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Energy security is a burning issue in a world where 1.4 billion people still have no access to electricity. This book is about finding solutions for energy security through the international trading system. Focusing mainly on the European Union as a case study, this holistic and comprehensive analysis of the existing legal and geopolitical instruments strives to identify the shortcomings of the international and EU energy trade governance systems, concluding with the notion of a European Energy Union and what the EU is politically prepared to accept as part of its unified energy security. This snapshot of multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance deals with energy transit from the perspective of the Energy Charter Treaty as a means to enhance EU energy security, and examines the system of law and governance of international trade in unconventional fossil fuels. The authors analyse concerns that arise from preferential trade agreements and renewable energy from the EU's perspective, and explain how the EU can diversify its energy supply to improve its energy security. This book will be of interest to students, scholars, lawyers, economists, policymakers, and think tanks dealing with the links between energy security and international trade, as well as those communities involved with other energy-related disciplines.
The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers. Environmental issues are at the heart of some of the most complex and consequential decisions that society must face in pursuit of a more sustainable future. They encompass the international, national, and local levels and engage all branches of government. Decision Making in Environmental Law, one of the constituent volumes in the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law, brings together some of the leading experts in the field and provides a structured overview of the various dimensions of decision making from an environmental law perspective. The concise and accessible chapters provide an international scope and detailed bibliographies that allow readers to explore issues in depth. Topics include: the role of treaties, common law tools, rulemaking, access to information, regulatory structures, market-based and trading mechanisms, monitoring and reporting, voluntary programs and private regulation, environmental impact analysis, public engagement and environmental justice, administrative and judicial review, and the role of environmental courts and tribunals. This volume offers a complete exploration of the complicated issue of environmental decision making. It is ideal as an introduction for students, as a reference point for scholars, and as a comprehensive guide for practitioners.
Collaborative approaches to governance are being used to address some of the most difficult environmental issues across the world, but there has been less attention paid to the challenges of practice. The Challenges of Collaboration in Environmental Governance brings together leading scholars from the United States, Europe and Australia with a wide range of disciplinary backgrounds - planning, public policy, public administration, geography, political science, natural resources management, conflict resolution as well as other fields - to directly confront the challenges and limitations of collaborative governance in practice The authors explore the theory, problems, and context of collaboration challenges through a diverse set of international case studies from around the world. They also examine challenges related to power, politics, organizations, stakeholder roles, process, and participation, concluding with a research agenda to help guide future scholarship and practice. The goal is to highlight consistent difficulties from practice, and examine potential strategies for addressing conceptual weaknesses - all with an eye towards improving environmental governance results. By providing a synthesis of major themes and a research agenda for collaborative governance, this book will serve as an asset to academics and researchers in urban planning, public policy, public administration, political science, geography, conflict resolution, and natural resource management as well as practitioners working for governments or non-profit organizations.
This two-volume set gathers together some of the most significant contributions to the study of global health law. Global health law is a recent field of research in its own right, encompassing the relatively narrow core of international rules and institutions devoted to health protection and promotion, as well as the complex interactions between health and multiple areas of international law. By bringing such diverse perspectives into a single collection, together with an original introduction by the editor, this book will be an important resource for scholars and practitioners both in public health as well as in legal and policy fields such as trade and investment, human rights and the environment.
Public opinion polls, media coverage, legal disputes, and policy debates at all levels of government and in private industry - debates ranging from the health of the national economy to the health of state populations to the health of a single individual sickened by Ebola hemorrhagic fever - attest to the important place that individual health care and public health hold in the minds of the American public, policymakers, and lawmakers. Indeed, the range of topics covered by the legal disputes and policy debates is breathtaking. For example, how should finite financial resources be allocated between health care and public health? What kind of return (in terms of quality of individual care and the overall health of the population) should we expect from the staggering amount of money we collectively spend on health? Should individuals have a legal entitlement to health insurance? How should we attack extant health disparities based on race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status? What policies will best protect the privacy of personal health information in an increasingly electronic medical system? Should physician assistance in dying be promoted as a laudable social value? How prepared is the country for natural and man-made catastrophes, like pandemic influenza or bioterrorism attacks? Essentials of Health Policy and Law, Third Edition provides students of public health, medicine, nursing, public policy, and health administration with answers to and analytic frameworks for these complex questions, including in-depth discussions of the essential policy and legal issues impacting and flowing out of the healthcare and public health systems and the way health policies and laws are formulated. Concise and straightforward, this textbook is an introduction to the seminal issues in U.S. health policy and law, with a particular focus on national health reform under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The Third Edition is a thorough revision that offers updated information on the ACA, Medicaid, CHIP, Medicare, state health policy, public health preparedness, and health care quality. The Third Edition also offers: * New chapter: The Social Determinants of Health and the Role of Law in Optimizing Health * Updated and enhanced chapter on "The Art of Structuring and Writing a Health Policy Analysis" * Updated Figures, Tables, and Discussion Questions throughout * Navigate 2 Advantage Access - a mobile-ready package of online course materials including a comprehensive, interactive eBook, study tools, and graded assessments
Essential for practitioners and academics who need to research, interpret and apply principles of environmental law, this work provides an insight into the origins and sources of EU environmental law, the relationship between EU law and the laws of Member States, an overview of specific areas of EU environmental law, and the legal aspects of integrating environmental requirements into other policies.
