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Laboratory and Field Testing is the second volume of the five-volume set Rock Mechanics and Engineering and contains nineteen chapters from key experts in the following fields: - Triaxial or True-triaxial Tests under Condition of Loading and Unloading; - Joint Tests; - Dynamic and Creep Tests; - Physical Modeling Tests; - Field Testing and URLs. The five-volume set "Comprehensive Rock Engineering", which was published in 1993, has had an important influence on the development of rock mechanics and rock engineering. Significant and extensive advances and achievements in these fields over the last 20 years now justify the publishing of a comparable, new compilation. Rock Mechanics and Engineering represents a highly prestigious, multi-volume work edited by Professor Xia-Ting Feng, with the editorial advice of Professor John A. Hudson. This new compilation offers an extremely wideranging and comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in rock mechanics and rock engineering and is composed of peer-reviewed, dedicated contributions by all the key experts worldwide. Key features of this set are that it provides a systematic, global summary of new developments in rock mechanics and rock engineering practices as well as looking ahead to future developments in the fields. Contributors are worldrenowned experts in the fields of rock mechanics and rock engineering, though younger, talented researchers have also been included. The individual volumes cover an extremely wide array of topics grouped under five overarching themes: Principles (Vol. 1), Laboratory and Field Testing (Vol. 2), Analysis, Modelling and Design (Vol. 3), Excavation, Support and Monitoring (Vol. 4) and Surface and Underground Projects (Vol. 5). This multi-volume work sets a new standard for rock mechanics and engineering compendia and will be the go-to resource for all engineering professionals and academics involved in rock mechanics and engineering for years to come.
ICE Textbooks provide clear, accurate and relevant information on the major principles of civil and structural engineering at a level suitable for undergraduate students worldwide. Divided into easily understandable modules, ICE Textbooks feature worked examples, practice questions and learning point summaries throughout. This textbook covers the concepts of major topics in soil mechanics through a simple, practical approach for easy learning within in a limited timeframe. Covering the principles and recent developments of topics such as soil classification and characteristics, consolidation and compressibility, shear strength, stresses and fluid flow, the book is extensively illustrated, including worked examples throughout and a summary of key learning points at the end of each chapter as well as self-assessment question and answer sections.
Sustainability of Construction Materials, Second Edition, explores an increasingly important aspect of construction. In recent years, serious consideration has been given to environmental and societal issues in the manufacturing, use, disposal, and recycling of construction materials. This book provides comprehensive and detailed analysis of the sustainability issues associated with these materials, mainly in relation to the constituent materials, processing, recycling, and lifecycle environmental impacts. The contents of each chapter reflect the individual aspects of the material that affect sustainability, such as the preservation and repair of timber, the use of cement replacements in concrete, the prevention and control of metal corrosion and the crucial role of adhesives in wood products.
Energy geostructures are a tremendous innovation in the field of foundation engineering and are spreading rapidly throughout the world. They allow the procurement of a renewable and clean source of energy which can be used for heating and cooling buildings. This technology couples the structural role of geostructures with the energy supply, using the principle of shallow geothermal energy. This book provides a sound basis in the challenging area of energy geostructures. The objective of this book is to supply the reader with an exhaustive overview on the most up-to-date and available knowledge of these structures. It details the procedures that are currently being applied in the regions where geostructures are being implemented. The book is divided into three parts, each of which is divided into chapters, and is written by the brightest engineers and researchers in the field. After an introduction to the technology as well as to the main effects induced by temperature variation on the geostructures, Part 1 is devoted to the physical modeling of energy geostructures, including in situ investigations, centrifuge testing and small-scale experiments. The second part includes numerical simulation results of energy piles, tunnels and bridge foundations, while also considering the implementation of such structures in different climatic areas. The final part concerns practical engineering aspects, from the delivery of energy geostructures through the development of design tools for their geotechnical dimensioning. The book concludes with a real case study. Contents Part 1. Physical Modeling of Energy Piles at Different Scales 1. Soil Response under Thermomechanical Conditions Imposed by Energy Geostructures, Alice Di Donna and Lyesse Laloui. 