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This book gives a clear presentation of the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering. It introduces readers to fundamental issues that will enable them to follow the latest technological research. It also covers important applications, including LED and lighting, semiconductor lasers, high power switching devices, and detectors. This balanced and up-to-date treatment makes the text an essential educational tool for both advanced students and professionals in the electronics industry.
This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution
by the top experts around the world in the field of compact
semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and
analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the
field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers.
Illustrating the concepts of modern physics and quantum mechanics needed for R&D into semiconductors, this textbook first provides the necessary background before going on to cover condensed matter and semiconductors, and how to develop them. Throughout, it emphasizes the development of ideas and concepts and how they are interrelated, deepening an understanding of the concepts by way of repetition. Written with clarity and style in mind, the text covers such new technology as junctions, luminescence, and 3D quantum dots, and each chapter ends with 20-30 exercises.
In this monograph, the authors address the physics and engineering together with the latest achievements of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices. Their approach encompasses a broad range of laser systems, while taking into consideration not only the physical and experimental aspects but also the much needed modeling tools, thus providing a holistic understanding of this hot topic.
Meeting the need for a reliable publication on the topic and reflecting recent breakthroughs in the field, this is a comprehensive overview of color quality of solid-state light sources (LED-OLED and laser) and conventional lamps, providing academic researchers with an in-depth review of the current state while supporting lighting professionals in understanding, evaluating and optimizing illumination in their daily work.
A detailed, practical review of state-of-the-art implementations of memory in IoT hardware As the Internet of Things (IoT) technology continues to evolve and become increasingly common across an array of specialized and consumer product applications, the demand on engineers to design new generations of flexible, low-cost, low power embedded memories into IoT hardware becomes ever greater. This book helps them meet that demand. Coauthored by a leading international expert and multiple patent holder, this book gets engineers up to speed on state-of-the-art implementations of memory in IoT hardware. Memories for the Intelligent Internet of Things covers an array of common and cutting-edge IoT embedded memory implementations. Ultra-low-power memories for IoT devices-including plastic and polymer circuitry for specialized applications, such as medical electronics-are described. The authors explore microcontrollers with embedded memory used for smart control of a multitude of Internet devices. They also consider neuromorphic memories made in Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM), Resistance RAM (ReRAM), and Magnetic RAM (MRAM) technologies to implement artificial intelligence (AI) for the collection, processing, and presentation of large quantities of data generated by IoT hardware. Throughout the focus is on memory technologies which are complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible, including embedded floating gate and charge trapping EEPROM/Flash along with FeRAMS, FeFETs, MRAMs and ReRAMs. Provides a timely, highly practical look at state-of-the-art IoT memory implementations for an array of product applications Synthesizes basic science with original analysis of memory technologies for Internet of Things (IoT) based on the authors' extensive experience in the field Focuses on practical and timely applications throughout Features numerous illustrations, tables, application requirements, and photographs Considers memory related security issues in IoT devices Memories for the Intelligent Internet of Things is a valuable working resource for electrical engineers and engineering managers working in the electronics system and semiconductor industries. It is also an indispensable reference/text for graduate and advanced undergraduate students interested in the latest developments in integrated circuit devices and systems.
Electronic devices based on oxide semiconductors are the focus of much attention, with crystalline materials generating huge commercial success. Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transistors have a higher mobility than amorphous silicon transistors, and an extremely low off-state current. C-axis aligned crystalline (CAAC) IGZO enables aggressive down-scaling, high reliability, and process simplification of transistors in displays and LSI devices. This original book introduces the CAAC-IGZO structure, and describes the physics and technology of this new class of oxide materials. It explains the crystallographic classification and characteristics of crystalline oxide semiconductors, their crystallographic characteristics and physical properties, and how this unique material has made a major contribution to the field of oxide semiconductor thin films. Two further books in this series describe applications of CAAC-IGZO in flat-panel displays and LSI devices. Key features: * Introduces the unique and revolutionary, yet relatively unknown crystalline oxide semiconductor CAAC-IGZO * Presents crystallographic overviews of IGZO and related compounds. * Offers an in-depth understanding of CAAC-IGZO. * Explains the fabrication method of CAAC-IGZO thin films. * Presents the physical properties and latest data to support high-reliability crystalline IGZO based on hands-on experience. * Describes the manufacturing process the CAAC-IGZO transistors and introduces the device application using CAAC-IGZO.