This timely book focuses on achieving a sustainable future through the reform of green fiscal policy. Green fiscal policies help not only provide the needed financing but may also serve the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015. In this volume environmental tax experts review the development of fiscal carbon policy, consider the impact of green taxation on trade and competition, analyse the lessons learned from national experiences with fuel and energy pricing, and evaluate a variety of green economic instruments. A comprehensive range of green economic instruments is evaluated, covering emissions trading schemes, energy tax systems, global natural resource consumption taxes and fiscal intervention. The contributions from leading environmental taxation scholars consider thought-provoking innovations in policy and law to deal with climate change and explore a range of fiscal strategies designed to mitigate the negative and maximise the positive effects of a carbon economy. This is a vital reference work for students and academics in environmental law, economics and sustainability, and will serve as an excellent guide for policy makers and those involved in fiscal reform.
This book examines labour regulation and labour mobility in two professional baseball leagues: Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) in Japan. Through vivid comparative study, Matt Nichol explores how each league internally regulates labour mobility and how this internal regulation engages with external regulation from the legislature, statutory authorities and the courts. This comparison of two highly restrictive labour markets utilizes regulatory theory and labour regulation and suggests a framework for a global player transfer system in baseball. Each system of labour regulation can be viewed as an autopoietic system of law that utilizes voluntary self-regulation as the basis for regulation. While the regulatory systems in each league govern labour mobility in a similar manner using labour controls such as the draft, the reserve system and free agency, the two systems operate differently in terms of the level of labour mobility enjoyed by players. Formal rules, informal rules and normative practice result in MLB having relatively high levels of labour mobility for free agent players while similar players enjoy limited mobility in NPB. The book's engaging, multifaceted focus and comparative nature make it an excellent resource for lawyers, academics and advanced students interested in labour law, sports law, and Asian and European law.
Like many ambitious global goals, universal health coverage (UHC) remains an aspiration for many countries. The World Health Organization estimates that half the world's population lacks access to basic health services. Moreover, this already staggering number masks inequities that exist between and within countries: gaps between rich and poor, men and women, young and old, and among people of different ethnic backgrounds. UHC promises to give all people greater access to higher quality health services without the fear of financial hardship. But the task of turning this vision into reality poses a significant challenge for countries at all stages of economic development. In The Road to Universal Health Coverage, Jeffrey L. Sturchio, Ilona Kickbusch, Louis Galambos, and their contributors explore the ways in which the private sector is already helping countries achieve universal health coverage. Stressing the many positive aspects of UHC developments, the book focuses on the new health economy and the sometimes controversial dimensions of the private sector helping countries achieve UHC. Theoretical chapters are complemented by a series of case studies that explore the myriad ways in which private sector actors are already addressing UHC. What are the conditions required for countries to translate their successful experiences and policy promises into practical results for improved population health? In answering this question, the contributors examine the relationship between health employment and economic growth. They also analyze the critical success factors for private sector engagement in UHC, the role of healthy women in creating and sustaining healthy economies, and the role of the pharmaceutical sector. Looking to the political, economic, and social implications of moving from aspiration to implementation, The Road to Universal Health Coverage points the way to the many opportunities ahead as companies continue to work with governments and civil society partners to help achieve UHC. Jean-Louise Arcand, Hector Arreola-Ornelas, Nathan J. Blanchet, Christine Bugos, Jim Campbell, John Campbell, Jr., Ibadat Dhillon, Donika Dimovska, Christian Franz, Michael Furst, Louis Galambos, Belen Garijo, Adeel Ishtiaq, Sowmya Kadandale, Ilona Kickbusch, Felicia Marie Knaul, Jeremy Lauer, Robert Marten, Justin McCarthy, Harald Nusser, K. Srinath Reddy, Yasmine Rouai, Jeffrey L. Sturchio, Cicely Thomas, Tana Wuliji, Snow Yang, Pascal Zurn
