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How To Analyse Texts is the essential introductory textbook and toolkit for language analysis.
This book shows the reader how to undertake detailed, language-focussed, contextually sensitive analyses of a wide range of texts – spoken, written and multimodal. The book constitutes a flexible resource which can be used in different ways across a range of courses and at different levels.
This textbook includes:
Written by two experienced teachers of English Language, How To Analyse Texts is key reading for all students of English language and linguistics.
Working with Texts is a well established textbook that introduces students to the main principles of language analysis, through contemporary text examples. Covering a wide range of language areas, the book uses an interactive, activity-based approach to support students' understanding of language structure and variety.
The third edition includes: new material on analyzing sound; an updated range of texts, including literary extracts, advertisements, newspaper articles, comic book strips, excerpts from popular comedy sketches, political speeches, telephone discourse, and internet chat; new extension work to support student-directed study; detailed suggestions after each unit for further reading within the Intertext series as a whole; and an updated list of URLs.
A masterclass in persuasion from the inspiring philosopher who has taught a million people to argue through his popular open online course Our personal and political worlds are rife with arguments and disagreements, some of them petty and vitriolic. The inability to compromise and understand the other side is widespread today. What can we do to change this? In Think Again philosopher Walter Sinnott-Armstrong draws on a long tradition of logic to show why we should stop focusing on winning arguments and instead argue in a more constructive way. Based on a hugely popular online course with more than a million followers around the world, Think Again explains how to analyse, evaluate and make better arguments while also spotting bad reasoning and avoiding certain fallacies. Through lively, practical examples from everyday life, politics and popular culture, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong offers brilliantly straightforward, wise advice that we can all use at work, at home and online.
Essential study guides for the future linguist. Text Analysis and Representation is a general introduction to the methods and principles behind English linguistics study, suitable for students at advanced level and beyond. Written with input from the Cambridge English Corpus, it looks at the way meaning is made using authentic written and spoken examples. This helps students give confident analysis and articulate responses. Using short activities to help explain analysis methods, this book guides students through major modern issues and concepts. It summarises key concerns and modern findings, while providing inspiration for language investigations and non-examined assessments (NEAs) with research suggestions.
A compelling history of the national conflicts that resulted from efforts to produce the first definitive American dictionary of English In The Dictionary Wars, Peter Martin recounts the patriotic fervor in the early American republic to produce a definitive national dictionary that would rival Samuel Johnson (TM)s 1755 Dictionary of the English Language. But what began as a cultural war of independence from Britain devolved into a battle among lexicographers, authors, scholars, and publishers, all vying for dictionary supremacy and shattering forever the dream of a unified American language. The overwhelming questions in the dictionary wars involved which and whose English was truly American and whether a dictionary of English should attempt to be American at all, independent from Britain. Martin tells the human story of the intense rivalry between America (TM)s first lexicographers, Noah Webster and Joseph Emerson Worcester, who fought over who could best represent the soul and identity of American culture. Webster believed an American dictionary, like the American language, ought to be informed by the nation (TM)s republican principles, but Worcester thought that such language reforms were reckless and went too far. Their conflict continued beyond Webster (TM)s death, when the ambitious Merriam brothers acquired publishing rights to Webster (TM)s American Dictionary and launched their own language wars. From the beginning of the nineteenth century to the end of the Civil War, the dictionary wars also engaged America (TM)s colleges, libraries, newspapers, religious groups, and state legislatures at a pivotal historical moment that coincided with rising literacy and the print revolution. Delving into the personal stories and national debates that arose from the conflicts surrounding America (TM)s first dictionaries, The Dictionary Wars examines the linguistic struggles that underpinned the founding and growth of a nation.
Our knowledge and understanding of organizations is both enabled and constrained by an invisible relationship of power that is embedded in the ways in which we act and speak. This book offers a succinct but comprehensive introduction to the vast field of organizational discourse analysis, the approach that studies organization as a linguistic phenomenon, and offers an original approach to investigate the relationship between materiality and discourse. Three original images of discourse are employed: discourse as a map, discourse as organizing and discourse as a mask. These metaphors are used as cognitive tools to highlight different implications and perspectives on discourse. The book critically compares and contrasts various linguistic-focused approaches to the study of organizations, and proposes the use of linguistic phenomena in connection with other methodologies. One section even offers an exemplification of the proposed approach to discourse analysis, presenting a map of discursive terrain, which plays a central role in the reproduction of local organizational and management discourses. This rich and approachable introduction is targeted at graduate and doctoral students, as well as non-specialist academics who want to familiarize themselves with the organizational discourse debate.
