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This monograph assesses in depth the application of recursive Bayesian filters in structural health monitoring. Although the methods and algorithms used here are well established in the field of automatic control, their application in the realm of civil engineering has to date been limited. The monograph is therefore intended as a reference for structural and civil engineers who wish to conduct research in this field. To this end, the main notions underlying the families of Kalman and particle filters are scrutinized through explanations within the text and numerous numerical examples. The main limitations to their application in monitoring of high-rise buildings are discussed and a remedy based on a synergy of reduced order modeling (based on proper orthogonal decomposition) and Bayesian estimation is proposed. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via pseudo-experimental evaluations.
This textbook offers a superb introduction to theoretical and practical soil mechanics. Special attention is given to the risks of failure in civil engineering, and themes covered include stresses in soils, groundwater flow, consolidation, testing of soils, and stability of slopes. Readers will learn the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, and the most important methods of determining soil parameters both in the laboratory and in situ. The basic principles of applied mechanics, that are frequently used, are offered in the appendices. The author's considerable experience of teaching soil mechanics is evident in the many features of the book: it is packed with supportive color illustrations, helpful examples and references. Exercises with answers enable students to self-test their understanding and encourage them to explore further through additional online material. Numerous simple computer programs are provided online as Electronic Supplementary Material. As a soil mechanics textbook, this volume is ideally suited to supporting undergraduate civil engineering students. "I am really delighted that your book is now published. When I "discovered" your course a few years ago, I was elated to have finally found a book that immediately resonated with me. Your approach to teaching soil mechanics is precise, rigorous, clear, concise, or in other words "crisp." My colleagues who share the teaching of Soil Mechanics 1 and 2 (each course is taught every semester) at the UMN have also adopted your book." Emmanuel Detournay Professor at Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA
Hailed by some as the Eighth Wonder of the World when it opened in 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge is one of the world's most recognizable and beloved icons. For over one hundred years it has excited and fascinated with stories of ingenuity and heroism and it has been endorsed as a flawless symbol of municipal improvement and a prime emblem of American technological progress. Despite its impressive physical presence, however, Brooklyn's grand old bridge is much more than a testament of engineering and architectural achievement. As Richard Haw shows in this first-of-its-kind cultural history, the Brooklyn Bridge owes as much to the imagination of the public as it does to the historical events and technical prowess that were integral to its construction. Bringing together more than sixty images of the bridge that, over the years, have graced postcards, magazine covers and book jackets and appeared in advertisements, cartoons, films and photographs, Haw traces the diverse and sometimes jarring ways in which this majestic structure has been received, adopted and interpreted as an American idea. Haw's account is not a history of how the bridge was made, but rather of what people have made of the Brooklyn Bridge--in film, music, literature, art and politics--from its opening ceremonies to the blackout of 2003. Classic accounts from such writers and artists as H. G. Wells, Charles Reznikoff, Hart Crane, Lewis Mumford, Joseph Pennell, Walker Evans and Georgia O'Keeffe, among many others, present the bridge as a deserted, purely aestheticized romantic ideal, while others, including Henry James, Joseph Stella, Yun Gee, Ernest Poole, Alfred Kazin, Paul Auster and Don DeLillo, offer a counter-narrativeas they question not only the role of the bridge in American society, but its function as a profoundly public, communal place. Also included are never-before-published photographs by William Gedney and a discussion of Alexis Rockman's provocative new mural "Manifest Destiny. Drawing on hundreds of cultural artifacts, from the poignant, to the intellectual, to the downright quirky, "The Brooklyn Bridge sheds new light on topics such as ethnic and foreign responses to America, nationalism, memory, parade culture, commemoration, popular culture, and post-9/11 America icons. In the end, we realize that this impressive span is as culturally remarkable today as it was technologically and physically astounding in the nineteenth century.
Commercial Ship Surveying: On/Off Hire Condition Surveys and Bunker Surveys provides guidance on the complete survey process, what should be done to prepare, and what constitutes good practice, all completely detailed so that the process can be executed quickly and efficiently. In addition to the surveying process, the book describes supplementary topics, such as the vessels likely encountered, the gear and rigging involved, and the special techniques necessary. The book is well-researched, with plenty of practical examples and photographic references, explaining not only what is expected to happen during surveys, but also how marine surveyors and ships' officers are expected to perform, if, and when, they become involved with this work. Dedicated to detail, this book ensures that the reader clearly understands each step of the surveying process.
