciences. This book also: Facilitates practicing engineers' understanding of uncertainty budgets, essential to calculating cost-effective savings to a wide variety of processes contingent on measurement Presents uncertainty budgets in an accessible style suitable for all undergraduate STEM courses that include a laboratory component Provides a highly adaptable supplement to graduate textbooks for courses where students' work includes reporting on experimental results Includes an expanded case study developing uncertainty from transducers though measurands and propagated to the final measurement that can be used as a template for the analysis of many processes Stands as a useful pocket reference for all engineers and experimental scientists
Matter wave interferometry is a promising and successful way to explore truly macroscopic quantum phenomena and probe the validity of quantum theory at the borderline to the classic world. Indeed, we may soon witness quantum superpositions with nano to micrometer-sized objects. Yet, venturing deeper into the macroscopic domain is not only an experimental but also a theoretical endeavour: new interferometers must be conceived, sources of noise and decoherence identified, size effects understood and possible modifications of the theory taken into account. This thesis provides the theoretical background to recent advances in molecule and nanoparticle interferometry. In addition, it contains a physical and objective method to assess the degree of macroscopicity of such experiments, ranking them among other macroscopic quantum superposition phenomena."
This book gives a detailed review on ground-based aerosol optical depth measurement with emphasis on the calibration issue. The review is written in chronological sequence to render better comprehension on the evolution of the classical Langley calibration from the past to present. It not only compiles the existing calibration methods but also presents a novel calibration algorithm in Langley sun-photometry over low altitude sites which conventionally is a common practice performed at high observatory stations. The proposed algorithm avoids travelling to high altitudes for frequent calibration that is difficult both in logistics and financial prospects. We addressed the problem by combining clear-sky detection model and statistical filter to strictly imitate the ideal clear-sky condition at high altitude for measurements taken over low altitudes. In this way, the possible temporal atmospheric drifts, abundant aerosol loadings and short time interval cloud transits are properly constrained. We believe that this finding has an integral part of practicality and versatility in ground-based aerosol optical depth measurement, which is nowadays an important climate agent in many atmospheric studies. Finally, the outcome of this book introduces a new calibration technique for the study and measurement of aerosol monitoring with emphasis on aerosol optical depth that we believe could be very beneficial to researchers and scientists in the similar area.
This book brings together reviews from leading international authorities on the developments in the study of dark matter and dark energy, as seen from both their cosmological and particle physics side. Studying the physical and astrophysical properties of the dark components of our Universe is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of unveiling their nature. The work developed from a doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation. The book starts with a concise introduction to the standard cosmological model, as well as with a presentation of the theory of linear perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background. It covers the particle physics and cosmological aspects of dark matter and (dynamical) dark energy, including a discussion of how modified theories of gravity could provide a possible candidate for dark energy. A detailed presentation is also given of the possible ways of testing the theory in terms of cosmic microwave background, galaxy redshift surveys and weak gravitational lensing observations. Included is a chapter reviewing extensively the direct and indirect methods of detection of the hypothetical dark matter particles. Also included is a self-contained introduction to the techniques and most important results of numerical (e.g. N-body) simulations in cosmology. " This volume will be useful to researchers, PhD and graduate students in Astrophysics, Cosmology Physics and Mathematics, who are interested in cosmology, dark matter and dark energy.
Tests of the current understanding of physics at the highest energies achievable in man-made experiments are performed at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. In the theory of the strong force within the Standard Model of particle physics - Quantum ChromoDynamics or QCD - confined quarks and gluons from the proton-proton scattering manifest themselves as groups of collimated particles. These particles are clustered into physically measurable objects called hadronic jets. As jets are widely produced at hadron colliders, they are the key physics objects for an early "rediscovery of QCD". This thesis presents the first jet measurement from the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC and confronts the experimental challenges of precision measurements. Inclusive jet cross section data are then used to improve the knowledge of the momentum distribution of quarks and gluons within the proton and of the magnitude of the strong force.
Sloshing causes liquid to fluctuate, making accurate level readings difficult to obtain in dynamic environments. The measurement system described uses a single-tube capacitive sensor to obtain an instantaneous level reading of the fluid surface, thereby accurately determining the fluid quantity in the presence of slosh. A neural network based classification technique has been applied to predict the actual quantity of the fluid contained in a tank under sloshing conditions.
