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A secret torment for some, a proud responsibility for others, ‘black tax’ is a daily reality for thousands of black South Africans. In this thought-provoking and moving anthology, a provocative range of voices share their deeply personal stories.
With the majority of black South Africans still living in poverty today, many black middle-class households are connected to working-class or jobless homes. Some believe supporting family members is an undeniable part of African culture and question whether it should even be labelled as a kind of tax. Others point to the financial pressure it places on black students and professionals, who, as a consequence, struggle to build their own wealth. Many feel they are taking over what is essentially a government responsibility. The contributions also investigate the historical roots of black tax, the concept of the black family and the black middle class.
In giving voice to so many different perspectives, Black Tax hopes to start a dialogue on this widespread social phenomenon.
This book was written with the specific purpose of combining in one concise volume the provisions of the Income Tax Act 58 of 1962 (the Act) as it applies to business activities.
The provisions of the Act regarding natural persons are dealt with in a separate book, A Student’s Approach to Income Tax: Natural Persons.
This book was written with the specific purpose of combining in one concise volume the provisions of the Income Tax Act 58 of 1962 (the Act) as it applies to individuals.
The provisions of the Act regarding business activities are dealt with in a separate book, A Student’s Approach to Income Tax: Business Activities.
Tax Law: An Introduction deals with the fundamentals of income tax in a practical and clear manner that makes this book an ideal tool for tax teachers. Written for students, this much-needed textbook simplifies complex concepts and avoids unnecessary jargon as it explains the key objectives and principles of taxation. The book sheds light on contemporary South
African tax law and the most important tax cases. It covers the process of tax collection as well as the interpretation of tax legislation.
Tax Law: An Introduction is intended to ease the teaching and understanding of an often-daunting subject. The book includes a link to the relevant Acts for easy access by students.
International tax law: Offshore tax avoidance in South Africa provides a comprehensive analysis of some of the offshore tax-avoidance schemes employed by South African residents. The book offers a detailed and logical explanation of difficult international tax concepts, and critically analyses the effectiveness of South African legislation in curbing offshore tax-avoidance schemes. South African legislative provisions are compared with similar provisions in the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and international case law and tax treaty implications are thoroughly discussed. International tax law: Offshore tax avoidance in South Africa also addresses the recommendations of international organisations, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which seek to prevent international tax avoidance. In this regard, the role of tax havens in encouraging international tax avoidance and the OECD initiatives to stifle their development are considered. The OECD's efforts to prevent base erosion and profit shifting are also examined.
Capturing the core challenges faced by the international tax regime, this timely Research Handbook assesses the impacts of these challenges on a range of stakeholders, evaluating various paths to reform at a time when international tax policy is a topic high on politicians' agendas. Expert international contributors present an array of perspectives and approaches to research in the field, but all consider the necessity of fundamental reforms. The Research Handbook offers a reappraisal of the foundations and core concepts of the international tax regime, highlighting the need to adjust nineteenth and twentieth century solutions to the challenges of the twenty-first century. Chapters look at the challenges of embracing globalization, the interdependence of world economics, the ensuing impossibility of truly unilateral international tax policy, and the need to accommodate the expanding cast of players on the political map. With a variety of paths to reform suggested throughout, this Research Handbook will prove an invigorating read for law scholars working on taxation law as well as practitioners and policy makers seeking ways to improve, or navigate, the current state of affairs with international tax law.
Fifty years on from the introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT) across the European Union and its Member States, this comprehensive book provides a practical commentary on, and analysis of, the harmonised system of VAT in the EU. This meticulously researched reference work not only analyses legislation and case law, but also examines them in the broader context of the operation of EU law. Written by a team of expert practitioners led by KPE Lasok QC, an authority on European law with extensive practical experience of VAT and Customs cases, this book includes a detailed discussion of the relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, considering cases critically with a view to identifying underlying trends and principles. Key features include: * consideration of the broader context in which EU law operates * comprehensive, simultaneous analysis of legislation and case law * critical examination of principles underpinning relevant case law * a definitive exposition of the present state of the harmonised EU VAT system. EU Value Added Tax Law will prove to be an indispensable source of practical knowledge and background information for tax practitioners advising clients and in-house tax advisers assisting their employers in relation to VAT in the EU, as well as officials of tax authorities in EU Member States. Academics researching or teaching VAT will also find this book's detailed and critical coverage invaluable.