During the last decade, concrete technology has made an enormous advance through the introduction of self-compacting concrete. This application of nanotechnology in construction provides benefits from the perspective of materials technology and environmental protection and is presenting diverse opportunities to engineers and architects alike. Good quality concrete is compacted, traditionally by vibration. This book defines the key properties that make fresh concrete self-compacting and outlines test methods for its assessment. It covers the basic principles and underlying scientific theory, practical advice for production of SCC and its use in construction practice, and is illustrated by practical case studies and applications. All stages of the self-compacting concrete construction process are reviewed, from selection of materials, mix design and mixing process to transport, placing and finishing. The range of benefits offered go beyond fundamental aspects of concrete quality and productivity; it includes a major improvement in the health and safety of workers.Reductions of noise levels on construction sites, together with utilisation of inorganic industrial wastes such as quarry dusts are additional benefits. Information necessary for maximising the benefits offered by self-compacting concrete is provided, with an emphasis on an integrated approach, in which SCC is already selected in the design stage. Novel structural elements become feasible, in part due to the facility to pump under pressure, and management of the construction process can be adjusted to minimise costs. Significant completed projects are described which illustrate the potential benefits and key aspects of the new self-compacting concrete technology in practice.
This code of practice, long established as a leading publication for the construction industry, provides an authoritative guide to essential principles and good practice in estimating for building work. The seventh edition includes new material on estimating strategy, tendering, procedures and best practice, as well as the build-up of unit rates of cost, overheads and profit, and e-commerce.
Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials presents the state-of-the-art development in: - Structural Engineering - Road & Bridge Engineering - Geotechnical Engineering - Architecture & Urban Planning - Transportation Engineering - Hydraulic Engineering - Engineering Management - Computational Mechanics - Construction Technology - Building Materials - Environmental Engineering - Computer Simulation - CAD/CAE Emphasis was given to basic methodologies, scientific development and engineering applications. Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials will be useful to professionals, academics, and Ph.D. students interested in the above mentioned areas.
This full-colour book contains the state-of-the-art knowledge and latest trends and developments in architectural acoustics research. This reference will play a fundamental role in the sustainable progress of architectural acoustics research and practical applications. World-renowned experts in the field from both the research and consulting communities contributed to the 15 chapters covering a wide range of sub-fields including computational modelling, noise, vibration controls, and environmental acoustics in the built environment and around buildings. With information not found anywhere else, this handbook is geared for architectural acoustics research, education in academia, and practical applications among acoustics consultants and industry engineers. It is divided into two Parts: Architectural Acoustics Essentials and Architectural Acoustics Practice.
This book captures the state of the art of the durability of fibre-reinforced strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC) and the durability of structures or structural elements manufactured in full or in part with this class of modern construction materials. Highlights include: - Reflection on durability performance of existing applications in patch repair, a water reservoir and highway bridges. - Guidelines for tensile testing towards durability assessment of cracked SHCC. - New crack pattern related ingress rate indices for water and chloride into cracked SHCC. - The influence of low and high temperatures on SHCC durability performance. - The mechanism of crack control reducing ASR and corrosion rate, and results on chloride-induced corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement. - Self-healing of cracks in SHCC. - A conceptual durability design framework for SHCC and R/SHCC structures and members.
Steve Hencher presents a broad and fresh view on the importance of engineering geology to civil engineering projects.
Practical Engineering Geology provides an introduction to the way that projects are managed, designed and constructed and the ways that the engineering geologist can contribute to cost-effective and safe project achievement. The need for a holistic view of geological materials, from soil to rock, and of geological history is emphasised. Chapters address key aspects of
The book is illustrated throughout with case examples and should prove useful to practising engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers and to MSc level students of engineering geology and other geotechnical subjects.
Functions as a Day-to-Day Resource for Practicing Engineers... The hugely useful Structural Engineer's Pocket Book is now overhauled and revised in line with the Eurocodes. It forms a comprehensive pocket reference guide for professional and student structural engineers, especially those taking the IStructE Part 3 exam. With stripped-down basic material-tables, data, facts, formulae, and rules of thumb-it is directly usable for scheme design by structural engineers in the office, in transit, or on site. ...And a Core Reference for Students It brings together data from many different sources, and delivers a compact source of job-simplifying and time-saving information at an affordable price. It acts as a reliable first point of reference for information that is needed on a daily basis. This third edition is referenced throughout to the structural Eurocodes. After giving general information and details on actions on structures, it runs through reinforced concrete, steel, timber, and masonry. Provides essential data on steel, concrete, masonry, timber, and other main materials Pulls together material from a variety of sources for everyday work Serves as a first point of reference for structural and civil engineers A core structural engineering book, Structural Engineer's Pocket Book: Eurocodes, Third Edition benefits both students and industry professionals.