2. Full-scale In Situ Testing of Energy Piles, Thomas Mimouni and Lyesse Laloui. 3. Observed Response of Energy Geostructures, Peter Bourne-Webb. 4. Behavior of Heat-Exchanger Piles from Physical Modeling, Anh Minh Tang, Jean-Michel Pereira, Ghazi Hassen and Neda Yavari. 5. Centrifuge Modeling of Energy Foundations, John S. McCartney. Part 2. Numerical Modeling of Energy Geostructures 6. Alternative Uses of Heat-Exchanger Geostructures, Fabrice Dupray, Thomas Mimouni and Lyesse Laloui. 7. Numerical Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Thermoactive Piles Under Cyclic Axial Loading, Maria E. Suryatriyastuti, Hussein Mroueh , Sebastien Burlon and Julien Habert. 8. Energy Geostructures in Unsaturated Soils, John S. McCartney, Charles J.R. Coccia , Nahed Alsherif and Melissa A. Stewart. 9. Energy Geostructures in Cooling-Dominated Climates, Ghassan Anis Akrouch, Marcelo Sanchez and Jean-Louis Briaud. 10. Impact of Transient Heat Diffusion of a Thermoactive Pile on the Surrounding Soil, Maria E. Suryatriyastuti, Hussein Mroueh and Sebastien Burlon. 11. Ground-Source Bridge Deck De-icing Systems Using Energy Foundations, C. Guney Olgun and G. Allen Bowers. Part 3. Engineering Practice 12. Delivery of Energy Geostructures, Peter Bourne-Webb with contributions from Tony Amis, Jean-Baptiste Bernard, Wolf Friedemann, Nico Von Der Hude, Norbert Pralle, Veli Matti Uotinen and Bernhard Widerin. 13. Thermo-Pile: A Numerical Tool for the Design of Energy Piles, Thomas Mimouni and Lyesse Laloui. 14. A Case Study: The Dock Midfield of Zurich Airport, Daniel Pahud. About the Authors Lyesse Laloui is Chair Professor, Head of the Soil Mechanics, Geoengineering and CO2 storage Laboratory and Director of Civil Engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. Alice Di Donna is a researcher at the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The physical upgrading of the existing domestic and industrial building stock to improve energy performance is an essential part of a transition to a low carbon society. Successfully retrofitting buildings to improve energy performance is not simply a technological challenge, it is a complex socio-technical problem that needs to be addressed in a co-ordinated way, utilising skills and knowledge from a range of industrial and academic backgrounds. Within both the academic and practitioner communities there is a growing understanding of the scale and nature of the problem, one which encompasses issues such as policy and regulation, people and behaviour, supply chain and process, as well as issues of technology. Retrofitting the Built Environment discusses the factors that impact on the retrofit problem, providing a clear analysis of the main issues that the academic and industrial communities must engage with to resolve the problems of domestic energy and retrofit. The book is divided into four broad sections: * Understanding the Problem * Policy and Regulation * Implementing and Evaluating Retrofit * People and Communities Academic and industrial researchers, policy makers and industry practitioners will find each section covers a mix of policy, technical and social science issues, presented by both academic and industry authors, giving a wide and detailed perspective of the issue. The Editors Will Swan is a Senior Lecturer in Buildings Retrofit in the School of the Built Environment at the University of Salford. He leads a number of projects in the field of sustainable retrofit, covering a number of topics including monitoring, behaviour and retrofit project delivery, as part of Salford s Applied Energy and Buildings Research Group. He sits on the Greater Manchester Buildings Group and also is Chair of the Retrofit Innovation Group. Philip Brown is Director and Senior Research Fellow at the Salford Housing & Urban Studies Unit (SHUSU) at the University of Salford. He is the lead academic on end-use energy demand within the Applied Energy and Buildings Research Group, and sits on Greater Manchester s Low Carbon Economic Area group for Customer Engagement.
Immersed tunnels have been around for more than a century but remain a relatively unknown form of tunnel construction. For waterway crossings they are an effective alternative to bored tunnels and bridges, particularly in shallower waters, soft alluvial soils, and earthquake-prone areas. Successful implementation requires a thorough understanding of a wide variety of civil engineering disciplines and construction techniques. Immersed Tunnels brings together in one volume all aspects of immersed tunnels from initial feasibility and planning, through design and construction, to operation and maintenance.
