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This Handbook provides state-of-the-art analysis by leading authors on the links between the international trade regime and health and environment concerns - concerns that make up an increasing proportion of WTO dispute settlement. Research Handbook on Environment, Health and the WTO surveys fields as diverse as climate change mitigation, non-communicable diseases, nanotechnology and public health care. The volume brings to the fore the debates and complexities surrounding these issues and their implications for the international trading system. The Handbook begins in Part I with a survey of general issues that sets a context for the more specific sectorial studies. Part II considers the most pressing issues within health regulation and trade law, whilst Part III is devoted to environmental regulation and its interface with trade law. Part IV looks specifically at aspects of the dispute settlement process and in particular standard of review, and the book concludes in Part V with a consideration of the impact of trade measures on the health and environment regimes of emerging economies. This comprehensive yet concise Handbook will appeal to academics and researchers in international trade law and environmental law, as well as trade law practitioners.
"This report outlines the current legal requirements in England and Wales concerning assessment of mental capacity. Practical guidelines on the medical assessment of capacity are included" - t.p.
This important book brings together leading scholars from multiple disciplines, including intellectual property, human rights, public health, and development studies, as well as activists to critically reflect on the global health governance regime. The Global Governance of HIV/AIDS explores the implications of high international intellectual property standards for access to essential medicines in developing countries. With a focus on HIV/AIDS governance, the volume provides a timely analysis of the international legal and political landscape, the relationship between human rights and intellectual property, and emerging issues in global health policy. It concludes with concrete strategies on how to improve access to HIV/AIDS medicines. This interdisciplinary, global, and up-to-date book will strongly appeal to academics in law, international relations, health policy and public policy, as well as students, policymakers and activists.
Annual volume of up-to-date legislation with expert commentary remains the definitive guide to housing benefit legislation, and also legislation governing the council tax reduction schemes in England, Wales and Scotland. Used in all housing benefit cases coming before the First-tier Tribunal (Social Entitlement Chamber), this latest edition includes analysis and interpretation of provisions, the latest caselaw, reference to official guidance, coverage of administration issues and help with practice.
In the contentious run-up to the passage of the Affordable Care Act, Congress passed a law to make nonprofit health insurance CO-OPs (formally known as Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans) a viable alternative to the public option. The idea was to create new competition in order to lower health insurance premiums and encourage innovation. Nearly two dozen such low-cost CO-OPs were launched in the wake of the ACA's passage; only four are in operation today. In Death by Regulation, Dr. Peter L. Beilenson tells the story of a group of Maryland-based public health professionals who launched the Evergreen Health Cooperative, only to discover that the ACA law encouraging CO-OPs was a "plastic plant"-a piece of legislation created for optics but never intended to be functional. Over most of its four years of existence, Evergreen succeeded against all odds, prevailing over naysayers, big insurance companies, Congress, and its founders' naivete. But in an ironic twist, it was bureaucratic hostility from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services-the very Obama administration agency responsible for the CO-OPs-that led to their collective demise. Beilenson traces the huge impact of seemingly small policy decisions on the work of his team and the people their CO-OP was built to serve. He recounts the excitement and satisfaction of launching such a valuable healthcare company, as well as the damage done to scores of employees and tens of thousands of satisfied healthcare customers when bureaucrats run amok. The only book about these idealistic Obamacare CO-OPs and the obstacles they all faced, Death by Regulation offers an insider view of health policy and the reality of starting an insurance company from scratch.
The law relating to anti-doping changes rapidly. The World Anti-Doping Code was first adopted in 2003 to provide a common set of anti-doping rules applicable across all sport worldwide. The Code has evolved and changed significantly through two major processes of review. This third edition provides essential guidance and commentary on the 2015 Code which replaces the 2009 Code. The 2015 Code contains many significant changes in the core Articles of the Code, particularly in the regime on sanctions for anti-doping rule violations, and in the amended International Standards. The text outlines how the current law has developed from anti-doping rules and principles in operation before the Code and explains the central role of the Court of Arbitration for Sport in this development and in applying the current Code. This third edition will be an important single resource for any reader working or studying in the field.
This timely volume explores the ways in which indigenous peoples across the world are challenged by climate change impacts, and discusses the legal resources available to confront those challenges. Indigenous peoples occupy a unique niche within the climate justice movement, as many indigenous communities live subsistence lifestyles that are severely disrupted by the effects of climate change. Additionally, in many parts of the world, domestic law is applied differently to indigenous peoples than it is to their non-indigenous peers, further complicating the quest for legal remedies. The contributors to this book bring a range of expert legal perspectives to this complex discussion, offering both a comprehensive explanation of climate change-related problems faced by indigenous communities and a breakdown of various real world attempts to devise workable legal solutions. Regions covered include North and South America (Brazil, Canada, the US and the Arctic), the Pacific Islands (Fiji, Tuvalu and the Federated States of Micronesia), Australia and New Zealand, Asia (China and Nepal) and Africa (Kenya). This comprehensive volume will appeal to professors and students of environmental law, indigenous law and international law, as well as practitioners and policymakers with an interest in indigenous legal issues and environmental justice.
