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In crystal chemistry and crystal physics, the relations between the symmetry groups (space groups) of crystalline solids are of special importance. Part 1 of this book presents the necessary mathematical foundations and tools: the fundamentals of crystallography with special emphasis on symmetry, the theory of the crystallographic groups, and the formalisms of the needed crystallographic computations. Part 2 gives an insight into applications to problems in crystal chemistry. With the aid of numerous examples, it is shown how crystallographic group theory can be used to make evident relationships between crystal structures, to set up a systematic order in the huge amount of known crystal structures, to predict crystal structures, to analyse phase transitions and topotactic reactions in the solid state, to understand the formation of domains and twins in crystals, and to avoid errors in crystal structure determinations. A broad range of end-of-chapter exercises offers the possibility to apply the learned material. Worked-out solutions to the exercises can be found at the end of the book.
This is the third volume in a four-part series on Fluid Dynamics: PART 1: Classical Fluid Dynamics PART 2: Asymptotic Problems of Fluid Dynamics PART 3: Boundary Layers PART 4: Hydrodynamic Stability Theory The series is designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of fluid dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The notion of the boundary layer was introduced by Prandtl (1904) to describe thin viscous layers that form on a rigid body surface in high-Reynolds-number flows. Part 3 of this series begins with the classical theory of the boundary-layer flows, including the Blasius boundary layer on a flat plate and the Falkner-Skan solutions for the boundary layer on a wedge surface. However, the main focus is on recent results of the theory that have not been presented in texbooks before. These are based on the so-called "triple-deck theory" that have proved to be invaluable in describing various fluid-dynamic phenomena, including the boundary-layer separation from a rigid body surface.
Offering a fresh viewpoint on phase changes and the thermodynamics of materials, this textbook covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of the most important phase transitions in materials science, spanning classical metallurgy through to nanoscience and quantum phase transitions. Clear, concise and complete explanations rigorously address transitions from the atomic scale up, providing the quantitative concepts, analytical tools and methods needed to understand modern research in materials science. Topics are grouped according to complexity, ensuring that students have a solid grounding in core topics before they begin to tackle more advanced material, and are accompanied by numerous end-of-chapter problems. With explanations firmly rooted in the context of modern advances in electronic structure and statistical mechanics, and developed from classroom teaching, this book is the ideal companion for graduate students and researchers in materials science, condensed matter physics, solid state science, and physical chemistry.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of research on environmentally friendly insulating gases, in response to the urgent calls for developing alternatives to SF6 due to the increasing awareness of the threat it poses as a greenhouse gas. It covers gas dielectrics, SF6 and its mixtures, and potential alternative gases, providing fundamental information on gas discharge and gas insulation and especially focusing on the development of new environmentally friendly insulating gases over the last decade. The book begins by describing the insulating and arcing characteristics of SF6, followed by an introduction to the gas dielectrics performance of SF6 gas mixtures with buffer gases. The latest findings on new environmentally friendly insulating gases are described in detail, and suggestions for practical application are also provided. Graduate students and teachers involved in high-voltage and insulation engineering can use the book as teaching material. Researchers working in plasma science, laser action and related applied physics fields can also benefit from the book's analytical approach and detailed data; engineers from the fields of electric power operation systems and electrical manufacturing will find it a valuable reference work for solving practical problems.
The second edition of a modern introduction to the chemistry and physics of solids. This textbook takes a unique integrated approach designed to appeal to both science and engineering students.
"Review of 1st edition"
"an extremely wide-ranging, useful book that is accessible to anyone with a firm grasp of high school science...this is an outstanding and affordable resource for the lifelong learner or current student." Choice, 2005
The book provides an introduction to the chemistry and physics of solids that acts as a foundation to courses in materials science, engineering, chemistry, and physics. It is equally accessible to both engineers and scientists, through its more scientific approach, whilst still covering the material essential to engineers.
This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g. batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, lasers, graphene and graphene electronics, carbon nanotubes, and the Fukashima nuclear disaster.