Get Valuable Insights into Immersed Tunnel Engineering from Expert Practitioners
The book presents design and construction principles to give a full appreciation not only of what is involved in an immersed tunnel scheme but also how potential problems are dealt with and overcome. It examines important factors that have to be considered, particularly environmental implications and mechanical and electrical systems. It also gives practical examples of how specific techniques have been used in various projects and highlights issues that designers and constructors should be aware of. In addition, the book discusses operation and maintenance and reviews contractual matters. These aspects are described from the viewpoint of two experienced practitioners in the field who have a wealth of experience on immersed tunnel projects worldwide.
As tunnels are increasingly being adopted as engineering solutions around the world, this unique and extensively illustrated reference explores the wide variety of immersed tunnel techniques available to designers and constructors. It provides essential insight for anyone involved, or seeking to be involved, with immersed tunnel projects.
Estimators need to understand the consequences of entering into a contract, often defined by complex conditions and documents, as well as to appreciate the technical requirements of the project. Estimating and Tendering for Construction Work, 5th edition, explains the job of the estimator through every stage, from early cost studies to the creation of budgets for successful tenders. This new edition reflects recent developments in the field and covers: new tendering and procurement methods the move from basic estimating to cost-planning and the greater emphasis placed on partnering and collaborative working the New Rules of Measurement (NRM1 and 2), and examines ways in which practicing estimators are implementing the guidance emerging technologies such as BIM (Building Information Modelling) and estimating systems which can interact with 3D design models With the majority of projects procured using design-and-build contracts, this edition explains the contractor's role in setting costs, and design statements, to inform and control the development of a project's design. Clearly-written and illustrated with examples, notes and technical documentation, this book is ideal for students on construction-related courses at HNC/HND and Degree levels. It is also an important source for associated professions and estimators at the outset of their careers.
Special Topics in Structural Dynamics, Volume 6: Proceedings of the 31st IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2013, the sixth volume of seven from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on: Teaching Experimental & Analytical Structural Dynamics Sensors & Instrumentation Aircraft/Aerospace Bio-Dynamics Sports Equipment Dynamics Advanced ODS & Stress Estimation Shock & Vibration Full-Field Optical Measurements & Image Analysis Structural Health Monitoring Operational Modal Analysis Wind Turbine Dynamics Rotating Machinery Finite Element Methods Energy Harvesting
This book investigates the evolution process of rockburst based on the energy dissipation theory and proposes appropriate active prevention and control technologies. It discusses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) generated by coal rock fractures as a measurement of the amount of dissipated energy, and the use of EMR to experimentally observe the time domain characteristics of energy dissipation during coal rock failure processes. It then proposes the concept of the rockburst activity domain system (RADS), establishes a dynamic pressure model of rockburst, and describes the energy criterion for rockburst instability. Lastly, it presents two waterjet cutting-based cases of pressure relief and rockburst prevention. The book serves as a reference resource for mine safety workers, engineering technicians, scientists, graduate students and undergraduates engaged in research on dynamic hazards such as rockburst..
This monograph analyses experimental and theoretical investigations in the field of reinforced concrete structures and elements from the viewpoint of a new mini-max principle and application of this principle for calculation of forces, strengths and critical buckling loads in RC shells, columns, plates, etc. The basis of the mini-max principle was developed during solving a problem of finding an RC shell load bearing capacity via a kinematic method. Forming the internal forces' fields at the plastic stage of the structure leads to a problem, related to interaction between the normal forces and bending moments, but at this stage the compressed shell section has an unknown eccentricity. Therefore an additional equation should be found for separating the above-mentioned forces. The following idea was proposed: the section compressed zone depth (static parameter) should be selected so that the maximum load bearing capacity of the structure is realized simultaneously with minimizing the external load the failure zone dimension (kinematic parameter). Development of this idea resulted in formulating the mini-max principle. The essence of this principle is that real load bearing capacity of the structure is calculated (without under- and over-estimation). With this aim it is proposed to use in the same calculation both extreme features of failure load. At the same time just one method is used (static or kinematic). Thus, the mini-max principle became a way for realizing the unity theorem of the limit equilibrium method, which joints the static and kinematic approaches. The mini-max principle enabled to solve some problems in load bearing capacity of structures that had no solutions or were solved approximately. Additionally, the principle was used for solving some new problems in calculation of RC shells.