This book presents and analyzes the influence of small size particles of lead, cadmium and silver sulfide on the properties of nonstoichiometric semiconductors. Important nonstoichiometry aspects in nanostructures are discussed, such as the distribution of sulfur atoms in nanofilms, a non-periodic distribution of the atomic planes in nanoparticles, interdependent changes in crystal structure of nanocrystalline material. Tuning the stoichiometry allows to obtain superionic conductivity and catalytic activity under visible light. The wavelength of the luminescence of nanoparticles changes with the size of the nanoparticles. Various methods to prepare nanostructured sulfides are described. Special attention is given to the hydrochemical bath deposition as a universal method for the synthesis of sulfides as nanofilms, stable colloidal solutions, quantum dots, isolated nanoparticles with a protective shell and heteronanostructures. The effect of nanoparticle size and nonstoichiometry on the band gap, optical and thermal properties of nanostructured sulfides is also considered. The novel applications of sulfide nanoparticles in nanoelectronics, catalysis, nanobiology and nanomedicine are sketched.
Semiconductors and dielectrics are two essential materials found in
cell phones and computers, for example, and both are manufactured
by growing crystals.
Very thin film materials have emerged as a highly interesting and useful quasi 2D-state functionality. They have given rise to numerous applications ranging from protective and smart coatings to electronics, sensors and display technology as well as serving biological, analytical and medical purposes. The tailoring of polymer film properties and functions has become a major research field. As opposed to the traditional treatise on polymer and resin-based coatings, this one-stop reference is the first to give readers a comprehensive view of the latest macromolecular and supramolecular film-based nanotechnology. Bringing together all the important facets and state-of-the-art research, the two well-structured volumes cover film assembly and depostion, functionality and patterning, and analysis and characterization. The result is an in-depth understanding of the phenomena, ordering, scale effects, fabrication, and analysis of polymer ultrathin films. This book will be a valuable addition for Materials Scientists, Polymer Chemists, Surface Scientists, Bioengineers, Coatings Specialists, Chemical Engineers, and Scientists working in this important research field and industry.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) continues to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems, as technologies scale from micro- to nano electronics. This book" "introduces the fundamentals of ESD, electrical overstress (EOS), electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), and latchup, as well as provides a coherent overview of the semiconductor manufacturing environment and the final system assembly. It provides an illuminating look into the integration of ESD protection networks followed by examples in specific technologies, circuits, and chips.
The text is unique in covering semiconductor chip manufacturing issues, ESD semiconductor chip design, and system problems confronted today as well as the future of ESD phenomena and nano-technology.
Look inside for extensive coverage on: The fundamentals of electrostatics, triboelectric charging, and how they relate to present day manufacturing environments of micro-electronics to nano-technology Semiconductor manufacturing handling and auditing processing to avoid ESD failures ESD, EOS, EMI, EMC, and latchup semiconductor component and system level testing to demonstrate product resilience from human body model (HBM), transmission line pulse (TLP), charged device model (CDM), human metal model (HMM), cable discharge events (CDE), to system level IEC 61000-4-2 testsESD on-chip design and process manufacturing practices and solutions to improve ESD semiconductor chip solutions, also practical off-chip ESD protection and system level solutions to provide more robust systemsSystem level concerns in servers, laptops, disk drives, cell phones, digital cameras, hand held devices, automobiles, and space applicationsExamples of ESD design for state-of-the-art technologies, including CMOS, BiCMOS, SOI, bipolar technology, high voltage CMOS (HVCMOS), RF CMOS, smart power, magnetic recording technology, micro-machines (MEMs) to nano-structures
"ESD Basics: From Semiconductor Manufacturing to Product Use" complements the author's series of books on ESD protection. For those new to the field, it is an essential reference and a useful insight into the issues that confront modern technology as we enter the Nano-electronic Era.
Superconductivity is a quantum phenomenon that manifests itself in materials showing zero electrical resistance below a characteristic temperature resulting in the potential for an electric current to run continually through such a material without the need for a power source. Such materials are used extensively in medical and power applications, e.g. MRI and NMR machines.