This timely book provides a critical examination of the ways in which tax expenditures can be best used in order to enhance their efficacy as instruments for the implementation of environmental policy. Examining the capacity and limits of tax expenditures in financing environmental policy, Hope Ashiabor considers their use in various contexts and policies in order to clearly establish the common threads as well as any deviations that have emerged. The book outlines how, when used in environmental policy either to provide preferences to certain activities or to address the challenges of environmental degradation, the management of tax expenditures invariably results in unintended consequences that manifest in negative environmental outcomes and economic inefficiencies. It also examines some of the challenges encountered in re-structuring subsidies that have become environmentally harmful. Tax Expenditures and Environmental Policy will be of great interest to students and scholars in both tax and environmental law. It will also offer an essential tool for policy makers and practitioners through its focus on policy design and its doctrinal analysis.
A straightforward guide to taking tax breaks and deductions on your 2020 tax return Completely revised to reflect important changes in recent tax laws (including the SECURE Act and the CARES Act), J.K. Lasser's 1001 Deductions & Tax Breaks 2021 will help you take advantage of every tax break and deduction to which you may be entitled. This comprehensive guide is clearly organized by subject matter so you can easily find situations that may apply to you. Each tax benefit is also clearly explained--along with the eligibility requirements for claiming the benefit--while planning tips and common pitfalls associated with the benefit in question are discussed in detail. COVID-19-related changes are highlighted throughout the book, so you can make the most informed decisions possible. With this book as your guide, you'll find deductions and tax breaks with regard to: You and your family Your home and car Your job or business Your investments Retirement savings Travel Medical and dental expenses Health savings accounts Education costs Your charitable giving Disaster losses Insurance Packed with hundreds of updated deductions and credits, practical advice, and real-world examples, J.K. Lasser's 1001 Deductions & Tax Breaks 2021 is a book every taxpayer should own.
This book's eminent editors and contributing authors provide an accessible and engaging account of the 'new' politics of corporate taxation, highlighting the complex and multidimensional strategies used by activists to influence public opinion, formal regulation and corporate behaviour. While campaigning is successful at exposing tax avoidance, it presents significant governance challenges. As this book reveals, the battle to establish fair and sustainable corporate tax regimes has only just begun. Chapters offer readers a timely assessment of the emerging role of new tax justice NGOs, the media and whistleblowers, as well as new governance strategies and policies targeting multinational corporations. Through the lens of political science, the authors show how civil society organisations shape the agenda of tax practices of the world's largest and most powerful corporations, including examples such as Apple and Google. A detailed evaluation is given of new private governance initiatives in the international tax arena and their relationship with traditional forms of regulation. Looking closely at the wider significance of the debate in contemporary global governance, academics and graduates in the fields of international political economy, global governance, development studies and taxation will find this book a timely and thought-provoking read.
Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences, business and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. Designed to be accessible yet rigorous, they offer concise and lucid surveys of the substantive and policy issues associated with discrete subject areas. Providing a concise overview of the basic doctrines underlying the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), Clayton Gillette explores their ambiguities and thus considers the extent to which uniform international commercial law is possible, as well as appraising the extent to which the doctrines in the UN Convention reflect those that commercial parties would prefer. With its compelling combination of doctrine and theory, this book makes an ideal companion for students and legal scholars alike. Key features include: * Concise and compact overview of the CISG * Includes contemporary developments * Provides a theoretical basis for evaluating international sales law * Considers perspectives of economic analysis of law.
The tax facts and strategies that every small business owner needs to know for their 2020 tax return and year-round planning Owning a small business is a big responsibility. While all small business owners seek to improve their bottom line, few realize all the ways that both current and new tax laws can help them do so. With J.K. Lasser's Small Business Taxes 2021 you'll quickly discover how. Written in a straightforward and accessible style, this reliable resource offers a complete overview of small business tax planning and provides you with the information needed to make tax-smart decisions throughout the year. Focusing on strategies that help you use deductions and tax credits effectively, shield business income, and maximize other aspects of small business taxes, this practical guide will show you how your actions in business today can affect your bottom line from a tax perspective tomorrow. It also shows COVID-19-related refund opportunities to improve your cash flow. In this fully updated volume, you'll find: Detailed coverage of the newest tax laws, court decisions, and IRS rulings Planning strategies that can help you run a tax-smart business all year long Comprehensive information on each available write-off, such as the QBI deduction, as well as dollar limits and record-keeping requirements Clear instructions on where to report income and claim deductions and credits on your tax forms Guidance on tax implications for PPP loans, opening or closing a business, running a sideline activity or multiple businesses, and succession planning Help with state taxes and a guide to information returns you may need to file Sample forms and checklists to help you prepare for tax time
Although the world faces many environmental challenges, climate change continues to demand attention in both academic and public spheres. Innovation Addressing Climate Change Challenges explores ways in which market-based instruments and complementary policies can help countries meet their climate change goals following the Paris Agreement. In this insightful book, internationally distinguished climate change scholars have come together to examine the potential of a range of market-based instruments. These include carbon pricing, coal subsidies, vehicle taxation, government incentives for the electricity sector, and noise pollution taxes. Offering useful market-based perspectives, the book not only demonstrates the possibilities that these various instruments offer in reducing the risks of climate change, but also the challenges that exist in utilizing them. These insights will help to inform the many climate policy decisions that lie ahead. Astute and forward thinking, this timely book will be of vital importance to both students and scholars of environmental law and environmental economics with a particular focus on climate change. Political science students, as well as government officials, will also find its guidance on future policy engaging and timely.