The book is carefully structured into self-contained bite-sized chapters to enhance student understanding and questions have been designed to reinforce the concepts presented.
The supplementary website includes Powerpoint slides and a host of additional problems and solutions.
The fundamental principle of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics were introduced by Wang in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Due to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has non-central symmetry in materials, such as the wurtzite structured ZnO, GaN and InN, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a stress. Owing to the simultaneous possession of piezoelectricity and semiconductor properties, the piezopotential created in the crystal has a strong effect on the carrier transport at the interface/junction. Piezotronics is for devices fabricated using the piezopotential as a "gate" voltage to control charge carrier transport at a contact or junction. The piezo-phototronic effect uses the piezopotential to control the carrier generation, transport, separation and/or recombination for improving the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as photon detector, solar cell and LED. The functionality offered by piezotroics and piezo-phototronics are complimentary to CMOS technology. There is an effective integration of piezotronic and piezo-phototronic devices with silicon based CMOS technology. Unique applications can be found in areas such as human-computer interfacing, sensing and actuating in nanorobotics, smart and personalized electronic signatures, smart MEMS/NEMS, nanorobotics and energy sciences. This book introduces the fundamentals of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics and advanced applications. It gives guidance to researchers, engineers and graduate students.
Solid State Physics: An Introduction to Theory presents an intermediate quantum approach to the properties of solids. Through this lens, the text explores different properties, such as lattice, electronic, elastic, thermal, dielectric, magnetic, semiconducting, superconducting and optical and transport properties, along with the structure of crystalline solids. The work presents the general theory for most of the properties of crystalline solids, along with the results for one-, two- and three-dimensional solids in particular cases. It also includes a brief description of emerging topics, such as the quantum hall effect and high superconductivity. Building from fundamental principles and requiring only a minimal mathematical background, the book includes illustrative images and solved problems in all chapters to support student understanding.
This book deals with those properties of non-equilibrium soft matter that deviate greatly from the bulk properties as a result of nanoscale confinement.The ultimate physical origin of these confinement effects is not yet fully understood. At the state of the art, the discussion on confinement effects focuses on equilibrium properties, finite size effects and interfacial interactions. However this is a limited vision which does not fully capture the peculiar behaviour of soft matter under confinement and some exotic phenomena that are displayed. This volume will be organized in the following three main themes. Equilibration and physical aging: treating non-equilibrium via the formal methodology of statistical physics in bulk, we analyse physical origin of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer. We then focus on the impact of nanoconfinement on the equilibration of glasses of soft matter (a process of tremendous technological interest, commonly known as physical aging), comparing the latest trends of polymers in experiments, simulations with those of low-molecular weight glass formers. Irreversible adsorption: the formation of stable adsorbed layers occurs at timescales much larger than the time necessary to equilibrate soft matter in bulk. Recent experimental evidence show a strong correlation between the behaviour of polymers under confinement and the presence of a layer irreversibly adsorbed onto the substrate. This correlation hints at the possibility to tailor the properties of ultrathin films by controlling the adsorption kinetics. The book reports physical aspects of irreversible chain adsorption, such as the dynamics, structure, morphology, and crystallization of adsorbed layers. Glass transition and material properties: this section of the book focuses on the spread of absolute values in materials properties of confined systems, when measured by different experimental and computation techniques and a new method to quantify the effects of confinement in thin films and nanocomposites independently on the investigation procedure will be presented.