This third edition of a popular textbook is a concise single-volume introduction to the design of structural elements in concrete, steel, timber, masonry, and composites. It provides design principles and guidance in line with both British Standards and Eurocodes, current as of late 2007. Topics discussed include the philosophy of design, basic structural concepts, and material properties. After an introduction and overview of structural design, the book is conveniently divided into sections based on British Standards and Eurocodes.
Detailing is an essential part of the design process. This thorough reference guide for the design of reinforced concrete structures is largely based on Eurocode 2 (EC2), plus other European design standards such as Eurocode 8 (EC8), where appropriate. With its large format, double-page spread layout, this book systematically details 213 structural elements. These have been carefully selected by Jose Calavera to cover relevant elements used in practice. Each element is presented with a whole-page annotated model along with commentary and recommendations for the element concerned, as well as a summary of the appropriate Eurocode legislation with reference to further standards and literature. The book also comes with a CD-ROM containing AutoCAD files of all of the models, which can be directly developed and adapted for specific designs. Its accessible and practical format makes the book an ideal handbook for professional engineers working with reinforced concrete, as well as for students who are training to become designers of concrete structures.
Also referred to as the Third Set of Locks Project, the recent expansion of the Panama Canal by a construction consortium led by the Salini Impregilo group is a great feat of engineering, intending to double its capacity by increasing the number and the size of the ships passing through, minimizing the time it takes to cross the continent to just two hours and paving the way for a new era in global trade. This highly visual book documents the progression and construction of the canal, retracing its history and important events to reveal in vivid color this colossal human intervention in nature. The words of the authors, along with spectacular photographs by Edoardo Montaina, are accompanied by stunning views of the massive oil tankers, cargo ships, and cruise liners floating between two wings of wild forest.
The Okavango Delta, a globally renowned wetland, is characterised by a mosaic of meandering watercourses, floodplains and islands, and is home to a variety of wildlife and vegetation species. It is a major source of livelihoods for the local communities and also an important attraction for tourism, the second most important economic activity in Botswana after diamonds, contributing 5% to the gross domestic product (GDP). As a globally renowned Ramsar Site and major tourist attraction, the Okavango Delta is a resource of national, regional and international importance. This book examines the results of empirical micro-level studies undertaken in the Okavango Delta and contributes to the formulation of relevant policies for sustainable development in the Okavango Delta.
In our world of seemingly unlimited computing, numerous analytical approaches to the estimation of stress, strain, and displacement, including analytical, numerical, physical, and analog techniques, have greatly advanced the practice of engineering. Combining theory and experimentation, computer simulation has emerged as a third path for engineering design and performance evaluation. As a result, structural engineers working in the practical world of engineering must apply, and ideally, thrive, on these idealizations of science-based theories. Analyzing the major achievements in the field, Understanding Structural Engineering demonstrates how to bring science to engineering design. This book illustrates: * Key conceptual breakthroughs in structural engineering in the 20th century * The science of structural engineering from basic mechanics and computing to the ultimate process of engineering design * How engineers implement theory to practice through idealizations and simplifications * Covers current and future trends in structural engineering Developments and advancements in structural engineering hinge on a few key breakthroughs in concepts, simplifications and idealizations. Simplification, the art of structural engineering, is a key theme throughout this book. But the authors go further--their clear explanations of the role and impact of new, science-based developments shows you how to put them into practice.
Natural attenuation has become an effective and low-cost alternative to more expensive engineered remediation. This new edition updates the principles and fundamentals of natural attenuation of contaminants with a broader view of the field. It includes new methods for evaluating natural attenuation mechanisms and microbial activity at the lab and field scales. Case studies, actual treatments and protocols, theoretical processes, case studies, numerical models, and legal aspects in the natural attenuation of organic and inorganic contaminants are examined. Challenges and future directions for the implementation of natural attenuation and enhanced remediation techniques are also considered.