Within the United States, minority and low-income communities currently bear a disproportionate amount of risk associated with pollution and other harmful environmental practices. The environmental justice movement is working to change this fact, promoting the fair and non-discriminatory treatment of all people with respect to environmental issues, policies, and regulations. This fascinating and timely volume explores the relationship between environmental justice and the government, offering a comprehensive introduction to the legal, economic, and philosophical concerns involved in pursuing environmental justice goals within a federalist system. The authors discuss two case studies in their investigation of the complex interactions between environmental justice and government. These analyses offer a comprehensive view of both the siting and regulation of polluting activities, as well as a discussion of the effects on major natural resources such as clean air and drinking water. In each case, the authors both describe current government responses to the problem and offer specific recommendations regarding what actions should be taken in the future. This authoritative book will make an invaluable addition to courses in environmental law and policy. Professionals and policymakers working in disciplines such as law, economics, environmental science, philosophy and political science will also find this a comprehensive and critical reference.
The Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation captures the state of the art of research on environmental taxation. Written by 36 specialists in environmental taxation from 16 countries, it takes an interdisciplinary and international approach, focusing on issues that are universal to using taxation to achieve environmental goals. The Handbook explores the conceptual foundations of environmental taxation, essential elements for designing environmental tax measures, factors that influence the acceptance of environmental taxation, the variety of ways to implement environmental taxes, their environmental and economic impact and, finally, the larger question of the role of taxation among other policy approaches to environmental protection. Intermixing theory with case studies, the Handbook offers readers lessons that can be applied around the world. It identifies key bodies of research for people who are already working in the field or entering the field and highlights issues that call for more research in the future. With systematic analysis of key issues in environmental taxation, this book will appeal to researchers, governments, think tanks, NGOs, and academics in law, economics, political science and public finance, as well as students specializing in environmental taxation and other market-based instruments.
The complex and multifaceted nature of EU climate legislation poses a major challenge for EU Member States. This timely book focuses on national climate action, addressing the regulatory responses required for the purposes of meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction objectives for 2020 (and beyond). The book seeks to answer such questions as: what kind of legislative approaches should be developed to comply with EU climate law? What room for national discretion should remain? What opportunities exist to go beyond EU ambitions? In addition, distinguished authors analyse national regulatory developments across selected Member States, identifying potential areas for review and improvement. The book offers further discussion and legal analysis of core themes such as: long-term target setting; contrasting legislative approaches; instrument mixes; and key linkages between environmental and energy law. In light of the challenges confronting national legislators, this book offers important insights into the role and contribution of law towards improved climate protection, with potential lessons for countries both within and outside the EU. With this in mind, Climate Law in EU Member States will be a valuable read for policymakers and civil servants at national ministries and at the European Commission, carbon consultants and environmental non-governmental organisations, as well as for academics in and outside the EU.
Climate Change and the Oceans investigates the effects of climate change on the ocean environment and its implications for maritime activities, both globally and within the Asia Pacific region. This detailed work draws together informed opinion from a range of disciplines to examine the impacts of climate change on marine and coastal areas and review legal and policy responses to the rapidly changing ocean environment. Issues including the effects on fisheries and marine biodiversity in the Asia Pacific region, maritime security, global shipping, marine jurisdiction and marine geo-engineering are also explored. Examining the multiple impacts of climate change on the oceans and ocean based solutions to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change, this thought-provoking book will prove invaluable to academics, researchers and students in the fields of law, environment, ecology and political science. Oceans and marine environmental policymakers will also find this to be an essential resource.
This original and timely volume provides unique insights and analysis on the pressing question of how to achieve environmental sustainability while fostering economic growth. The emphasis of the book lies in finding critical solutions to global climate change including chapters on environmental fiscal reform and unemployment in Spain, EU structural and cohesion policy and sustainable development, ecological tax reform in Europe and Asia, Australia's carbon pricing mechanism, and many other timely topics. This insightful volume will appeal to policy makers in government as well as academics and students in environmental law, environmental economics and environmental sustainability.