This text deals with the principles, analysis/validation and design, testing and commissioning of the engineering elements associated with the aerodynamics and ventilation of both road and rail tunnels.
Strengthening of Concrete Structures Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP): Design, Construction and Practical Applications presents a best practice guide on the structural design and strengthening of bridge structures using advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. The book briefly covers the basic concepts of FRP materials and composite mechanics, while focusing on practical design and construction issues, including inspection and quality control, paying special attention to the differences in various design codes (US, Japan, and Europe) and recommendations. At present, several design guides from the US, Japan, and Europe are available. These guidelines are often inconsistent and do not cover all necessary design and inspection issues to the same degree of detail. This book provides a critical review and comparison of these guidelines, and then puts forward best practice recommendations, filling a significant gap in the literature, and serving as an important resource for engineers, architects, academics, and students interested in FRP materials and their structural applications. Written from a practitioner's point-of-view, it is a valuable design book for structural engineers all over the world.
An understanding of the mechanical properties of unsaturated soils is crucial for geotechnical engineers worldwide, as well as to those concerned with the interaction of structures with the ground. This book deals principally with fine-grained clays and silts, or soils containing coarser sand and gravel particles but with a significant percentage of fines.
The study of unsaturated soil is a practical subject, linking fundamental science to nature. Soils in general are inherently variable and their behaviour is not easy to analyse or predict, and unsaturated soils raise the complexity to a higher level. Even amongst practicing engineers, there is often lack of awareness of the intricacies of the subject. This book offers a perspective of unsaturated soils based on recent research and demonstrates how this dovetails with the general discipline of soil mechanics.
Following an introduction to the basic soil variables, the phases, the phase interactions and the relevance of soil structure, an up-to-date review of laboratory testing techniques is presented. This includes suction measurement and control techniques in triaxial cell testing. This is followed by an introduction to stress state variables, critical state and theoretical models in unsaturated soils.
A detailed description of the thermodynamic principles as applied to multi-phase materials under equilibrium conditions follows. These principles are then used to explore and develop a fundamental theoretical basis for analysing unsaturated soils. Soil structure is broken down into its component parts to develop equations describing the dual stress regime. The critical state strength and compression characteristics of unsaturated soils are examined and it is shown how the behaviour may be viewed as a three-dimensional model in dimensionless stress-volume space. The analysis is then extended to the work input into unsaturated soils and the development of conjugate stress, volumetric and strain-increment variables. These are used to examine the micromechanical behaviour of kaolin specimens subjected to triaxial shear strength tests and lead to observations not detectable by other means.
"Unsaturated Soils: A fundamental interpretation of soil behaviour" covers a rapidly advancing area of study, research and engineering practice and offers a deeper appreciation of the key characteristics of unsaturated soil. It provides students and researchers with a framework for understanding soil behaviour and demonstrates how to interpret experimental strength and compression data.provides engineers with a deeper appreciation of key characteristics of unsaturated soilscovers a rapidly advancing area of study, research and engineering practiceprovides students and researchers a framework for understanding soil behaviourshows how to interpret experimental data on strength and compressionthe limited number of books on the subject are all out of date
Spon's Mechanical and Electrical Services Price Book 2019 continues to be the most comprehensive and best annual services engineering price book currently available, providing detailed pricing information across the full range of mechanical and electrical services, together with higher-level costs for a diverse range of systems and different building applications. Use the access code inside the front cover of the book to get set up with an ebook of this 2019 edition on the VitalSource (R) Bookshelf platform. This versatile and powerful online data viewing package is available for use until the end of December 2019. In this 50th edition we have significantly updated the engineering features section and added a section on smart building technology. Along with the following new and significantly developed items: Tuneable white luminaires Wireless lighting control PV cells Battery storage systems All the standard features you have come to expect from SPON'S MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SERVICES PRICE BOOK are also included, considered essential for today's services cost professional: detailed materials prices, labour constants, labour costs and measured work prices for mechanical and electrical works, from above ground drainage to automatic transfer switches, and circuit breakers to sprinkler systems an extensive Approximate Estimating section for quick, rule-of-thumb pricing of mechanical or electrical installations, together with elemental services costs for different types and standard of buildings full details of wage rates, daywork and cost indices on a national and Central London basis an overhauled index and guidance notes updates, free of charge, two or three times a year - see inside for registration details. Updates are available online at www.pricebooks.co.uk ~Spon's Mechanical and Electrical Services Price Book 2019 continues to be the most comprehensive and best annual services engineering price book currently available, providing detailed pricing information across the full range of mechanical and electrical services, together with higher-level costs for a diverse range of systems and different building applications. Use the access code inside the front cover of the book to get set up with a VitalSource (R) ebook of this 2019 edition. This versatile and powerful online data viewing package is available for use until the end of December 2019. In this 50th edition we have significantly updated the engineering features section and added a section on smart building technology. Along with the following new and significantly developed items: - Tuneable white luminaires - Wireless lighting control - PV cells - Battery storage systems All the standard features you have come to expect from SPON'S MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SERVICES PRICE BOOK are also included, considered essential for today's services cost professional: * detailed materials prices, labour constants, labour costs and measured work prices for mechanical and electrical works, from above ground drainage to automatic transfer switches, and circuit breakers to sprinkler systems * an extensive Approximate Estimating section for quick, rule-of-thumb pricing of mechanical or electrical installations, together with elemental services costs for different types and standard of buildings * full details of wage rates, daywork and cost indices on a national and Central London basis. * an overhauled index and guidance notes * updates, free of charge, two or three times a year - see inside for registration details. Updates are available online at www.pricebooks.co.uk
The Kingdome, John ("Jack") Christiansen's best-known work, was the largest freestanding concrete dome in the world. Built amid public controversy, the multipurpose arena was designed to stand for a thousand years but was demolished in a great cloud of dust after less than a quarter century. Many know the fate of Seattle's iconic dome, but fewer are familiar with its innovative structural engineer, Jack Christensen (1927-2017), and his significant contribution to Pacific Northwest and modernist architecture. Christiansen designed more than a hundred projects in the region: public schools and gymnasiums, sculptural church spaces, many of the Seattle Center's 1962 World's Fair buildings, and the Museum of Flight's vast glass roof all reflect his expressive ideas. Inspired by Northwest topography and drawn to the region's mountains and profound natural landscapes, Christiansen employed hyperbolic paraboloid forms, barrel-vault structures, and efficient modular construction to echo and complement the forms he loved in nature. Notably, he became an enthusiastic proponent of using thin shell concrete-the Kingdome being the most prominent example-to create inexpensive, utilitarian space on a large scale. Tyler Sprague places Christiansen within a global cohort of thin shell engineer-designers, exploring the use of a remarkable structural medium known for its minimal use of material, architectually expressive forms, and long-span capability. Examining Christiansen's creative design and engineering work, Sprague, who interviewed Christiansen extensively, illuminates his legacy of graceful, distinctive concrete architectural forms, highlighting their lasting imprint on the region's built environment.
Construction innovation is an important but contested concept, both in industry practice and academic reflection and research. A fundamental reason for this is the nature of the construction industry itself: the industry and the value creation activities taking place there are multi-disciplinary, heterogeneous, distributed and often fragmented. This book takes a new approach to construction innovation, revealing different perspectives, set in a broader context. It coalesces multiple theoretical and practice-based views in order to stimulate reflection and to prepare the ground for further synthesis. By being clear, cogent and unambiguous on the most basic definitions, it can mobilise a plurality of perspectives on innovation to promote fresh thinking on how it can be studied, enabled, measured, and propagated across the industry. This book does not gloss over the real-life complexity of construction innovation. Instead, its authors look explicitly at the challenges that conceptual issues entail and by making their own position clear, they open up fresh intellectual space for reflection. Construction Innovation examines innovation from different positions and through different conceptual lenses to reveal the richness that the theoretical perspectives offer to our understanding of the way that the construction sector actors innovate at both project and organizational levels. The editors have brought together here leading scholars to deconstruct the concept of innovation and to discuss the merits of different perspectives, their commonalities and their diversity. The result is an invaluable sourcebook for those studying and leading innovation in the design, the building and the maintenance of our built environment.
Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability reviews the current state-of-the-art on the topic. In the introduction, the editors review the fundamental concepts of nature elements in the built environment, along with the strategies that are necessary for their inclusion in buildings and cities. Part One describes strategies for the urban environment, discussing urban ecosystems and ecosystem services, while Part Two covers strategies and technologies, including vertical greening systems, green roofs and green streets. Part Three covers the quantitative benefits, results, and issues and challenges, including energy performances and outdoor comfort, air quality improvement, acoustic performance, water management and biodiversity.
