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This accessible new text introduces the theoretical concepts and tools essential for graduate-level courses on the physics of materials in condensed matter physics, physical chemistry, materials science and engineering, and chemical engineering. Topics covered range from fundamentals such as crystal periodicity and symmetry, and derivation of single-particle equations, to modern additions including graphene, two-dimensional solids, carbon nanotubes, topological states, and Hall physics. Advanced topics such as phonon interactions with phonons, photons and electrons, and magnetism, are presented in an accessible way, and a set of appendices reviewing crucial fundamental physics and mathematical tools makes this text suitable for students from a range of backgrounds. Students will benefit from the emphasis on translating theory into practice, with worked examples explaining experimental observations, applications illustrating how theoretical concepts can be applied to real research problems, and 242 informative full color illustrations. End-of chapter exercises are included for homework and self-study, with solutions and lecture slides for instructors available online.
Modern Condensed Matter Physics brings together the most important advances in the field of recent decades. It provides instructors teaching graduate-level condensed matter courses with a comprehensive and in-depth textbook that will prepare graduate students for research or further study as well as reading more advanced and specialized books and research literature in the field. This textbook covers the basics of crystalline solids as well as analogous optical lattices and photonic crystals, while discussing cutting-edge topics such as disordered systems, mesoscopic systems, many-body systems, quantum magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum entanglement, and superconducting quantum bits. Students are provided with the appropriate mathematical background to understand the topological concepts that have been permeating the field, together with numerous physical examples ranging from the fractional quantum Hall effect to topological insulators, the toric code, and majorana fermions. Exercises, commentary boxes, and appendices afford guidance and feedback for beginners and experts alike.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of solid state physics for undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, engineering, and materials science.
Understand the fundamental concepts, theoretical background, major experimental observations, and device applications of graphene photonics with this self-contained text. Systematically and rigorously developing each concept and theoretical model from the ground up, it guides readers through the major topics, from basic properties and band structure to electronic, optical, optoelectronic, and nonlinear optical properties, and plasmonics and photonic devices. The connections between theory, modeling, experiment, and device concepts are demonstrated throughout, and every optical process is analyzed through formal electromagnetic analysis. Suitable for both self-study and a one-semester or one-quarter course, this is the ideal text for graduate students and researchers in photonics, optoelectronics, nanoscience and nanotechnology, and optical and solid-state physics, who are working in this rapidly developing field.
Kinetic theory of weakly turbulent nonlinear processes in plasma helped form the foundation of modern plasma physics. This book provides a systematic overview of the kinetic theory of weak plasma turbulence from a modern perspective. It covers the fundamentals of weak turbulence theory, including the foundational concepts and the mathematical and technical details. Some key obstacles to space plasma applications are also covered, including the origin of non-thermal charged particle population, and radio burst phenomena from the sun. Treating both collective and discrete particle effects, it provides a valuable reference for researchers looking to familiarize themselves with plasma weak turbulence theory.
This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook
and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the
established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of
the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a
look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The
well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma
phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in
magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic
fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma
equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and
instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport,
plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully
developed from first principles through to the computational models
employed in modern plasma physics.
This handbook provides comprehensive treatment of the current state of glass science from the leading experts in the field. Opening with an enlightening contribution on the history of glass, the volume is then divided into eight parts. The first part covers fundamental properties, from the current understanding of the thermodynamics of the amorphous state, kinetics, and linear and nonlinear optical properties through colors, photosensitivity, and chemical durability. The second part provides dedicated chapters on each individual glass type, covering traditional systems like silicates and other oxide systems, as well as novel hybrid amorphous materials and spin glasses. The third part features detailed descriptions of modern characterization techniques for understanding this complex state of matter. The fourth part covers modeling, from first-principles calculations through molecular dynamics simulations, and statistical modeling. The fifth part presents a range of laboratory and industrial glass processing methods. The remaining parts cover a wide and representative range of applications areas from optics and photonics through environment, energy, architecture, and sensing. Written by the leading international experts in the field, the Springer Handbook of Glass represents an invaluable resource for graduate students through academic and industry researchers working in photonics, optoelectronics, materials science, energy, architecture, and more.
The ideal companion in condensed matter physics - now in new and
This valuable resource summarizes the past fifty years' basic research accomplishments in plasma dynamics for aerospace engineering, presenting these results in a comprehensive volume that will be an asset to any professional in the field. It offers a comprehensive review of the foundation of plasma dynamics while integrating the most recently developed modeling and simulation techniques with the theoretic physics, including the state-of-the-art numerical algorithms. Several first-ever demonstrations for innovations and incisive explanations for previously unexplained observations are included. All the necessary formulations for technical evaluation to engineering applications are derived from the first principle by statistic and quantum mechanics, and led to physics-based computational simulations for practical applications. The computer-aided procedures directly engage the reader to duplicate findings that are nearly impossible by using ground-based experimental facilities. Plasma Dynamics for Aerospace Engineering will allow readers to reach an incisive understanding of plasma physics.