This timely study addresses the pressing issue of food security through a range of interdisciplinary contributions, providing both scholarly and policy-making perspectives. It sets the discussion on food security within the little-studied context of its international legal and regulatory framework. The expert contributors explore the key issues from a development perspective and through the lens of existing governance and policy systems with a view to articulating how these systems can be made more effective in dealing with the roots of food insecurity. The book considers the root causes of food insecurity before discussing the regulatory challenges inherent in reconciling food production and sustainability to ensure both adequate supply of and equitable access to food, particularly in light of emerging issues such as food price volatility, `land grabbing' and the need to coordinate the actions of the multitude of actors that influence food policy and regulation. It highlights the need for more equitable, transparent and coherent policy and regulatory approaches to the myriad of issues that make up the food security challenge. This cross-cutting study will appeal to researchers in law, international relations, agricultural science and food systems, as well as to policy makers in government and international organisations that engage with policy and regulation of food security issues. It will also be essential reading for professionals in non-governmental organisations that are interested in development issues in general and food security in particular.
This timely book discusses various international norms that qualify the right, which all states have, to access and exploit living resources in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction, in order to promote the conservation of such species. It highlights current trends and developments which aim at better coherence, and discusses legal techniques that could serve to harmonize both the objectives of these international norms and their scope of applicability. The author also demonstrates that in some cases, gaps and conflicts in the existing legal framework cannot be simply `interpreted away' but require the further development of International law in order to be resolved.
Education is a fundamental human right that is recognised as essential for the attainment of all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. It was not until 2006, on the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), that the right to inclusive education was codified. This volume fills a major gap in the literature on the right of disabled people to education. It examines the theoretical foundations and core content of the right to inclusive education in international human rights law, and explores the various ways of implementing this right through an exploration of legal strategies and mechanisms. With contributions by leaders in the field, this volume advances scholarship on the core content of the right to inclusive education by examining the content and practice of the right at the national, regional and international levels.
I feel very honoured to have been invited to contribute the Foreword to this book on sports TV rights. It is fair to say, I think, that our lives in the twenty-first century are, in many respects, dominated by the media and sport; and, when combined, they are a very powerful force and mix indeed. It has been well said that sport and the media are, metaphorically speaking, a marriage made in heaven. This book in the now well-established Asser Sports Law Series of Titles, the brainchild of the Director of the prestigious T. M. C. Asser Instituut International Sports Law Centre in The Hague, Dr Robert Siekmann, is most certainly both timely and welcome. I am particularly enthusiastic about the fact that a number of esteemed colleagues who are members of the EMR Media Network have been invited to contribute to this collection. The first part of the book consists of several contributions on the very important European Law aspects of sports broadcasting rights in the digital age as well as TV rights relating to major sports events which are both of particular professional interest to me. Without the commercial exploitation of those rights and the resulting spectacular revenues generated, I may add, many sports events would never see the light of day, much to the disappoi- ment of the general public.
Local Climate Change Law examines the role of local government, especially within cities, in addressing climate change through legal, policy, planning and other tools. This timely study offers a multi-jurisdictional perspective, featuring international contributors who examine both theoretical and practical dimensions of how localities are addressing climate mitigation and adaptation in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, South Africa and the United States, as well as considering the place of localities in global climate law agreements and transnational networks. Written from a multi-disciplinary perspective, this book will appeal to academics, post graduate and undergraduate students in law and political science, local and national government policy makers and politicians, as well as practising local government lawyers. Anyone with a general interest in environmental issues will also find much to interest them in this insightful study.
The Mental Capacity Act 2005 and its accompanying Codes of Practice continue to have a huge impact on mental health professionals working with some of the most vulnerable people throughout England and Wales. Whether you are a Social Worker, Best Interest Assessor, Mental Health Nurse, Doctor, Psychiatrist or an Approved Mental Health Professional (AMHP), understanding the Mental Capacity Act and its implications for practice is essential and this indispensable guide will help you do just that. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 is designed to protect and empower individuals who may lack the mental capacity to make their own decisions about their care and treatment and this bestselling book will provide invaluable support to busy practitioners needing to draw on the Act in the following ways: - Sets out the full text of the main body of the Act for quick reference - Contains practical advice and checklists for working with the Act and the main principles and Codes of Practice - Shows how the Mental Health Act and Mental Capacity Act interact so that statutory requirements can be put into practice. Written in a style accessible to all professionals, this fully updated Third Edition has been revised and enlarged to incorporate revisions to the Mental Health Act Code of Practice 2015 and the crucial impact of the Supreme Court decisions in the Cheshire West cases.