A guide that offers a step-by-step process to data-driven qualitative multimodal discourse analysis Systematically Working with Multimodal Data is a hands-on guide that is theoretically grounded and offers a step-by-step process to clearly show how to do a data-driven qualitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA). This full-color introductory textbook is filled with helpful definitions, notes, discussion points and tasks. With illustrative research examples from YouTube, an Experimental and a Video Ethnographic Study, the text offers many examples of how to deal with small to large amounts of data, including information on how to transcribe video data multimodally, including online videos, and how to analyze the data. This textbook contains ample theory, directions for literature, and a teaching guide to help with a clear understanding of how to work with multimodal data. Contains new research data, exceptional illustrations and diagrams Offers step-by-step processes of working through examples, transcriptions and online videos Goes into great depth so that students can use the book as hands-on material to engage with their own data analysis Designed to be easy-to-use with color-coded definitions, tasks, discussion points and notes Written for advanced undergraduate, graduate and PhD level students, as well as participants in research workshops, Systematically Working with Multimodal Data is an authoritative guide to understanding data-driven qualitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis.
You have a wonderful opportunity to add to the magic of your daughter's wedding. Your words will linger in memories -- they may even be captured on video for future generations to hear. So what are the golden rules of speech making? How can you convey emotion, seriousness, and add a touch of humour? Should you offer advice to the happy couple, and what about the toast? The answers are all here in this vital book. Use it to add something special to an already special day.
Great Authors, Great Writing Models, Great Teaching Support - Great Series!
If you can persuade a cat ... you can persuade anyone. This is the essential guide to getting your way. Jay Heinrichs, award-winning author of Thank You for Arguing and advisor to the Pentagon, NASA and Fortune 500 companies, distils a lifetime of negotiating and rhetoric to show you how to win over anyone - from colleagues and bosses, to friends and partners at home (and even the most stubborn of feline adversaries). You'll learn to: Perfect your timing - learn exactly when to pounce Get your body language, tone and gesture just right Think about what your opponent wants - always offer a comfy lap Lure them in by making them think they have the power The result? A happy, hopefully scratch-free, resolution. 'Jay Heinrichs knows a thing or two about arguing' The Times 'A master rhetorician and persuasion guru' Salon 'You got a bunch of logical engineers to inject pathos into their arguments ... it works!' NASA engineer
This volume brings together Bourdieu's highly original writings on language and on the relations between language, power and politics. Bourdieu develops a forceful critique of traditional approaches to language, including the linguistic theories of Saussure and Chomsky and the theory of speech-acts elaborated by Austin and others. He argues that language should be viewed not only as a means of communication but also as a medium of power through which individuals pursue their interests and display their practical competence.
Drawing on the concepts which are part of his distinctive theoretical approach, Bourdieu maintains that linguistic utterances or expressions can be understood as the product of the relation between a 'linguistic market' and a 'linguistic habitus'. When individuals produce linguistic expressions, they deploy accumulated resources and they implicitly adapt their expressions to the demands of the social field or market. Hence every linguistic interaction, however personal and insignificant they may seem, bears the traces of the social structure that it both expresses and helps to reproduce.
Boudieu's account sheds fresh light on the ways in which linguistic usage varies according to considerations such as class and gender. It also opens up a new approach to the ways in which language is used in the domain of politics. For politics is, among other things, the site "par excellence" in which words are deeds and the symbolic character of power is at stake.
This volume, by one of the leading social thinkers in the world today, represents a major contribution to the study of language and power. It will be of interest to students throughout the social sciences andhumanities, especially in sociology, politics, anthropology, linguistics and literature.
