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This book, edited by members of the Committee of Future Energy and Social Systems, The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan, describes energy technology roadmaps for Japan post-Fukushima. In this work, energy technology experts show quantitatively the advantages and disadvantages of major energy technologies with which they are involved, in a unified chapter structure with figures illustrating the technology development perspectives. The future energy vision for Japan together with the pathway is quantitatively discussed, explicitly considering the contributions of individual energy technology by referring to the technology roadmaps. The pathways for future energy vision thus derived will be useful not only for all energy researchers but also for graduate students in the field to grasp the potential of the technologies and future energy system of Japan.
Planning law is one of the most fast moving legal areas, with major structural changes to the planning system occurring since 2014 . Despite these attempts at simplification, it remains one of the most complex fields for both students and practitioners to navigate. In this continually evolving arena the fourteenth edition of A Practical Approach to Planning Law is an authoritative and reliable resource for all those working in the area, providing a comprehensive and systematic account of the principles and practice of planning law. The text guides the reader through each stage of the planning process, from permission applications through to disputes and appeals in a clear and accessible style. Containing coverage of all recent cases as well as important legislative and policy developments since the publication of the previous edition, particularly those arising out of the Neighbourhood Planning Act 2017, the Housing and Planning Act 2016, the Infrastructure Act 2015, and the Deregulation Act 2015, this new edition provides an invaluable introduction to the subject for professionals and students alike. The A Practical Approach series is the perfect partner for practice work. Each title provides a comprehensive overview of the subject together with clear, practical advice and tips on issues likely to arise in practice. The books are also an excellent resource for those new to the field, where the expert overview and clear layout promote clarity and ease of understanding.
In recent years, law and religion scholarship has increasingly emphasized the need to study the interaction of legal and religious ideas and institutions, norms and practices. The overall question that this scholarship explores may be stated as follows: how do legal and religious ideas and institutions, methods and mechanisms, beliefs and believers influence each other, for better and for worse, in the past, present and future? This volume engages this area of scholarship by examining how law regulates religion, and how religion responds to such regulations. It examines underlying norms influencing state regulation of religion, and challenges emerging from such regulation. Importantly, this volume will go beyond the conventional enquiries that draw upon the Anglo-European approaches and experiences, and emphasize instead Asian perspectives in order to expand and build upon existing understandings about the complex relationship between law and religion.
This book is an attempt to acknowledge the discipline `wetland science' and to consolidate research findings, reviews and synthesis articles on different aspects of the wetlands in South Asia. The book presents 30 chapters by an international mix of experts in the field, who highlight and discuss diverse issues concerning wetlands in South Asia as case studies. The chapters are divided into different themes that represent broad issues of concern in a systematic manner keeping in mind students, researchers and general readers at large. The book introduces readers to the basics and theory of wetland science, supplemented by case studies and examples from the region. It also offers a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in allied fields such as environmental studies, limnology, wildlife biology, aquatic biology, marine biology, and landscape ecology. To date the interdisciplinary field `wetland science' is still rarely treated as a distinct discipline in its own right. Further, courses on wetland science aren't taught at any of the world's most prestigious universities; instead, the topics falling under this discipline are generally handled under the disciplines `ecology' or under the extremely broad heading of `environmental studies'. It is high time that `Wetland Science' be acknowledged as an interdisciplinary sub-discipline, which calls for an attempt to consolidate its various subtopics and present them comprehensively. Thus, this book also serves as a reference base on wetlands and facilitates further discussions on specific issues involved in safeguarding a sustainable future for the wetland habitats of this region.
Derived from an undergraduate course taught by the author, this accessible book seeks to challenge and provoke readers by posing a series of topical questions concerning climate change and society. Topic summaries provide answers to technical, socio-economic and moral questions surrounding the deployment of climate science. These include how to build and test a climate model, whom and what is most at risk from climate change, and whether we should geoengineer the climate. Practical exercises and case studies provide deeper insights by taking readers through role-play activities and authentic climate change projects. Supporting materials, including notes for instructors and students, graphics, video-clips, games, and online resources, offer scope for further private study and group work. With a focus on applying climate science in practice, this book is ideal for students of geography, natural science, engineering and economics, as well as practitioners involved in the climate service industry.