Governments around the world have been trying to find ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for decades. This detailed Handbook considers the spectrum of legal and market-based instruments as well as strategies and policies adopted around the world and suggests more effective, comprehensive and responsive ways of managing climate change mitigation. As well as taking stock of the current and proposed legal instruments, the book looks at the wider policy and economic aspects of coping with climate change. It provides a comparative overview of key issues across Europe, the United States, Asia-Pacific and the BRICS countries, and discusses domestic, regional and international law and governance. With perspectives from academia, government and private practice, the expert contributors analyse key sectors such as energy, transport, buildings, industry, land use and waste. Important issues such as carbon trading, financing and litigation are also addressed. The book demonstrates the variety of approaches taken and their challenges with a view of fostering more effective and pragmatic ways of managing climate change mitigation. This timely book will be an authoritative resource for scholars of climate change law and policy, whilst also providing a rigorous overview for upper-level students. Policymakers will gain insights from the comparative perspectives, and practitioners will appreciate the broad range of practical issues addressed.
This book is an essential guide and support to understanding of the science and policy, procedure and practice that underpins the REACH risk assessments required for the use and placing on the market of chemicals in the European Union. A clear understanding of information provision and how this affects the assessment of chemical safety is fundamentally important to the success of policy on chemicals and ultimately to the sustainability of the chemicals industry. Within the book, the scientific processes that underpin the policy are explained in a practical way. Importantly, it includes coverage of techniques to help solve the problems of using potentially risky and hazardous chemicals through the use of less hazardous alternatives and green chemistry , and also the analysis of the risks of the use of the most hazardous substances against the social and economic benefits of use. Chemical Risk Assessment: A Manual for REACH covers the following main themes: i) Assessment of chemical risk; ii) Risk management; iii) Hazard reduction, substitution and green chemistry; iv) Risk versus benefit socio-economic analysis. The book acts as a practical guide and overview to chemicals risk assessment and risk management (in the EU context), as well as a support text for planning for the challenges of the future, which will see ever-increasing pressure to withdraw hazardous substances from the EU (and global) market, balanced against opportunities for innovation in the development of less hazardous chemicals.
In the space of one election cycle, authoritarian governments, moneyed elites and fringe hackers figured out how to game elections, bypass democratic processes, and turn social networks into battlefields. Facebook, Google and Twitter - where our politics now takes place - have lost control and are struggling to claw it back. Prepare for a new strain of democracy. A world of datafied citizens, real-time surveillance, enforced wellness and pre-crime. Where switching your mobile platform will have more impact on your life than switching your government. Where freedom and privacy are seen as incompatible with social wellbeing and compulsory transparency. As our lives migrate online, we have become increasingly vulnerable to digital platforms founded on selling your attention to the highest bidder. Our laws don't cover what is happening and our politicians don't understand it. But if we don't change the system now, we may not get another chance.
Back by popular demand, we have updated this sell-out guide to give you all the essential information you need in order to prepare and present a successful appeal at the First-tier Tribunal. You don't need to be an expert on the social security system - Winning Your Benefit Appeal: what you need to know will help you through the process, avoid the pitfalls and maximise your clients' chances of success. This third edition outlines the whole appeals process, from preparing an appeal and writing a submission, to what happens at the hearing, getting the decision and what may happen afterwards. Also included is the latest information on online appeals. Plenty of examples and practical tips, particularly to help with appeals about illness and disability, a useful glossary of terms and a sample submission are included.
For this two-volume collection, Professors Avraham, Hyman and Silver have selected seminal contributions by eminent scholars in the fields of law, economics and medicine. The first volume explores the effects of access to healthcare on mortality and clinical outcomes, the financing of healthcare (including payment to providers, expanding costs, health insurance and the provision of long-term care), distribution of spending and expansion of provision. The second volume covers the regulation of healthcare practice, medical malpractice and liability, public health and ethical issues. An authoritative new introduction by the editors illuminates and enhances the selection of articles. The volumes will prove to be an essential tool for researchers, scholars and practitioners interested in the effects of economic and legal constraints and regulation on healthcare.
