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A comprehensive account of ore-forming processes, revised and updated The revised second edition of Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes offers a guide to the multiplicity of geological processes that result in the formation of mineral deposits. The second edition has been updated to reflect the most recent developments in the study of metallogeny and earth system science. This second edition contains new information about global tectonic processes and crustal evolution that continues to influence the practice of economic geology and maintains the supply of natural resources in a responsible and sustainable way. The replenishment of depleted natural resources is becoming more difficult and environmentally challenging. There is also a change in the demand for mineral commodities and the concern around the non-sustainable supply of 'critical metals' is now an important consideration for planners of the future. The book puts the focus on the responsible custodianship of natural resources and the continuing need for all earth scientists to understand metallogeny and the resource cycle. This new edition: Provides an updated guide to the processes involved in the formation of mineral deposits Offers an overview of magmatic, hydrothermal and sedimentary ore-forming processes Covers the entire range of mineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergene ores Relates metallogeny to global tectonics by examining the distribution of mineral deposits in space and time Contains examples of world famous ore deposits that help to provide context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis Written for students and professionals alike, Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes offers a revised second edition that puts the focus on the fact that mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders of geological process and evolution.
This handbook offers effective strategies to modify and adjust crop production processes to decrease the toxicity of soil contaminants, balance soil pH, improve root growth and nutrient uptake, and increase agricultural yield. The Handbook of Soil Acidity provides methods to, measure soil acidity, determine the major causes of soil acidification, calculate acidification rates for specific crop sequences, identify high-risk areas for soil acidification, and model acidification phenomena. This is an essential resource for plant, crop, soil, and environmental scientists, plant and crop physiologists, botanists, agronomists, agriculturists, and upper-level undergraduate, graduate, and continuing-education students in these disciplines.
This volume focuses on innovative bioremediation techniques and applications for the cleanup of contaminated media and sites. It includes quantitative and design methods that elucidate the relationships among various operational parameters, and waste chemistry that defines the cost effectiveness of bioremediation projects. It also presents numerical models.
Developed for Introduction to Soils or Soil Science courses, The Nature and Properties of Soils, Fifteenth Edition, can be used in courses such as Soil Fertility, Land Resources, Earth Science and Soil Geography. Help students learn about soils and their connections to the ecosystem The Nature and Properties of Soils is designed to engage today's students with the latest in the world of soils. This hallmark text introduces students to the exciting world of soils through clear writing, strong pedagogy, and an ecological approach that effectively explains the fundamentals of soil science. Worked calculations, vignettes, and current real-world applications prepare readers to understand concepts, solve problems, and think critically. Written for both majors and non-majors, this text highlights the many interactions between the soil and other components of forest, range, agricultural, wetland and constructed ecosystems. Now in full-color, the Fifteenth Edition includes hundreds of compelling photos, figures, and diagrams to bring the exciting world of soils to life. Extensively revised, new and updated content appears in every chapter. Examples include: coverage of the pedosphere concept; new insights into humus and soil carbon accumulation; subaqueous soils, soil effects on human health; principles and practice of organic farming; urban and human engineered soils; new understandings of the nitrogen cycle; water-saving irrigation techniques; hydraulic redistribution, soil food-web ecology; disease suppressive soils; soil microbial genomics; soil interactions with global climate change; digital soil maps; and many others.
Clay minerals are one of the most important groups of minerals that
destroy permeability in sandstones. However, they also react with
drilling and completion fluids and induce fines migration during
hydrocarbon production. They are a very complex family of minerals
that are routinely intergrown with each other, contain a wide range
of solid solutions and form by a variety of processes under a wide
range temperatures and rock and fluid compositions.
In this volume, clay minerals in sandstones are reviewed in
terms of their mineralogy and general occurrence, their stable and
radiogenic isotope geochemistry, XRD quantification, their effects
on the petrophysical properties of sandstones and their
relationships to sequence stratigraphy and palaeoclimate. The
controls on various clay minerals are addressed and a variety of
geochemical issues, including the importance of mass flux, links to
carbonate mineral diagenesis and linked clay mineral diagenesis in
interbedded mudstone-sandstone are explored. A number of case
studies are included for kaolin, illite and chlorite cements, and
the occurrence of smectite in sandstone is reviewed. Experimental
rate data for clay cements in sandstones are reviewed and there are
two model-based case studies that address the rates of growth of
kaolinite and illite.