This Special Issue of the Journal of Human Rights and the Environment revisits Professor Christopher D Stone's iconic 1972 article, and features an introduction by Professor Philippe Sands QC, a set of elegant and thought-provoking reflections on the original article by Baroness Mary Warnock, Professor Ngaire Naffine and Professor Lorraine Code, and an equally elegant and thought-provoking response to their reflections from Professor Stone himself. This thoughtful collection of essays will be a valuable addition to contemporary debates concerning the crucial search for new relationships between humanity and the living world and between human rights and the environment. The renowned contributors offer rich reflections on questions of legal standing, legal subjectivity and epistemology raised by Stone's article, and which have greater salience than ever as we face the environmental and human challenges of the 21st century.
Comparative Ocean Governance examines the world's attempts to improve ocean governance through place-based management - marine protected areas, ocean zoning, marine spatial planning - and evaluates this growing trend in light of the advent of climate change and its impacts on the seas. This monograph opens with an explanation of the economics of the oceans and their value to the global environment and the earth's population, the long-term stressors that have impacted oceans, and the new threats to ocean sustainability that climate change poses. It then examines the international framework for ocean management and coastal nations' increasing adoption of place-based governance regimes. The final section explores how these place-based management regimes intersect with climate change adaptation efforts, either accidentally or intentionally. It then offers suggestions for making place-based marine management even more flexible and responsive for the future. Environmental law scholars, legislators and policymakers, marine scientists, and all those concerned for the welfare of the world's oceans will find this book of great value.
This timely volume provides fascinating insights into emerging developments in the field of legal governance of the environment at a time when environmental governance is increasingly concerned with far more than legal doctrine. The expert contributors are concerned with the totality of arrangements through which power and resources are deployed to protect and restore natural resources, and how the costs and benefits of this are allocated. They explore key issues such as: how the community exercises its democratic rights; how government responds to the needs of current and future generations and balances the interests of the powerful with the powerless; the freedoms and responsibilities of commerce and the holders of property; and the ways in which laws and policies are informed by science and other perspectives. The various ways in which legal scholarship is pivotal to good governance are thus highlighted, as is the extent of innovation being generated by current ecological, economic and social challenges. Clearly demonstrating the increasing breadth and depth of environmental law scholarship, this thought-provoking book will prove an invaluable reference tool for academics, students and researchers focusing on environmental law and development.
This up-to-date book examines pharmaceutical development, access to medicines, and the protection of public health in the context of two fundamental changes that the global political economy has undergone since the 1970s, the globalization of trade and production and the increased harmonization of national regulations on intellectual property rights. With authors from eleven different countries presenting case studies of national experiences in Africa, Asia and the Americas, the book analyzes national strategies to promote pharmaceutical innovation, while at the same time assuring widespread access to medicines through generic pharmaceutical production and generic pharmaceutical importation. The expert chapters focus on patents as well as an array of regulatory instruments, including pricing and drug registration policies. Presenting in-depth analysis and original empirical research, this book will strongly appeal to academics and students of intellectual property, international health, international political economy, international development and law.
Measuring Justice explores the ways in which South African court and managerial prosecutors deal with the quantification of social phenomena - such as justice, professional work or accountability - and address the radical simplifications of their inherent complexities, misrepresentations and editing as a consequence. While various studies show the concern of professionals about the damaging effects these quantitative forms of accountability have on the creativity, freedom and collaborative nature of expert systems, Mugler shows that the reactions and attitudes of these legal professionals differ substantially. Through careful scrutiny of the everyday work of prosecutors and how they reflect on the relationship between accountability, quantification and law, this book argues that actors who work daily with quantitative accountability measures develop a numerical reflexivity about the process.
This book gathers scientific contributions on comprehensive approaches to personalized medicine. In a systematic and clear manner, it provides extensive information on the methodological, technological, and clinical aspects of high-throughput analytics, nanotechnology approaches, microbiota/human interactions, in-vitro fertilization and preimplantation, and various diseases like cancer.Moreover, the book analyzes the social and legal aspects of social security systems, healthcare systems and EU law - e.g. the role of solidarity, regulatory possibilities and obstacles, justice and equality, privacy/disclosure of data, and the right to know - from an interdisciplinary perspective. Lastly, it explores the economical and ethical context in the fields of business models, intellectual property issues, the patient/physician relationship, and price discrimination.
Environmental Taxation in China and Asia-Pacific contains an integrated set of detailed chapters providing insights and analysis on how fiscal policy can be used to achieve environmental sustainability. Highly topical chapters include energy tax policy in China, environmental fiscal reform, carbon tax policy in northeast Asia and environmental taxation strategies in China, Asia and Australia, as well as many other relevant topics. Written by distinguished environmental taxation scholars from around the world, the emphasis of this book is on finding solutions to environmental problems which merit serious consideration by policy makers as well as academics in environmental law and other academic disciplines.
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