This book explains the functioning of shared competences in environmental protection by focusing on member states' interaction with the EU framework. By studying this interaction, Squintani reveals room for improving the level of environmental protection, legal certainty, and efficiency of the system for environmental protection envisaged under the EU Treaties. Accordingly, this book makes a contribution to EU environmental law and policy, but also should be of interest to constitutional lawyers more generally and to scholars working in any field of EU policy and law in which minimum harmonisation is used. Thanks to its focus and clear, accessible prose, this book is also valuable additional reading material for environmental law courses, and to those involved in decision-making in the EU.
Mediterranean irrigation is diverse due to, among other factors, the relative importance of water in the economy of each country, varied levels of aridity, heterogeneous levels economic, social and technological levels of development, and differences in political and social organization. However, most of the Mediterranean countries face similar problems to meet their water demands because of the scarcity and variability of renewable resources, growing water requirements from non-agricultural sectors, increasing environmental concerns related to water quality and environmental degradation, a social demand for larger public participation, and important technological changes. The time has come to reconsider the "not one drop lost to the sea" philosophy of yesteryears largely and to 'live within limits'. This book focuses on eight selected countries (Tunisia, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) and provides a comparative perspective that both thoroughly explores their specificities and identifies the common challenges faced by the irrigation sector in these countries. The book has been written at a critical moment, when the continued application of a supply-side water management model is revealing its unsustainable nature in numerous places; when significant technological changes are taking place in the irrigation sector; when new forms of management and governance are widely held as badly needed; and finally, when climate change is compounding many of the difficulties that have characterized irrigation policies and practices in the past decades. This complicated future context makes Mediterranean irrigation face various political dilemmas on water management, raising social tensions, triggering territorial and land conflicts, and stimulating new technological developments. This book provides a timely analysis of the particular trajectory of eight Mediterranean countries in these uncertain transformations, and attempts to identify the best strategies to avert or overcome future risks.
This book provides expert advice on the practical implementation of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and systematically analyses its various provisions. Examples, tables, a checklist etc. showcase the practical consequences of the new legislation. The handbook examines the GDPR's scope of application, the organizational and material requirements for data protection, the rights of data subjects, the role of the Supervisory Authorities, enforcement and fines under the GDPR, and national particularities. In addition, it supplies a brief outlook on the legal consequences for seminal data processing areas, such as Cloud Computing, Big Data and the Internet of Things.Adopted in 2016, the General Data Protection Regulation will come into force in May 2018. It provides for numerous new and intensified data protection obligations, as well as a significant increase in fines (up to 20 million euros). As a result, not only companies located within the European Union will have to change their approach to data security; due to the GDPR's broad, transnational scope of application, it will affect numerous companies worldwide.
How should we strike a balance between the benefits of centralized and local governance, and how important is context to selecting the right policy tools? This uniquely broad overview of the field illuminates our understanding of environmental federalism and informs our policy-making future. Professor Kalyani Robbins has brought together an impressive team of leading environmental federalism scholars to provide a collection of chapters, each focused on a different regime. This review of many varied approaches, including substantial theoretical material, culminates in a comparative analysis of environmental federalism and consideration of what each system might learn from the others. The Law and Policy of Environmental Federalism includes clear descriptive portions that make it a valuable teaching resource, as well as original theory and a depth of policy analysis that will benefit scholars of federalism or environmental and natural resources law. The value of its analysis for real-world decision-making will make it a compelling read for practitioners in environmental law or fields concerned with federalism issues, including those in government or NGOs, as well as lobbyists.
In this classic text, William G. Weissert and Carol S. Weissert describe how government and private interests help define health policy. Under the Obama administration, the federal government took a broadened role in setting health policy and insurance regulations. But the succeeding Trump administration and a Republican congress threatened to dismantle the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and its core tenets. Chronicling these recent important changes, Governing Health explores the political science theory behind this and other major shifts in national health policy. In this thoroughly updated edition, the authors describe how party polarization, a virulent anti-government movement, populist presidential politics, and the demise of "regular order" in Congress shape and define a new approach to health policy. This revised edition also * offers a comprehensive synthesis of Obamacare, touching on everything from Accountable Care and Pay for Performance to insurance industry reforms * highlights the important role of social media in building opposition to universal coverage* tracks passage of the new Medicare physician payment reform, MACRA* analyzes presidential executive orders and administrative rulemaking in dismantling the Affordable Care Act* examines the implications of Supreme Court decisions on Medicaid expansion and state health policy * updates all statistics, charts, and tables This new edition of a highly respected book guides readers toward a deep understanding of modern health policy's complexities. Drawing on compelling current examples, Governing Health is a timely and essential book.