The readership of this volume will include sedimentologists and petrographers who deal with the occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution patterns and importance of clay mineral cements in sandstones, geochemists involved in unraveling the factors that control clay mineral cement formation in sandstones and petroleum geoscientists involved in predicting clay mineral distribution in sandstones. The book will also be of interest to geologists involved in palaeoclimate studies basin analysis.Latest geochemical data on clays in sandstonesProvides important information for geologists involved in basin analysis, sandstone petrology and petroleum geology
If you are a member of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS), for purchasing details, please see: http: //www.iasnet.org/publications/details.asp?code=SP34
This cutting-edge summary combines ideas from several sub-disciplines including geology, geomorphology, oceanography and geochemistry to provide an integrated view of Earth surface dynamics in terms of sediment generation, transport and deposition. Introducing a global view of fundamental concepts underpinning source-to-sink studies, it provides an analysis of the component segments which make up sediment routing systems. The functioning of sediment routing systems is illustrated through calculations of denudation and sedimentation as well as the response to external drivers; with the final sections focusing on the stratigraphic record of sediment routing systems. Containing quantitative solutions to a wide range of problems in Earth surface dynamics, it is suitable for graduate students as well as academic and professional researchers; and will enable an understanding of sediment routing systems.
The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook expands on the first edition to include advances made in the last four decades, bringing the topic completely up to date. The book addresses critical issues such as whether humanity can feed itself, and whether it can do so in environmentally sound and sustainable ways. Written from agronomic, environmental, and ecological standpoints, the textbook employs a multidisciplinary approach, including policymaking and plant genetic improvements, as well as ecosystem services, climate change, biodiversity, sustainability and resilience. New chapters in this second edition focus on organic carbon in soil, soil biology, soils in relation to livestock production and forestry, and agroforestry. The new edition will again be the go-to textbook for courses on tropical soils, and a reference textbook for soil and agricultural scientists and development professionals working in the tropics.
This book covers an overview of research on sediment textures, sedimentary structures, sediment composition and bioturbation structures including other aspects of tidal sedimentation. The analytical results for the tidal river sedimentation and essential aspects of relevant field studies along the entire stretch of the Thakuran River are being presented in this book. Filled with interesting results obtained from minutely observations, this book brings together outstanding facts of the tidal river sedimentation and can be considered as a pioneer work on the dynamic estuarine environment of the Sunderbans River. Anyone in academia or NGOs interested in this river basin will find interesting information in this book that will enrich their knowledge on the sedimentation patterns of tidal river systems.
Soil is the most important natural non-renewable resource developed over a longer period of time due to weathering of rocks and subsequently enrichment of organic matter. Soil provides habitat for numerous microorganisms and serves as a natural medium for plant growth, thereby providing the plants with anchorage, nutrients and water to sustain the growth. Soil also serves as a universal sink for all types of pollutants, purifies ground water and is a major reserve of carbon in the universe. The role of soils to provide ecosystem services, maintenance of environmental/human health and ensuring the food security makes it as the most important and basic natural resource. Soil Science helps us to elaborate and understand how the soils provide all these services. Soil Science also provides us the basic knowledge dealing with the origin of the soil parent material, weathering of parent material and the formation of soils, morphological, physico-chemical and biological features of soils, classification of soils and role of soils in the provision and maintenance of ecosystem services, food security and environmental quality. This book encompasses the various processes, functions and behaviour of soils very comprehensively to acquaint the students of soil, plant and environmental sciences about their role to perform different agricultural and environmental functions.
The Gulf of Mexico Basin is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world, with an estimated endowment of 200 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the basin, spanning the US, Mexico and Cuba. Topics covered include conventional and unconventional reservoirs, source rocks and associated tectonics, basin evolution from the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Era, and different regions of the basin from mature onshore fields to deep-water subsalt plays. Cores, well logs and seismic lines are all discussed providing local, regional and basin-scale insights. The scientific implications of seminal events in the basin's history are also covered, including sedimentary effects of the Chicxulub Impact. Containing over 200 color illustrations and 50 stratigraphic cross-sections and paleogeographic maps, this is an invaluable resource for petroleum industry professionals, as well as graduate students and researchers interested in basin analysis, sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics and petroleum geology.