Photonics is a key technology of this century. The combination of photonics and silicon technology is of great importance because of the potentiality of coupling electronics and optical functions on a single chip. Many experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to understand and design the photonic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Generation of light in silicon is a challenging perspective in the field; however, the issue of light-emitting devices does not limit the activity in the field. Research is also focused on light modulators, optical waveguides and interconnectors, optical amplifiers, detectors, memory elements, photonic crystals, etc. A particularly important task of silicon nanostructures is to generate electrical energy from solar light. Understanding the optical properties of silicon-based materials is central in designing photonic components. It is not possible to control the optical properties of nanoparticles without fundamental information on their microscopic structure, which explains a large number of theoretical works on this subject. Many fundamental and practical problems should be solved in order to develop this technology. In addition to open fundamental questions, it is even more difficult to develop the known experimental results towards practical realization. However, the world market for silicon photonics is expected to be huge; thus, more research activity in the field of silicon nanophotonics is expected in the future. This book describes different aspects of silicon nanophotonics, from fundamental issues to practical devices. The second edition is essentially different from the book published in 2008. Eight chapters of the first edition are not included in the new book, because the recent progress on those topics has not been large enough. Instead, seven new chapters appear. The other eight chapters are essentially modified to describe recent achievements in the field.
Reviews in Plasmonics 2015, the second volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.
Volume 43 of Group III deals with crystallographic data of both intermetallic and classical inorganic compounds, thus forming an update of the former Landolt-Bornstein volumes III/6 (Structure Data of Elements and Intermetallic Phases) and III/7 (Crystal Structure Data of Inorganic Compounds). It does not include compounds that contain C-H bonds. Moreover, in contrast to the earlier edition the present volume presents the data in a different, more modern arrangement - known crystal structures are combined in groups according to their type of structure; each structure type is therefore represented by a complete set of crystallographic data holding for all isotypic structures, with the data comprising space group, cell parameters and atom coordinates. Remarks, descriptions and figures are provided where necessary. The present subvolume A11, which utilizes the databases TYPIX and Pauling file, forms theeleventh contribution to volume 43, which is going to be published in a series of subvolumes. Subvolumes A1 - A10 are already available. Also available on: Springermaterials.com
Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control electronics, scientific applications, and results. One of the fastest growing applications is signal sensing, especially wavefront sensing for adaptive optics and fringe tracking for interferometry, which is important for long-baseline optical interferometry. The coherence time of the atmosphere is a highly variable parameter. Depending upon the high velocity wind, it varies from <1 ms to 0.1 s. The exposure times are to be selected accordingly, to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, as well as to freeze the fringe pattern. A large-format photon-counting system, which is an essential tool in the application of optical interferometric imaging, allows accurate photon centroiding and provides the dynamic range needed for measurements of source characteristics. The advent of high-quantum efficiency photon-counting systems vastly increases the sensitivity of high-resolution imaging techniques. Such systems raise the hope of making diffraction-limited images of objects as faint as ~15-16 m_v (visual magnitude). This book deals with the fundamentals of the important aspects of high-resolution imaging, such as electromagnetic radiations, particularly, optical wavelengths and their distortions due to optical elements and Earth's atmosphere while passing through a detector; semiconductor physics; lasers; fiber optics; photon-detection process; photodetectors; charge-transfer devices; photon-counting devices in visible wavelength; radiation detectors in infrared wavelengths; and detecting systems for high energies.
Quantum computers, though not yet available on the market, will revolutionize the future of information processing. Quantum computers for special purposes like quantum simulators are already within reach. The physics of ultracold atoms, ions and molecules offer unprecedented possibilities of control of quantum many body systems and novel possibilities of applications to quantum information processing and quantum metrology. Particularly fascinating is the possibility of using ultracold atoms in lattices to simulate condensed matter or even high energy physics. This book provides a complete and comprehensive overview of ultracold lattice gases as quantum simulators. It opens up an interdisciplinary field involving atomic, molecular and optical physics, quantum optics, quantum information, condensed matter and high energy physics. The book includes some introductory chapters on basic concepts and methods, and then focuses on the physics of spinor, dipolar, disordered, and frustrated lattice gases. It reviews in detail the physics of artificial lattice gauge fields with ultracold gases. The last part of the book covers simulators of quantum computers. After a brief course in quantum information theory, the implementations of quantum computation with ultracold gases are discussed, as well as our current understanding of condensed matter from a quantum information perspective.