A focus on the interplay between medical law and medical ethics makes this refreshing new textbook the most balanced approach available to students of law and medicine. By offering a unique chapter structure which gives equal weight to both the legal and ethical issues it allows for an appreciation of all factors at play in the field of medical law. In addition, its student-friendly writing style combined with critical analysis gives students the tools to engage with key issues and form their own understanding. Accompanying online case studies convey the law in practice, and encourage students to consider their own views and arguments in terms of legal analysis and ethical consideration. Coverage of recent judicial cases and statutes, with a good balance of factual detail and critical analysis, allows students to engage with this evolving discipline.
The urban energy transition represents a transformation of such magnitude that it will require a re-examination of the fundamental relationship between societies and energy resources. The potential for cities to deliver sustainable energy for their citizens requires context-specific action. One-size-fits-all approaches - which assume homogeneity across cities and economies of scale in the extension of electricity networks - have largely failed to deliver sustainable energy for all. This challenge is existential, questioning the fundamental ways in which contemporary life is organized around energy. This innovative volume argues that the urban energy transition depends on specific urban trajectories and heterogeneous urban energy landscapes, reflecting both strategic projects of urbanization and people's dwelling practices. Looking at in-depth case studies of urban energy landscapes in four major cities, it calls for citizens' active engagement with experimentation in everyday life. The book will have wide interdisciplinary appeal to researchers in energy, urban and environmental studies.
Bringing a new drug to market is a costly time-consuming process. Increased regional and international regulation over the last twenty years, while necessary, has only served to amplify these costs. In response to this escalation, developmental strategies have shifted towards a more global approach. In order to create the most cost-effective and safe processes, it is critical for those bringing drugs to market to understand both the globally accepted regulations and the local variations. "Nonclinical Safety Assessment: A Guide to International Pharmaceutical Regulations "provides a practical description of nonclinical drug development regulations and requirements in the major market regions.
It includes: ICH - the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human UseNational regulations, including US FDA, Canada, Mercosur and Brazil, South Africa, China, Japan, India and AustraliaRepeated dose toxicity studiesCarcinogenicity; Genotoxicity; Developmental and reproductive toxicology; ImmunotoxicologyBiotechnology-derived pharmaceuticalsVaccine developmentPhototoxicity and photocarcinogenicityDegradants, impurities, excipients and metabolites
Primarily intended for those professionals actively involved in the nonclinical and clinical development of a pharmaceutical product, including toxicologists, pharmacologists, clinicians and project managers, this book provides a roadmap for successful new drug approval and marketing.""
This book focuses on how to create an environmentally friendly society in China from the viewpoint of environmental law and policy. The authors accessed a great number of valuable sources not available in English, and interviewed various scholars and public officials, in order to analyze the environmental policies in China while comparing some of the features to Japan. The book stresses the importance of introducing a brand-new policy of central and local government, and analyses why these policies have not been executed effectively in the local society. In addition to the economy-oriented policy and spirit of the Chinese nation, which are the main causes, this book also highlights shortcomings in the inspection system, information management, and the extremely low degree of public participation as important aspects to focus on in order to tackle the current problems. The individual chapters will help readers to understand the environmental issues in China in depth, and provide guidance on resolving the issues in China and in developing countries that are now or soon will be facing the challenge of combining economic growth and environmental improvement. Air, water and soil pollution are serious challenges in China. The deterioration of the environment often leads to rioting that influences social stability, which is also a great concern to foreign investors. This book will be of interest to a professional audience such as policymakers, journalists, members of environmental NGOs, managers and employees who do business with China, as well as academic researchers and students.