The book provides suitable methods for the simulations of boundary value problems of geotechnical installation processes with reliable prediction for the deformation behavior of structures in static or dynamic interaction with the soil. It summarizes the basic research of a research group from scientists dealing with constitutive relations of soils and their implementations as well as contact element formulations in FE-codes. Numerical and physical experiments are presented providing benchmarks for future developments in this field. Boundary value problems have been formulated and solved with the developed tools in order to show the effectivity of the methods. Parametric studies of geotechnical installation processes in order to identify the governing parameters for the optimization of the process are given in such a way that the findings can be recommended to practice for further use. For many design engineers in practice the assessment of the serviceability of nearby structures due to geotechnical installation processes is a very challenging task. Some hints about possible effects and their consideration are given in this book which may provide a help for such estimations which are still not possible to be given in a satisfactory manner.
This book presents articles covering a wide spectrum of topics in geotechnical engineering, including properties of soils, unsaturated soil mechanics, ground improvement, liquefaction and seismic studies, soil-structure interaction and stability analysis of man-made and natural slopes. The contributing authors are renowned researchers in their respective fields, which include soft ground improvement, seismic response of retaining structure using soil-structure Interaction (SSI) principles, and unsaturated soils. Based on keynote addresses and invited talks presented at the Indian Geotechnical Conference 2016, this book will prove a valuable resource for practicing engineers and researchers in the field of geotechnical engineering.
Core Concepts in Geotechnical Engineering is a practical introduction to soils and rocks, site investigation, and ground improvement techniques. It presents the core concepts of several geotechnical structures such as shallow and deep foundations, retaining structures, slopes, embankments, earth dams, machine foundations, buried structures and tunnels. It also focuses on pavements, and geotechnical structures with geosynthetics.
This books analyzes different approaches to modeling earthquake-induced structural pounding and shows the results of the studies on collisions between buildings and between bridge segments during ground motions. Aspects related to the mitigation of pounding effects as well as the design of structures prone to pounding are also discussed. Earthquake-induced structural pounding between insufficiently separated buildings, and between bridge segments, has been repeatedly observed during ground motions. The reports after earthquakes indicate that it may result in limited local damage in the case of moderate seismic events, or in considerable destruction or even the collapse of colliding structures during severe ground motions. Pounding in buildings is usually caused by the differences in dynamic properties between structures, which make them vibrate out-of-phase under seismic excitation. In contrast, in the case of longer bridge structures, it is more often the seismic wave propagation effect that induces collisions between superstructure segments during earthquakes.
To facilitate a deeper understanding of tensegrity structures, this book focuses on their two key design problems: self-equilibrium analysis and stability investigation. In particular, high symmetry properties of the structures are extensively utilized. Conditions for self-equilibrium as well as super-stability of tensegrity structures are presented in detail. An analytical method and an efficient numerical method are given for self-equilibrium analysis of tensegrity structures: the analytical method deals with symmetric structures and the numerical method guarantees super-stability. Utilizing group representation theory, the text further provides analytical super-stability conditions for the structures that are of dihedral as well as tetrahedral symmetry. This book not only serves as a reference for engineers and scientists but is also a useful source for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Keeping this objective in mind, the presentation of the book is self-contained and detailed, with an abundance of figures and examples.
The problem of environmental vibrations induced by moving traffic loads, is today increasingly one of the fundamental problems to be solved in traffic line planning and design, because they not only influence the living and working of human beings, but also make many high-tech projects unable to work normally. Since the effects of various transportation sources are different, and soil properties play a critical role in the propagation of vibrations, the problem of environmental vibrations is very complex. This book contains the research of the authors via fundamental theories, numerical simulations and field experiments. The main contents include the basic theory and analysis approaches in traffic-induced environmental vibrations, prediction and mitigation through ballast mats of rail traffic induced track-ground vibrations, railway traffic induced ground vibration and its prediction approaches, numerical modelling of vibrations induced by rail traffic in tunnels, investigation of train-induced ground vibrations using FEM and field experiments, human induced vibrations of pedestrian bridges and their prevention, prediction of environmental vibration from underground trains, numerical evaluation on train-induced ground vibration around high-speed railway viaducts, vibration isolation by ground barriers, environmental vibration induced by elevated railway traffic, and train induced vibration in elevated railway stations.
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