Silicon Photonics: Part II, Volume 100 in the Semiconductors and Semimetals series, highlights new advances in the field, with this updated volume presenting the latest developments as discussed by esteemed leaders in the field silicon photonics. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Represents the latest release in the Semiconductors and Semimetals series Includes the latest information on Silicon Photonics
Intended for advanced students of physics, chemistry and related disciplines, this text treats the quantum theory of atoms and ions within the framework of self-consistent fields. Data needed for the analysis of collisions and other atomic processes are also included.
This book explains the ideas and techniques of statistical mechanics-the theory of condensed matter-in a simple and progressive way. The conceptual ideas underlying the subject are explained carefully, and the mathematical ideas are developed in parallel to give a coherent overall view. In this second edition, slightly more advanced material on statistical mechanics is introduced, material which students should study in an undergraduate course. It contains three more chapters on phase transitions at an appropriate level for an undergraduate student.
This book provides a practical approach to consolidate one's acquired knowledge or to learn new concepts in solid state physics through solving problems. It contains 300 problems on various subjects of solid state physics. The problems in this book can be used as homework assignments in an introductory or advanced course on solid state physics for undergraduate or graduate students.
It can also serve as a desirable reference book to solve typical problems and grasp mathematical techniques in solid state physics. In practice, it is regarded fascinating and rewarding to learn a new idea or technique through solving a real challenging problem than through reading only. In this aspect, this book is not a plain collection of problems but it presents a large number of problem-solving ideas and procedures, some of which are valuable to practitioners in condensed matter physics.
The superb book describes the modern theory of the magnetic properties of solids. Starting from the fundamental principles, this copiously illustrated volume outlines the theory of magnetic behaviour, describes, experimental techniques, and discusses current research topics. The book is intended for final year undergraduate students and graduate students in the physical sciences.
The fifth edition of this widely acclaimed work has been reissued as part of the Oxford Classic Texts series. The book includes a clear exposition of general topics concerning the structures of solids, and a systematic description of the structural chemistry of elements and their compounds. The book is divided into two parts. Part I deals with a number of general topics, including the properties of polyhedra, the nature and symmetry of repeating patterns, and the ways in which spheres, of the same or different sizes, can be packed together. In Part II the structural chemistry of the elements is described systematically, arranged according to the groups of the Periodic Table.
The aim of this book is to review recent achievements in the theoretical investigations of the electronic structure, optical, magneto-optical (MO), and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) properties of compounds and Multilayered structures. Chapter 1 of this book is of an introductory character and presents the theoretical foundations of the band theory of solids such as the density functional theory for ground state properties of solids including local density approximation (LDA). It also presents some modifications to the LDA, such as gradient correction, self-interaction correction, LDA+U method, orbital polarization correction, GW approximation, and dynamical mean- field theory. The description of the magneto-optical effects and linear response theory are also presented. The book describes the MO properties for a number of 3d materials, such as elemental ferromagnetic metals (Fe, Co and Ni) and paramagnetic metals in external magnetic fields (Pd and Pt), some important 3d compounds such as XPt3 (X=V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co), Heusler alloys, chromium spinel chalcogenides, MnB and strongly correlated magnetite Fe304. theoretical investigations of the electronic structure, optical and MO properties of transition metal multilayered structures (MLS). The book presents also the MO properties of f band ferromagnetic materials: Tm, Nd, Sm, Ce and La monochalcogenides, some important Yb compounds, SmB6 and Nd3S4, UFe2, U3X4 (X=P, As, Sb, Bi, Se and Te), UCu2P2, UCuP2, UCuAs2, UAsSe, URhA1, UGa2 and UPd3. Within the total group of alloys and compounds, we discuss their MO spectra in relationship to: the spin-orbit coupling strength, the magnitude of the local magnetic moment, the degree of hybridization in the bonding, the half-metallic character, or, equivalently, the Fermi level filling of the bandstructure, the intraband plasma frequency, and the influence of the crystal structure. The last chapter results recent theoretical investigations on the MXCD in various representative transition metal 4f and 5f systems are presented.
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