The teenager has often appeared in culture as an anxious figure, the repository for American dreams and worst nightmares, at once on the brink of success and imminent failure. Spotlighting the "troubled teen" as a site of pop cultural, medical, and governmental intervention, Chronic Youth traces the teenager as a figure through which broad threats to the normative order have been negotiated and contained. Examining television, popular novels, science journalism, new media, and public policy, Julie Passanante Elman shows how the teenager became a cultural touchstone for shifting notions of able-bodiedness, heteronormativity, and neoliberalism in the late twentieth century. By the late 1970s, media industries as well as policymakers began developing new problem-driven 'edutainment' prominently featuring narratives of disability--from the immunocompromised The Boy in the Plastic Bubble to ABC's After School Specials and teen sick-lit. Although this conjoining of disability and adolescence began as a storytelling convention, disability became much more than a metaphor as the process of medicalizing adolescence intensified by the 1990s, with parenting books containing neuro-scientific warnings about the incomplete and volatile "teen brain." Undertaking a cultural history of youth that combines disability, queer, feminist, and comparative media studies, Elman offers a provocative new account of how American cultural producers, policymakers, and medical professionals have mobilized discourses of disability to cast adolescence as a treatable "condition." By tracing the teen's uneven passage from postwar rebel to 21st century patient, Chronic Youth shows how teenagers became a lynchpin for a culture of perpetual rehabilitation and neoliberal governmentality.
Crucial to health and social care practice, the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005 safeguards decision-making within a legal framework. This book provides theoretical, practical and up-to-date guidance on mental capacity legislation. It focuses on the theory underpinning the principles of the MCA 2005, including historical background, and the practical challenges in applying legal statute in varied clinical settings, from hospitals to social care in community settings. Recent case law is detailed and examples of ethical dilemmas and medico-legal challenges feature, along with guidance to navigate these in clinical practice. Applying mental capacity principles in end-of-life decision-making is an area of discussion, as well as the future of legislative changes in the field. To be read alongside the MCA 2005 Code of Practice, this guide will support mental health and social care professionals in clinical settings.
This book examines the laws and regulations relating to the practice of pharmacy, and the regulation and control of drugs cosmetics, and medical devices. Most available pharmacy law texts thus far have been written by lawyers and present heavy, dense, legalistic reading that focuses on legal theory. Essentials of Pharmacy Law is written by a practicing pharmacist in clear, accessible, contemporary prose that concentrates on application.
Medications such as Vioxx and procedures such as vertebroplasty for back pain are among the medical "advances" that turned out to be dangerous or useless. What Dr. Vinayak K. Prasad and Dr. Adam S. Cifu call medical reversal happens when doctors start using a medication, procedure, or diagnostic tool without a robust evidence base-and then stop using it when it is found not to help, or even to harm, patients. In Ending Medical Reversal, Drs. Prasad and Cifu narrate fascinating stories from every corner of medicine to explore why medical reversals occur, how they are harmful, and what can be done to avoid them. They explore the difference between medical innovations that improve care and those that only appear to be promising. They also outline a comprehensive plan to reform medical education, research funding and protocols, and the process for approving new drugs that will ensure that more of what gets done in doctors' offices and hospitals is truly effective.
Methamphetamine: A Love Story presents an insider's view of the world of methamphetamine based on the life stories of thirty-three adults formerly immersed in using, dealing, and manufacturing meth in rural Oklahoma. Using a respectful tone towards her subjects, Shukla illuminates their often decades-long love affair with the drug, the attractions of the lifestyle, the eventual unsustainability of it, and the challenges of exiting the life. These personal stories reveal how and why people with limited economic means and inadequate resources become entrapped in the drug epidemic, while challenging longstanding societal views about addiction, drugs, drug policy, and public health.
Since the 1990s, a burgeoning literature has emerged on the politics and governance of urban climate. It is now evident that urban responses to climate change involve a diverse range of actors as well as forms of agency that cross traditional boundaries, and which have diverse consequences for (dis)empowering different social groups. This book provides an overview of the forms of agency in urban climate politics, discussing the friction and power dynamics between them. Written by renowned scholars, it critically assesses the advantages and limitations of increasing agency in urban climate governance. In doing so, it sheds critical new light on the existing literature, advances the state of knowledge of urban climate governance and discusses ways to accelerate urban climate action. With chapters building on case studies from across the world, it is ideal for scholars and practitioners working in the area of urban climate politics and governance.
Environmental Impact Statements, Second Edition has been extensively revised and updated to cover all the requirements for a wide variety of EISs on the federal, state and local levels, including a new chapter devoted to Environmental Justice.