A practical guide to the latest remote and in situ techniques used to measure sediments, quantify seabed characteristics, and understand physical properties of water and sediments and transport mechanisms in estuaries and coastal waters. Covering a broad range of topics from global reference frames and bathymetric surveying methods to the use of remote sensing for determining surface-water variables, enough background is included to explain how each technology functions. The advantages and disadvantages of each technology are explained, and a review of recent fieldwork experiments demonstrates how modern methods apply in real-life estuarine and coastal campaigns. Clear explanations of physical processes show links between different disciplines, making the book ideal for students and researchers in the environmental sciences, marine biology, chemistry and geology, whose work relies on an understanding of the physical environment and the way it is changing as a result of climate change, engineering and other influences.
Soils with high Ni contents occur in several parts of the world, especially in areas with ultramafic rocks which cause serious environmental impacts. This book aims to extend the knowledge on the risks and problems caused by elevated Ni contents and to cover the existing gaps on issues related to various aspects and consequences of high Ni contents in soils and plants. Nickel in Soils and Plants brings together discussions on Ni as a trace element and as a micronutrient essential for plant growth and its role in plant physiology. It analyzes the biogeochemistry of Ni at the soil plant interface, and explains its behavior in the rhizosphere resulting in Ni deficiency or toxicity, or Ni tolerance of various Ni hyperaccumulators. Included are Ni resources and sources, the origin of soil Ni, its geochemical forms in soils and their availability to plants, a special reference on soils enriched with geogenic Ni, such as serpentine soils, and the special characteristics of those ecosystems. Recent advancements in methods of Ni speciation, including the macroscale and X- ray absorption spectroscopy studies as well as serious views on Ni kinetics, are also covered. Written by a team of internationally recognized researchers and expert contributors, this comprehensive work addresses the practical aspects of managing Ni in soils and plants for agricultural production, and managing soils with high Ni levels by using organic and inorganic amendments. The text also addresses practical measures related to Ni toxicity in plants, the removal and recovery of Ni from high Ni wastes, and offers environmentally friendly innovative processes for mining Ni from soils containing high Ni levels.
The pneumatic flow mixing method was developed to stabilize dredged soil and surplus soil for promoting their beneficial use in 1999. The pneumatic flow mixing method is a new type of the ex-situ cement stabilization techniques, in which dredged soil and surplus soil is mixed with a relatively small amount of chemical binder without any mixing paddles and blades in a pipeline. When a relatively large amount of compressed air is injected into the pipeline, soil can be separated into small blocks. When binder is injected into the pipeline, the soil block and binder are thoroughly mixed by means of turbulent flow generated in the soil block during transporting. As this method has many benefits rapid and large scale execution can be conducted with low cost it has been applied to many land reclamation projects, backfilling behind earth retaining wall projects and shallow stabilization projects using dredged soils and surplus soils. The Pneumatic Flow Mixing Method is a useful reference tool for engineers and researchers involved in admixture stabilization technology everywhere, regardless of local soil conditions and a variety in applications.
This concise treatment of the fundamental principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy highlights the important physical, chemical, biological and stratigraphic characteristics of sedimentary rocks. It emphasizes the ways in which the study of sedimentary rocks is used to interpret depositional environments, changes in ancient sea level, and other intriguing aspects of Earth's history.
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
Soil fertility is the backbone of agricultural systems and plays a key role in determining food quantity and quality. In recent decades, soil fertility has decreased due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, and nations around the globe are now facing the challenge of increasing food production while sustainably maintaining soil fertility. Written by leading international scientists in the field, this book explores soil fertility management strategies, including agronomic, microbiological and soil-science based strategies. Highlighting the practices that can be incorporated into organic farming and discussing recent advances, it is a valuable resource for researchers wanting to broaden their vision and the scope of their investigations.
For much of history, soil has played a major, and often central, role in the lives of humans. Entire societies have risen, and collapsed, through the management or mismanagement of soil; farmers and gardeners worldwide nurture their soil to provide their plants with water, nutrients, and protection from pests and diseases; major battles have been aborted or stalled by the condition of soil; murder trials have been solved with evidence from the soil; and, for most of us, our ultimate fate is the soil. In this book Richard Bardgett discusses soil and the many, and sometimes surprising, ways that humanity has depended on it throughout history, and still does today. Analysing the role soil plays in our own lives, despite increasing urbanization, and in the biogeochemical cycles that allow the planet to function effectively, Bardgett considers how superior soil management could combat global issues such as climate change, food shortages, and the extinction of species. Looking to the future, Bardgett argues that it is vital for the future of humanity for governments worldwide to halt soil degradation, and to put in place policies for the future sustainable management of soils.