Modelling of heterogeneous processes, such as electrochemical reactions, extraction, or ion-exchange, usually requires solving the transport problem associated to the process. Since the processes at the phase boundary are described by scalar quantities and transport quantities are vectors or tensors, coupling them can take place only via conservation of mass, charge, or momentum. In this book, the transport of ionic species is addressed in a versatile manner, emphasizing the mutual coupling of fluxes in particular. Treatment is based on the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics, i.e. on linear (ionic) phenomenological equations, from which the most frequently used Nernst-Planck equation is derived. Limitations and assumptions made are thoroughly discussed. The Nernst-Planck equation is applied to selected problems at the electrodes and in membranes. Mathematical derivations are presented in detail so that the reader can learn the methodology of solving transport problems. Each chapter contains a large number of exercises, some of them more demanding than others.
Research into the stability of matter has been one of the most successful chapters in mathematical physics, and is a prime example of how modern mathematics can be applied to problems in physics. A unique account of the subject, this book provides a complete, self-contained description of research on the stability of matter problem. It introduces the necessary quantum mechanics to mathematicians, and aspects of functional analysis to physicists. The topics covered include electrodynamics of classical and quantized fields, Lieb-Thirring and other inequalities in spectral theory, inequalities in electrostatics, stability of large Coulomb systems, gravitational stability of stars, basics of equilibrium statistical mechanics, and the existence of the thermodynamic limit. The book is an up-to-date account for researchers, and its pedagogical style makes it suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in mathematical physics.
The Sun is our nearest star; it is a dynamic star, which changes with time. Solar variations have significant influence on Earth's space environment and climate through the Sun's magnetic field, irradiation and energetic particles. Long-term and reliable historical datasets of solar and stellar activity indices are crucial for understanding the variations and predicting the future solar cycle. IAU Symposium 340 brings together scientists from diverse, interdisciplinary areas to address the latest discoveries from these long-term datasets for the understanding of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. They make comparisons between different datasets and discuss how to make uniform databases. The proceedings of IAU S340 contain a selection of presentations and reviews from internationally renowned experts. They provide an up-to-date account of this field of importance to researchers and advanced students in solar, stellar, space and heliospheric physics.
Plasmonics is an important branch of optics concerned with the interaction of metals with light. Under appropriate illumination, metal nanoparticles can exhibit enhanced light absorption, becoming nanosources of heat that can be precisely controlled. This book provides an overview of the exciting new field of thermoplasmonics and a detailed discussion of its theoretical underpinning in nanophotonics. This topic has developed rapidly in the last decade, and is now a highly-active area of research due to countless applications in nanoengineering and nanomedicine. These important applications include photothermal cancer therapy, drug and gene delivery, nanochemistry and photothermal imaging. This timely and self-contained text is suited to all researchers and graduate students working in plasmonics, nano-optics and thermal-induced processes at the nanoscale.
Covering interface science from a novel surface science perspective, this seven-volume handbook offers a comprehensive overview of both these and numerous other topics. The initial chapters treat basic fundamentals on such topics as vacuum technology, while general chapters -- where appropriate -- describe theoretical methods and provide models to help explain the respective phenomena, such as band structure calculations, chemisorption and segregation. Additionally, short references to more specialized methodology accompany the descriptions of the most important techniques. Ideal as a reference for scientists in the field, as well as an introduction to current methods for newcomers.
An overview of the optical effects in solids, addressing the physics of various materials and their response to electromagnetic radiation. The discussion includes metals, semiconductors, superconductors, and insulators. The book begins by introducing the dielectric function into Maxwell's macroscopic equations and finding their plane-wave solution. The physics governing the dielectric function of various materials is then covered, both classically and using basic quantum mechanics. Advanced topics covered include interacting electrons, the anomalous skin effect, anisotropy, magneto-optics, and inhomogeneous materials. Each subject begins with a connection to the basic physics of the particular solid, after which the measurable optical quantities are derived. It allows the reader to connect measurements (reflectance, optical conductivity and dielectric function) with the underlying physics of solids. Methods of analysing experimental data are addressed, making this an ideal resource for students and researchers interested in solid state physics, optics, and materials science.