Assuming no prior knowledge, books in the "Routledge English Language Introductions" series offer an accessible overview of the subject, with activities, study questions, sample analyses, commentaries and key readings - all in the same volume. The innovative and flexible "two-dimensional" structure is built around four sections - introductions, development, exploration and extension - which offer self-contained stages for study. Each topic can also be read across these sections, enabling the reader to build gradually on the knowledge gained. "Stylistics": is a comprehensive introduction to literary stylistics; covers the core areas, including register, dialect, vocabulary, grammar, sound and rhythm, speech and thought, narrative, dialogue, metaphor and meaning; draws on a range of literary texts, from Ernest Hemingway and D.H. Lawrence to Sylvia Plath, Roger McGough and Irvine Welsh; and provides classic readings by the key names in the discipline, including Derek Attridge, Ronald Carter and Walter Nash, Roger Fowler and Mick Short.
An illustrated guide to more than 850 gestures and their meanings around the world, from a nod of the head to a click of the heels. Gestures convey meaning with a flourish. A vigorous nod of the head, a bold jut of the chin, an enthusiastic thumbs-up: all speak louder than words. Yet the same gesture may have different meanings in different parts of the world. What Americans understand as the "A-OK gesture," for example, is an obscene insult in the Arab world. This volume is the reference book we didn't know we needed-an illustrated dictionary of 850 gestures and their meanings around the world. It catalogs voluntary gestures made to communicate openly-as distinct from sign language, dance moves, involuntary "tells," or secret handshakes-and explains what the gesture conveys in a variety of locations. It is organized by body part, from top to bottom, from head (nodding, shaking, turning) to foot (scraping, kicking, playing footsie). We learn that "to oscillate the head while gently throwing it back" communicates approval in some countries even though it resembles the headshake of disapproval used in other countries; that "to tap a slightly inflated cheek" constitutes an erotic invitation when accompanied by a wink; that the middle finger pointed in the air signifies approval in South America. We may already know that it is a grave insult in the Middle East and Asia to display the sole of one's shoe, but perhaps not that motorcyclists sometimes greet each other by raising a foot. Illustrated with clever line drawings and documented with quotations from literature (the author, Francois Caradec, was a distinguished and prolific historian of literature, culture, and humorous oddities, as well as a novelist and poet), this dictionary offers readers unique lessons in polylingual meaning.
Focusing on language and the assessment of its meaning, this volume
concentrates on a method of content analysis developed by the
author and Goldine Gleser. Applicable to transcripts of speech or
verbal texts, this method uses the grammatical clause as its
smallest unit of communication, considers whether or not a verb is
transitive and involves an object, or is intransitive and describes
a state of being. It derives scores on many scales that have been
tested for reliability of scoring and for construct validity with
concurrently administered measures, such as rating and self-report
scales as well as biochemical and pharmacological criteria.
Finally, this volume provides detailed descriptions of the clinical
and basic research establishing the validity of these scales, so
that a reader can locate studies that have pertinence to any
special interest area.
An engaging look at the aphorism, the shortest literary form, across time, languages, and cultures Aphorisms "or philosophical short sayings "appear everywhere, from Confucius to Twitter, the Buddha to the Bible, Heraclitus to Nietzsche. Yet despite this ubiquity, the aphorism is the least studied literary form. What are its origins? How did it develop? How do religious or philosophical movements arise from the enigmatic sayings of charismatic leaders? And why do some of our most celebrated modern philosophers use aphoristic fragments to convey their deepest ideas? In A Theory of the Aphorism, Andrew Hui crisscrosses histories and cultures to answer these questions and more. With clarity and precision, Hui demonstrates how aphorisms "ranging from China, Greece, and biblical antiquity to the European Renaissance and nineteenth century "encompass sweeping and urgent programs of thought. Constructed as literary fragments, aphorisms open new lines of inquiry and horizons of interpretation. In this way, aphorisms have functioned as ancestors, allies, or antagonists to grand systems of philosophy. Encompassing literature, philology, and philosophy, the history of the book and the history of reading, A Theory of the Aphorism invites us to reflect anew on what it means to think deeply about this pithiest of literary forms.
Inspired by Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose, Mick Short's classic introduction to stylistics, Language and Style represents the state-of-the-art in literary stylistics and encompasses the full breadth of current research in the discipline. Written by leading scholars in the field, chapters cover a variety of methodological and analytical approaches, from traditional qualitative analysis to more recent developments in cognitive and corpus stylistics. Addressing the three, key literary genres of poetry, drama and narrative, Language and Style is divided into carefully balanced sections. Based on original research, each chapter demonstrates a particular analytic technique and explains how this might be applied to a text from one of the literary genres. Framed by helpful introductory material covering the foundational principles of stylistics, the chapters act as practical exemplars of how to carry out stylistic analysis. Comprehensive and engaging, this invaluable resource is essential reading for anyone interested in stylistics.