For the first time in 400 years a number of leading common law nations have, fairly simultaneously, embarked on charity law reform leading to an encoding of key definitional matters in charity legislation. This book provides an analysis of international case law developments on the ever growing range of issues now being generated by clashes between human rights, religion and charity law. Kerry O'Halloran identifies and assesses the agenda of 'moral imperatives', such as abortion and gay marriage that delineate the legal interface and considers their significance for those with and those without religious belief. By assessing jurisdictional differences in the law relating to religion/human rights/charity the author provides a picture of the evolving 'culture wars' that now typify and differentiates societies in western nations including the USA, England and Wales, Ireland, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.
The banking of human tissues for clinical transplantation has grown exponentially in the past 10-15 years. Tissue banks have been set up throughout the world, initially on an ad hoc basis. More recently these have grown and in many countries have linked up with larger international companies. While standards for the procurement, processing and storage of the tissues have kept pace with the growth of the subject, this is not so with the legal considerations associated with the practice. There is no unified legal system which is internationally operated. Europe, USA, Asia, Latin America, China have been developing legal systems on an individual basis.This book describes the present state of the development of laws to control and make the banking and use of tissues legal and safe. It describes, for the first time, the current systems which are used throughout the world and points the way to setting up a harmonized global legal system.
Human Rights, Democracy, and Legitimacy in a World of Disorder brings together respected scholars from diverse disciplines to examine a trio of key concepts that help to stabilize states and the international order. While used pervasively by philosophers, legal scholars, and politicians, the precise content of these concepts is disputed, and they face new challenges in the conditions of disorder brought by the twenty-first century. This volume will explore the interrelationships and possible tensions between human rights, democracy, and legitimacy, from the philosophical, legal, and political perspectives; as well as the role of these concepts in addressing particular problems such as economic inequality, catastrophic risks posed by new technologies, access to health care, regional governance, and responses to mass migration. Made up of essays arising from an interdisciplinary symposium convened at Harvard Law School in 2016, this volume will examine how these trusted concepts may bring order to the global community.
20 murders every week. 18,000 assaults in the same time. All on the
How reconsidering digital media and participatory cultures from the standpoint of disability allows for a full understanding of accessibility. While digital media can offer many opportunities for civic and cultural participation, this technology is not equally easy for everyone to use. Hardware, software, and cultural expectations combine to make some technologies an easier fit for some bodies than for others. A YouTube video without closed captions or a social network site that is incompatible with a screen reader can restrict the access of users who are hard of hearing or visually impaired. Often, people with disabilities require accommodation, assistive technologies, or other forms of aid to make digital media accessible-useable-for them. Restricted Access investigates digital media accessibility-the processes by which media is made usable by people with particular needs-and argues for the necessity of conceptualizing access in a way that will enable greater participation in all forms of mediated culture. Drawing on disability and cultural studies, Elizabeth Ellcessor uses an interrogatory framework based around issues of regulation, use, content, form, and experience to examine contemporary digital media. Through interviews with policy makers and accessibility professionals, popular culture and archival materials, and an ethnographic study of internet use by people with disabilities, Ellcessor reveals the assumptions that undergird contemporary technologies and participatory cultures. Restricted Access makes the crucial point that if digital media open up opportunities for individuals to create and participate, but that technology only facilitates the participation of those who are already privileged, then its progressive potential remains unrealized. Engagingly written with powerful examples, Ellcessor demonstrates the importance of alternate uses, marginalized voices, and invisible innovations in the context of disability identities to push us to rethink digital media accessibility.
In 1783, a stamp duty was imposed on proprietary or 'quack' medicines. These largely useless but often dangerous remedies were immensely popular. The tax, which lasted until 1941, was imposed to raise revenue. It failed in its incidental regulatory purpose, had a negative effect in that the stamp was perceived as a guarantee of quality, and had a positive effect in encouraging disclosure of the formula. The book explains the considerable impact the tax had on chemists and druggists - how it led to an improvement in professional status, but undermined it by reinforcing their reputations as traders. The legislation imposing the tax was complex, ambiguous and never reformed. The tax authorities had to administer it, and executive practice came to dominate it. A minor, specialised, low-yield tax is shown to be of real significance in the pharmaceutical context, and of exceptional importance as a model revealing the wider impact of tax law and administration.
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