We live in an era when all bodies are potentially 'feminised' by being rendered 'open-access' for biomedical research and clinical practice. Adopting a theoretically sophisticated and practical approach, Property in the Body: Feminist Perspectives rejects the notion that the sale of bodily tissue enhances the freedom of the individual through an increase in moral agency. Combining feminist theory and bioethics, it also addresses the omissions which are inherent in policy analysis and academic debate. For example, whilst women's tissue is particularly central to new biotechnologies, the requirement for female labour is largely ignored in subsequent evaluation. In its fully revised second edition, this book also considers how policies and developments vary between countries and within specific areas of biomedicine itself. Most importantly, it analyses the new and emerging technologies of this field whilst returning to the core questions and fears which are inextricably linked to the commercialisation of the body.
The Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics surveys the broad range of environmental and sustainability challenges in the emerging Anthropocene and scrutinizes available concepts, methodological tools, theories and approaches, as well as overlaps with adjunct fields of study. This comprehensive reference work, written by some of the most eminent academics in the field, contains 68 entries on numerous aspects across 7 thematic areas, including concepts and definitions; theories and methods; actors; institutions; issue-areas; cross-cutting questions; and overlaps with non-environmental fields. With this broad approach, the volume seeks to provide a pluralistic knowledge base of the research and practice of global environmental governance and politics in times of increased complexity and contestation. Providing its readers with a unique point of reference, as well as stimulus for further research, this Encyclopedia is an indispensable tool for anyone interested in the politics of the environment, particularly students, teachers and researchers.
This insightful book explores why implementation of environmental law is too often ineffective in achieving effective environmental governance. It provides careful analysis and innovative proposals to help improve the practical effectiveness of legal instruments for environmental governance. A growing number of organisations including the IUCN, UNEP and the Organisation of American States have voiced concerns that legal instruments that were developed to pursue more convincing environmental governance over the last 40 years are not creating a sufficiently potent system of environmental governance. In response to this challenge, this timely book explores how to bridge the significant implementation gap between the objectives of environmental law and the real-world outcomes of its application. Expert contributors discuss different forms of law, from international conventions down to inter-parties agreements, and non-government codes and standards. The overarching discussion highlights the diverse factors that impact upon implementing environmental law in practice, and considers the limitations and opportunities for constructive innovation in legal governance. This book is a comprehensive reference point for scholars and policy-makers, shedding light on how to achieve significant improvements in the effective application of environmental law.
Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, as well as how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. The world has recently witnessed a significant downward adjustment in fossil fuel prices, which has negative implications for the future of our environment. In light of these negative developments, it is important to understand the benefits of environmental sustainability through well-documented research. This discerning book considers the design of carbon taxes and examines the consequential outcomes of different taxation compositions as regulatory instruments. Expert contributors assess a variety of national experiences to provide an empirical insight into the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading, energy taxes and excise taxes. The overarching discussion concludes that successful policies used by some countries can be implemented in other jurisdictions with minimum new research and experimentation. This astute work will benefit scholars, practitioners and policymakers alike with an interest in the fields of environmental law, environmental economics, sustainable development and taxation law.
EU climate law is one of the most dynamic and fastest growing areas of EU law. This exciting new textbook provides a comprehensive account of essential EU climate mitigation law. In addition, the contents cover a number of important and topical issues related to the EU's efforts to tackle climate change. Written by some of the key thinkers on EU climate law from the University of Groningen, each chapter addresses the relevant directives and regulations as well as their implementation issues, explaining how this affects current policy and academic debate. The chapters therefore not only describe but also critically reflect upon EU climate law. Key features include: * Comprehensive introduction to EU climate mitigation law * Discussion of the climate targets and instruments of the EU * Review of the relevant climate-related directives and regulations * Analysis of their implementation problems * Relationship between climate law and broader issues including energy law * Educational design based on reviews by climate law students The combination of educational design and analytical accuracy makes the textbook suitable for both students and professionals. This introduction is highly recommended for courses on EU climate mitigation law, also in the context of broader curricula on climate law, energy law and EU law in general.
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