"Discovering Superconductivity" uses a series of practical and investigative activities, which can be used as tutor demonstrations or as student lab exercises.
This highly illustrated text features the following sections: "Introduction" - including a brief history of superconductivity"Superconductivity" - an explanation of the phenomenon and its effects"Superconducting materials" - including High & Low temperature superconductors"Applications" - how superconductivity is used in medical imaging, at CERN and in the Maglev trains
This text will serve as an excellent introduction for students, with or without a physics background, to superconductivity. With a strong practical, experimental emphasis, it provides readers with an overview of the topic preparing them for more advanced texts used in advanced undergraduate and post-graduate courses.
PowerPoint files of the figures presented within this text are available at: http: //booksupport.wiley.comA word from the author: ""The intention of this text is to introduce the reader to the study of superconductivity via a minds-on approach......... The minds-on approach takes this a stage further by requiring the learner to engage with the process to a greater extent.""
Starting in the 1950s, US physicists dominated the search for elementary particles; aided by the association of this research with national security, they held this position for decades. In an effort to maintain their hegemony and track down the elusive Higgs boson, they convinced President Reagan and Congress to support construction of the multibillion-dollar Superconducting Super Collider project in Texas--the largest basic-science project ever attempted. But after the Cold War ended and the estimated SSC cost surpassed ten billion dollars, Congress terminated the project in October 1993. Drawing on extensive archival research, contemporaneous press accounts, and over one hundred interviews with scientists, engineers, government officials, and others involved, Tunnel Visions tells the riveting story of the aborted SSC project. The authors examine the complex, interrelated causes for its demise, including problems of large-project management, continuing cost overruns, and lack of foreign contributions. In doing so, they ask whether Big Science has become too large and expensive, including whether academic scientists and their government overseers can effectively manage such an enormous undertaking.
In this book, the history of the concepts critical to the discovery and development of aluminum, its alloys and the anodizing process are reviewed to provide a foundation for the challenges, achievements, and understanding of the complex relationship between the aluminum alloy and the reactions that occur during anodic oxidation. Empirical knowledge that has long sustained industrial anodizing is clarified by viewing the process as corrosion science, addressing each element of the anodizing circuit in terms of the Tafel Equation. This innovative approach enables a new level of understanding and engineering control for the mechanisms that occur as the oxide nucleates and grows, developing its characteristic highly ordered structure, which impact the practical function of the anodic aluminum oxide.
This book disseminates the current knowledge of semiconductor physics and its applications across the scientific community. It is based on a biennial workshop that provides the participating research groups with a stimulating platform for interaction and collaboration with colleagues from the same scientific community. The book discusses the latest developments in the field of III-nitrides; materials & devices, compound semiconductors, VLSI technology, optoelectronics, sensors, photovoltaics, crystal growth, epitaxy and characterization, graphene and other 2D materials and organic semiconductors.
This book offers a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in innovative Beyond-CMOS nanodevices for developing novel functionalities, logic and memories dedicated to researchers, engineers and students. It particularly focuses on the interest of nanostructures and nanodevices (nanowires, small slope switches, 2D layers, nanostructured materials, etc.) for advanced More than Moore (RF-nanosensors-energy harvesters, on-chip electronic cooling, etc.) and Beyond-CMOS logic and memories applications.
With contributions from top international experts from both industry and academia, Nano-Semiconductors: Devices and Technology is a must-read for anyone with a serious interest in future nanofabrication technologies. Taking into account the semiconductor industry's transition from standard CMOS silicon to novel device structures-including carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene, quantum dots, and III-V materials-this book addresses the state of the art in nano devices for electronics. It provides an all-encompassing, one-stop resource on the materials and device structures involved in the evolution from micro- to nanoelectronics. The book is divided into three parts that address: Semiconductor materials (i.e., carbon nanotubes, memristors, and spin organic devices) Silicon devices and technology (i.e., BiCMOS, SOI, various 3D integration and RAM technologies, and solar cells) Compound semiconductor devices and technology This reference explores the groundbreaking opportunities in emerging materials that will take system performance beyond the capabilities of traditional CMOS-based microelectronics. Contributors cover topics ranging from electrical propagation on CNT to GaN HEMTs technology and applications. Approaching the trillion-dollar nanotech industry from the perspective of real market needs and the repercussions of technological barriers, this resource provides vital information about elemental device architecture alternatives that will lead to massive strides in future development.