Over the past twenty-five years, mathematical concepts associated with geometric phases have come to occupy a central place in our modern understanding of the physics of electrons in solids. These 'Berry phases' describe the global phase acquired by a quantum state as the Hamiltonian is changed. Beginning at an elementary level, this book provides a pedagogical introduction to the important role of Berry phases and curvatures, and outlines their great influence upon many key properties of electrons in solids, including electric polarization, anomalous Hall conductivity, and the nature of the topological insulating state. It focuses on drawing connections between physical concepts and provides a solid framework for their integration, enabling researchers and students to explore and develop links to related fields. Computational examples and exercises throughout provide an added dimension to the book, giving readers the opportunity to explore the central concepts in a practical and engaging way.
This is the first book on Quantum Field Theory which emphasizes the common aspects of particle physics and the theory of critical phenomena. This new fourth edition is completely revised, with more than 50% new material added to the OUP classic.
This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state and nanostructure physics is constantly growing as a field of study where the fascinating quantum world emerges and otherwise imaginary things can become real, engineered with increasing creativity and control: from tinier and faster technologies realizing quantum information concepts, to understanding of the fundamental laws of Physics. Elements of Solid State Physics and of Crystalline Nanostructures will offer the reader an enjoyable insight into the complex concepts of solid state physics.
This concise and systematic account of the current state of this new branch of astrophysics presents the theoretical foundations of plasma astrophysics, magneto-hydrodynamics and coronal magnetic structures, taking into account the full range of available observation techniques -- from radio to gamma. The book discusses stellar loops during flare energy releases, MHD waves and oscillations, plasma instabilities and heating and charged particle acceleration. Current trends and developments in MHD seismology of solar and stellar coronal plasma systems are also covered, while recent progress is presented in the observational study of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares with radio, optical, X and gamma rays. In addition, the authors investigate the origin of coherent radio emission from stellar loops, paying special attention to their fine structure. For advanced students and specialists in astronomy, as well as theoretical and plasma physics.
This book bridges the gap between general plasma physics lectures and the real world problems in MHD stability. In order to support the understanding of concepts and their implication, it refers to real world problems such as toroidal mode coupling or nonlinear evolution in a conceptual and phenomenological approach. Detailed mathematical treatment will involve classical linear stability analysis and an outline of more recent concepts such as the ballooning formalism. Accompanying Maple files (see Wiley?s homepage) show approaches to mathematical problem that are analytically not treatable. The book is based on lectures that the author has given to Master and PhD students in Fusion Plasma Physics. Due its strong link to experimental results in MHD instabilities, the book is also of use to senior researchers in the field, i.e. experimental physicists and engineers in fusion reactor science. The volume is organized in three parts. It starts with an introduction to the MHD equations, a section on toroidal equilibrium (tokamak and stellarator), and on linear stability analysis. Starting from there, the ideal MHD stability of the tokamak configuration will be treated in the second part which is subdivided into current driven and pressure driven MHD. This includes many examples with reference to experimental results for important MHD instabilities such as kinks and their transformation to RWMs, infernal modes, peeling modes, ballooning modes and their relation to ELMs. Finally the coverage is completed by a chapter on resistive stability explaining reconnection and island formation. Again, examples from recent tokamak MHD such as sawteeth, CTMs, NTMs and their relation to disruptions are extensively discussed.
With ninety per cent of visible matter in the universe existing in the plasma state, an understanding of magnetohydrodynamics is essential for anyone looking to understand solar and astrophysical processes, from stars to accretion discs and galaxies; as well as laboratory applications focused on harnessing controlled fusion energy. This introduction to magnetohydrodynamics brings together the theory of plasma behavior with advanced topics including the applications of plasma physics to thermonuclear fusion and plasma- astrophysics. Topics covered include streaming and toroidal plasmas, nonlinear dynamics, modern computational techniques, incompressible plasma turbulence and extreme transonic and relativistic plasma flows. The numerical techniques needed to apply magnetohydrodynamics are explained, allowing the reader to move from theory to application and exploit the latest algorithmic advances. Bringing together two previous volumes: Principles of Magnetohydrodynamics and Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, and completely updated with new examples, insights and applications, this volume constitutes a comprehensive reference for students and researchers interested in plasma physics, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion.
Adopting a novel approach, this book provides a unique "molecular
perspective" on plasmonics, concisely presenting the fundamentals
and applications in a way suitable for beginners entering this hot
field as well as for experienced researchers and
Microfluidics is a young and rapidly expanding scientific
discipline, which deals with fluids and solutions in miniaturized
systems, the so-called lab-on-a-chip systems. It has applications
in chemical engineering, pharmaceutics, biotechnology and medicine.
As the lab-on-a-chip systems grow in complexity, a proper
theoretical understanding becomes increasingly important.
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