What is the lexicon, what does it contain, and how is it structured? What principles determine the functioning of the lexicon as a component of natural language grammar? What role does lexical information play in linguistic theory? This accessible introduction aims to answer these questions, and explores the relation of the lexicon to grammar as a whole. It includes a critical overview of major theoretical frameworks, and puts forward a unified treatment of lexical structure and design. The text can be used for introductory and advanced courses, and for courses that touch upon different aspects of the lexicon, such as lexical semantics, lexicography, syntax, general linguistics, computational lexicology and ontology design. The book provides students with a set of tools which will enable them to work with lexical data for all kinds of purposes, including an abundance of exercises and in-class activities designed to ensure that students are actively engaged with the content and effectively acquire the necessary knowledge and skills they need.
HarperCollins is proud to present its incredible range of best-loved, essential classics... Despite dating from the 4th century BC, The Art of Rhetoric continues to be regarded by many as the single most important work on the art of persuasion. As democracy began emerging in 5th-century Athens, public speaking and debate became an increasingly important tool to garner influence in the assemblies, councils, and law courts of ancient Greece. In response to this, both politicians and ordinary citizens became desperate to learn greater skills in this area, as well as the philosophy behind it. This treatise was one of the first to provide just that, establishing methods and observations of informal reasoning and style, and has continued to be hugely influential on public speaking and philosophy today. Aristotle, the grandfather of philosophy, student of Plato, and teacher of Alexander the Great, was one of the first people to create a comprehensive system of philosophy, encompassing logic, morality, aesthetics, politics, ethics, and science. Although written over 2,000 years ago, The Art of Rhetoric remains a comprehensive introduction for philosophy students into the subject of rhetoric, as well as a useful manual for anyone today looking to improve their oratory skills of persuasion.
Syntactic theory has been dominated in the last decades by theories that disregard semantics in their approach to syntax. Presenting a truly semantic approach to syntax, this book takes as its primary starting point the idea that syntax deals with the relations between meanings expressed by form-meaning elements and that the same types of relations can be found cross-linguistically. The theory provides a way to formalize the syntactic relations between meanings so that each fragment of grammar can be analyzed in a clear-cut way. A comprehensive introduction into the theoretical concepts of the theory is provided, with analyzes of numerous examples in English and various other languages, European and non-European, to illustrate the concepts. The theory discussed will enable linguists to look for similarities between languages, while at the same time acknowledging important language specific features.
The only career series designed expressly to turn passions into paychecks!
These inspiring books let career explorers look at the job market through the unique lens of their own interests. Each book reveals dozens of ways to pursue a passion and make a living--including the training and education needed to polish hobbies and interests into satisfying careers.
A comprehensive introduction to how people learn second languages (L2s), this textbook approaches the topic through five problems the L2 learner has to solve: 'breaking into' the L2; associating forms with meanings; learning sentence structure; learning phrasal and sentential meaning; and learning the use of the L2 in context. These problems are linked throughout to the L2 acquisition of lexis, morphology, syntax, semantics, phonetics/phonology and language-use in a reader-friendly way, using key studies to build a comprehensive picture of how L2s are learned. 'In a nutshell' summaries of chapter sections provide helpful signposts to the developing argument, whilst end-of-chapter activities encourage the reader to reflect on the ideas presented, analyse data and think creatively about the problems encountered. The roles of innate knowledge, input, and the age at which learning starts are also considered. This essential textbook will enable students to think objectively about language, and will be an asset to any introductory course on second language acquisition.
The grammatical category of voice covers a wide range of phenomena, including causatives, applicatives, passives, antipassives, middles, and others. Drawing on data from over 200 languages, Fernando Zuniga and Seppo Kittila illustrate the semantic, morphological, and syntactic variation of voice across languages from a range of families and regions. They approach the topic from a broad and explicit perspective, and discuss a variety of topics that are not always regarded as voice, in order to make a clear and useful conceptual delimitation. Clearly organized and accessibly written, the book will be welcomed by students and scholars of linguistics, especially those interested in how grammatical categories work.
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