The identification of meso-scale phenomena - occurring between microscopic and continuum length scales - has been one of the most exciting developments in rock mechanics in the last decade. Meso-scale phenomena are considered as the bridge between the two length scales in understanding shear between material interfaces as well as particulate systems and in studying material response. Examples are the initiation of seismic slip along fault planes at great depths at rates nearing shock conditions, and the initiation and rapid runout of landslides near the earth's surface. Additionally, the basic physics of thermo-poro-mechanical coupling can be elucidated through a meso-scale mechanics approach as a means of understanding the loss of shearing resistance when water and heat are trapped inside almost impervious clay layers under great pressure. This book presents a collection of 21 current, peer-reviewed articles on shear physics at the meso-scale in earthquake and landslide mechanics, authored by leading international experts in the field. Contributions are grouped in 5 chapters, discussing (1) the dynamics of frictional slip, (2) fault gauge mechanics, (3) experimental fault zone mechanics, (4) granular shear and liquefaction, and (5) landslides' dynamics. This research area has broad applications to the fields of earth sciences and geoengineering, with immediate bearing on our understanding of both earthquake and landslide mechanics, two geological processes that pose great risk to man kind worldwide.
This volume contains the papers presented at the 9th International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, held in Granada, Spain, 13-17 August 2009. A state-of-the-art collection of articles on developments in rock blasting and explosives engineering, with contributions on rock characterization, explosives and initiation systems, blast design and monitoring, fragmentation assessment, numerical modeling, vibrations from blasting, environmental and economical aspects of rock blasting, and more. Containing unique knowledge, case studies, ideas and insights, this volume is must-have literature for researchers and practitioners in the field of explosives and blasting.
This second edition of Structural Mechanics is an expanded and revised successor to the highly successful first edition, which over the last ten years has become a widely adopted standard first year text. The addition of five new programmes, together with some updating of the original text, now means that this book covers most of the principles of structural mechanics taught in the first and second years of civil engineering degree courses. * Suitable for independent study or as a compliment to a traditional lecture-based course * Adopts a programmed learning format, with a focus on student-centred learning * Contains many examples, carefully constructed questions and graded practical problems, allowing the reader to work at their own pace, and assess their progress whilst gaining confidence in their ability to apply the principles of Structural Mechanics * Now covering the major part of the Structural Mechanics/Analysis syllabuses of most Civil Engineering degree courses up to second year level.
Aeroacoustics of Low Mach Number Flows: Fundamentals, Analysis, and Measurement provides a comprehensive treatment of sound radiation from subsonic flow over moving surfaces, which is the most widespread cause of flow noise in engineering systems. This includes fan noise, rotor noise, wind turbine noise, boundary layer noise, and aircraft noise. Beginning with fluid dynamics, the fundamental equations of aeroacoustics are derived and the key methods of solution are explained, focusing both on the necessary mathematics and physics. Fundamentals of turbulence and turbulent flows, experimental methods and numerous applications are also covered. The book is an ideal source of information on aeroacoustics for researchers and graduate students in engineering, physics, or applied math, as well as for engineers working in this field. Supplementary material for this book is provided by the authors on the website www.aeroacoustics.net. The website provides educational content designed to help students and researchers in understanding some of the principles and applications of aeroacoustics, and includes example problems, data, sample codes, course plans and errata. The website is continuously being reviewed and added to.
Footbridge Vibration Design presents new approaches, numerical tools and experimental tools for assessing and controlling pedestrian effects. Moreover, it includes a number of reference cases dealing with design and control. Focussed on the translation of these findings into practical recommendations, guidelines, codes and design tools for the design of new footbridges, it aims to set a standard for footbridge design. This book is intended for civil and mechanical engineers working on footbridges or related infrastructural projects.
This book provides rigorous foundations of applying modern computational mechanics to earthquake engineering. The scope covers the numerical analysis of earthquake wave propagation processes and the faulting processes, and also presents the most advanced numerical simulations of earthquake hazards and disasters that can take place in an urban area.Two new chapters included are advanced topics on high performance computing and for constructing an analysis model.This is the first book in earthquake engineering that explains the application of modern numerical computation (which includes high performance computing) to various engineering seismology problems.
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