This book summarizes the results of the research on how to make small electronic devices with high properties by using simple liquid processes such as coating, self-assembling and printing, especially focusing on devices composed of silicon and oxide materials. It describes syntheses and analyses of solution materials, formations of solid thin films from solutions, newly developed patterning methods to make devices, and characterization of the developed devices. In the first part of the book, the research on liquid silicon (Si) materials is described. Because the use of a liquid material is a quite new idea for Si devices, this book is the first one to describe liquid Si materials for electronic devices. Si devices as typified by MOS-FET have been produced by using solid and gas materials. This volume precisely describes a series of processes from material synthesis to device fabrication for those who are interested and are/will be engaged in liquid Si-related work. In the latter part of the book, a general method of how to make good oxide films from solutions and a new imprinting method to make nanosized patterns are introduced. For making oxide films with high quality, the designing of the solution is crucial. If a solution is designed properly, a gel material called "cluster gel" can be formed which is able to be imprinted to form nanosized patterns. The anticipated readers of this book are researchers, engineers, and students who are interested in solution and printing processes for making devices. More generally, this book will also provide guidelines for corporate managers and executives who are responsible for making strategies for future manufacturing processes.
Authored by leading experts from around the world, the three-volume Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings gives scientific researchers and product engineers a resource as dynamic and flexible as the field itself. The first two volumes cover the latest research and application of the mechanical and functional properties of thin films and coatings, while the third volume explores the cutting-edge organic nanostructured devices used to produce clean energy.
This third volume, Organic Nanostructured Thin Film Devices and Coatings for Clean Energy, addresses various aspects of the processing and properties of organic thin films, devices, and coatings for clean energy applications. Topics covered include:
A complete resource, this handbook provides the detailed explanations that newcomers need, as well as the latest cutting-edge research and data for experts. Covering a wide range of mechanical and functional technologies, including those used in clean energy, these books also feature figures, tables, and images that will aid research and help professionals acquire and maintain a solid grasp of this burgeoning field.
The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings is composed of this volume and two others:
Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings, Functional Properties
Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings, Mechanical Properties
Wide bandgap light emitters include laser diodes and light-emitting
diodes (LED), the most modern diodes widely used in current
technologies as microelectronics and optoelectronics. Rapid
advances have been made during the last few years, with the result
that more research is devoted to applications in line with the
expanding market for optoelectronics.
Systematically describes the physical and materials properties of copper-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor materials, enabling their potential for photovoltaic device applications. Intended for scientists and engineers, in particular, in the fields of multinary semiconductor physics and a variety of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.
This book offers a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in innovative Beyond-CMOS nanodevices for developing novel functionalities, logic and memories dedicated to researchers, engineers and students. The book will particularly focus on the interest of nanostructures and nanodevices (nanowires, small slope switches, 2D layers, nanostructured materials, etc.) for advanced More than Moore (RF-nanosensors-energy harvesters, on-chip electronic cooling, etc.) and Beyond-CMOS logic and memories applications.
The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines. The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry. Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge. The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An extensive list of more than 350 references provides an overview of the most important publications on the topic. A unique and essential guide for students in physics and engineering, as well as a reference for more advanced researchers and young professionals.
The development of solid state devices began a little more than a century ago, with the discovery of the electrical conductivity of ionic solids. Today, solid state technologies form the background of the society in which we live. The aim of this book is threefold: to present the background physical chemistry on which the technology of semiconductor devices is based; secondly, to describe specific issues such as the role of defects on the properties of solids, and the crucial influence of surface properties; and ultimately, to look at the physics and chemistry of semiconductor growth processes, both at the bulk and thin-film level, together with some issues relating to the properties of nano-devices. Divided into five chapters, it covers: Thermodynamics of solids, including phases and their properties and structural order Point defects in semiconductors Extended defects in semiconductors and their interactions with point defects and impurities Growth of semiconductor materials Physical chemistry of semiconductor materials processing With applications across all solid state technologies, the book is useful for advanced students and researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry, electrical and electronic engineering. It is also useful for those in the semiconductor industry.
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