A clear understanding of the processes responsible for observed rock microstructures is essential for making reliable petrogenetic interpretations, including inferences made from chemical and isotopic analyses of minerals. This volume presents a comprehensive survey of rock microstructures, emphasising basic concepts and the latest methods, while highlighting potential pitfalls in the interpretation of the origin of rock microstructure. Richly illustrated with over 250 colour photographs, including more than 10 percent new photomicrographs and several mesoscopic images, it demonstrates the basic processes responsible for the wide variety of microstructures in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. This second edition includes extensive updates to the coverage of igneous rocks as well as recent ideas on physical processes in migmatites and partial melting of sedimentary rocks. This practical guide will continue to be an invaluable resource to advanced students and early-career researchers of mineralogy, petrology and structural geology, as well as professional geologists and material scientists.
Aiming to improve work efficiency in such areas as tillage in agriculture, earth-moving in civil engineering, and tunnel-making in sea-bed operations, this work offers an introduction to Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis of soil-machine systems. It explains the advantage of FEM's numerical approach over traditional analytical and empirical methods of dealing with complex factors from nonlinear mechanical behaviour to geometric configurations.
This books gives a complete overview of the Soils of Slovenia, from soil research history, climate, geology, geomorphology, major soil types, soil maps, soil propoerties, classification, fertility, land use and vegetation, soil management, soils and humans, soils and industries and future soils issues.
This volume provides a modern introduction to the soil fauna and their contributions to ecosystem function, the mechanisms that structure soil fauna assemblages from local to global scales, and the potential impacts of global change on soil fauna assemblages and through this ecosystem function. Wanting to be an accessible primer, this book is a high level overview of current knowledge rather than a detailed tome of all existing information, with emphasis being placed on key findings and general patterns. It focuses on the soil fauna but contextualizes these assemblages in relation to the microbial assemblages belowground and the vegetation aboveground. It is clear that our knowledge of soil fauna assemblages is ever increasing, but there is still a lot to discover. Key areas of research are highlighted, with particular reference to the future of soil fauna assemblages.
This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date overview on soils of Greece. It includes sections on soil research history, climate, geology, geomorphology, major soil types, soil maps, soil properties, soil classification, soil fertility, land use and vegetation, soil management, soils and humans, soils and industry, future soil issues. The book summarizes what is known about the soils in Greece in a concise and highly reader-friendly way.
This book discusses how to apply the basic principles of pedology to the tropical soils of the Indian subcontinent, with an emphasis on ways to enhance crop productivity. The book showcases the research contributions on pedology, geomorphology, mineralogy, micromorphology and climate change collected from the literature on three major soil types: shrink-swell soils, red ferruginous (RF) soils and the soils that occur in the tropical environments of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). It also provides insights into several aspects of five pedogenetically important soil orders like Alfisols, Mollisols, Ultisols, Vertisols and Inceptisols found in tropical Indian environments. Documenting the significance of minerals in soils and their overall influence in soil science in terms of pedology, paleopedology, polygenesis and edaphology, it provides a knowledge base that is critical when attempting to bridge the gap between food production and population growth.
This book describes selected microbial genera from the perspective of their environmentally and commercially sustainable use. By focusing on their physiology and metabolism and combining historical information with the latest developments, it presents a multidisciplinary portrait of microbial sustainability. The chapters provide readers descriptions of each genus in the form of microbial models that move us closer to the goal of sustainability; selected chapters also include worldwide market information and lists of corresponding patents.
This book is a study of the sedimentary and residual deposits of the Tandilia System, also known as the Sierras Septentrionales of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Offering an overview of the geology, stratigraphy, petrology, mineralogy and industrial applications of these deposits, it is organized geographically and according to the different districts of the province's diverse counties where economically important Neoproterozoic and Eopaleozoic clay reserves occur. Today, most of the sediments of the Tandilia basin are found in South Africa due to the breakup of the continents, which began in the Jurassic. This partly accounts for the difficulty in interpreting the geology of Tandilia. Apart from its extreme age and almost complete lack of fossil remains, for a long time the tectonics that affected the whole area presented a real challenge, as horst and graben structures added to the difficulty of geological correlations. Despite being 700 Ma old, most of the physical-chemical properties of the sediments have remained unchanged. The Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures (MISS) found in the tidal and peritidal deposits also hold untouched information on the mystery of the beginning of life on earth. The fact that the Buenos Aires province is the country's first non-metallic productive center together with the high quality of its clay deposits, its easy access from main routes and proximity to large consumer centers have made these materials highly important in the province's construction industry.
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