In "A neural network approach to fluid quantity measurement in dynamic environments," effects of temperature variations and contamination on the capacitive sensor are discussed, and the authors propose that these effects can also be eliminated with the proposed neural network based classification system. To examine the performance of the classification system, many field trials were carried out on a running vehicle at various tank volume levels that range from 5 L to 50 L. The effectiveness of signal enhancement on the neural network based signal classification system is also investigated. Results obtained from the investigation are compared with traditionally used statistical averaging methods, and proves that the neural network based measurement system can produce highly accurate fluid quantity measurements in a dynamic environment. Although in this case a capacitive sensor was used to demonstrate measurement system this methodology is valid for all types of electronic sensors.
The approach demonstrated in "A neural network approach to fluid quantity measurement in dynamic environments "can be applied to a wide range of fluid quantity measurement applications in the automotive, naval and aviation industries to produce accurate fluid level readings. Students, lecturers, and experts will find the description of current research about accurate fluid level measurement in dynamic environments using neural network approach useful."
This well-illustrated book, by two established historians of school mathematics, documents Thomas Jefferson's quest, after 1775, to introduce a form of decimal currency to the fledgling United States of America. The book describes a remarkable study showing how the United States' decision to adopt a fully decimalized, carefully conceived national currency ultimately had a profound effect on U.S. school mathematics curricula. The book shows, by analyzing a large set of arithmetic textbooks and an even larger set of handwritten cyphering books, that although most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century authors of arithmetic textbooks included sections on vulgar and decimal fractions, most school students who prepared cyphering books did not study either vulgar or decimal fractions. In other words, author-intended school arithmetic curricula were not matched by teacher-implemented school arithmetic curricula. Amazingly, that state of affairs continued even after the U.S. Mint began minting dollars, cents and dimes in the 1790s. In U.S. schools between 1775 and 1810 it was often the case that Federal money was studied but decimal fractions were not. That gradually changed during the first century of the formal existence of the United States of America. By contrast, Chapter 6 reports a comparative analysis of data showing that in Great Britain only a minority of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century school students studied decimal fractions. Clements and Ellerton argue that Jefferson's success in establishing a system of decimalized Federal money had educationally significant effects on implemented school arithmetic curricula in the United States of America. The lens through which Clements and Ellerton have analyzed their large data sets has been the lag-time theoretical position which they have developed. That theory posits that the time between when an important mathematical "discovery" is made (or a concept is "created") and when that discovery (or concept) becomes an important part of school mathematics is dependent on mathematical, social, political and economic factors. Thus, lag time varies from region to region, and from nation to nation. Clements and Ellerton are the first to identify the years after 1775 as the dawn of a new day in U.S. school mathematics-traditionally, historians have argued that nothing in U.S. school mathematics was worthy of serious study until the 1820s. This book emphasizes the importance of the acceptance of decimal currency so far as school mathematics is concerned. It also draws attention to the consequences for school mathematics of the conscious decision of the U.S. Congress not to proceed with Thomas Jefferson's grand scheme for a system of decimalized weights and measures.
This book makes the area of integration of renewable energy into the existing electricity grid accessible to engineers and researchers. This is a self-contained text which has models of power system devices and control theory necessary to understand and tune controllers in use currently. The new research in renewable energy integration is put into perspective by comparing the change in the system dynamics as compared to the traditional electricity grid. The emergence of the voltage stability problem is motivated by extensive examples. Various methods to mitigate this problem are discussed bringing out their merits clearly. As a solution to the voltage stability problem, the book covers the use of FACTS devices and basic control methods. An important contribution of this book is to introduce advanced control methods for voltage stability. It covers the application of output feedback methods with a special emphasis on how to bound modelling uncertainties and the use of robust control theory to design controllers for practical power systems. Special emphasis is given to designing controllers for FACTS devices to improve low-voltage ride-through capability of induction generators. As generally PV is connected in low voltage distribution area, this book also provides a systematic control design for the PV unit in distribution systems. The theory is amply illustrated with large IEEE Test systems with multiple generators and dynamic load. Controllers are designed using Matlab and tested using full system models in PSSE.
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