For undergraduate and graduate courses in Taxation, and for professional use. Get clarity on UK taxation rules and policies in this up-to-date guide for year 2020 Taxation, 26th Edition, by Alan Melville, updated with 2020's Finance Act, is the definitive, market-leading text on UK taxation and is known for its up-to-date coverage of the changes introduced by the annual Budget. Featuring clean, well-structured prose and a wealth of immensely practical examples, this comprehensive guide serves as both a core textbook if you are studying taxation for the first time and a reference text that clearly explains the UK tax system and taxation regulations. Additionally, a free to access Companion Website features opportunities for extra practice, plus chapter appendices and a range of useful links to explore taxation rules and the tax system further. Pearson, the world's learning company.
Critically assessing recent developments in environmental and tax legislation, and in particular low-carbon strategies, this timely book analyses the implementation of market-based instruments for achieving climate stabilisation objectives around the world. Through case studies and broader analysis, international experts examine taxes and subsidies in energy intensive sectors including stationary energy and transport in Europe and South America, and low-carbon strategies in Australia and East Asia. They also address cross-cutting policy issues involving water pollution and biodiversity protection. This work illustrates how economic instruments for a low-carbon transition need to align with other governmental policies and together influence behaviour in multiple domains such as energy, mobility, trade, land use and innovation. Providing a rich economic modelling of environmental fiscal policies, this topical book will be an engaging read for environmental tax scholars and professionals, as well as academics across energy and environmental economics, law and policy. Policy makers and practitioners in energy and climate policy will also benefit from its problem-solving approach.
In this comprehensive two volume set Patricia White draws together a myriad of important articles concerning current tax laws. The articles examine how these laws affect the individual, as well as the society as a whole.
In this comprehensive two volume set Patricia White draws together a myriad of important articles concerning current tax laws. The articles examine how these laws affect the individual, as well as the society as a whole.
This timely book brings clarity to the debate on the new legal phenomenon of environmental border tax adjustments. It will help form a better understanding of the role and limits these taxes have on environmental policies in combating global environmental challenges, such as climate change. The book is structured around three main topics: the rationale, the tax design and the legal framework of environmental border tax adjustments. This three-fold analysis gives an overview of the legal issues that should be considered before the adoption of environmental border taxes, including carbon tax adjustments. Alice Pirlot's critical approach to the arguments surrounding traditional and environmental border tax adjustments allows for detailed legal analysis going beyond the question of their compatibility with WTO law, while also reviewing the economic argument. This book will prove to be essential reading for legal scholars and professionals alike, as well as benefitting environmental NGOs, stakeholders in energy-intensive industries and policymakers looking for in-depth insight into environmental border tax adjustments.
The American dream of equal opportunity is in peril. America's economic inequality is shocking, poverty threatens to become a heritable condition, and our healthcare system is crumbling despite ever increasing costs. In this thought-provoking book, Edward D. Kleinbard demonstrates how the failure to acknowledge the force of brute luck in our material lives exacerbates these crises - leading to warped policy choices that impede genuine equality of opportunity for many Americans. What's Luck Got to Do with It? combines insights from economics, philosophy, and social psychology to argue for government's proper role in addressing the inequity of brute luck. Kleinbard shows how well-designed public investment can blunt the worst effects of existential bad luck that private insurance cannot reach and mitigate inequality by sharing the costs across the entire risk pool, which is to say, all of us. The benefits, as Kleinbard shares in a wealth of data, are economic as well as social - a more inclusive economy, higher national income, and greater life satisfaction for millions of Americans. Like it or not, our lives and opportunities are determined largely by luck. Kleinbard shows that while we can't undo every instance of misfortune, we can offer a path to not just a fairer America, but greater economic growth, more broadly shared.
Capital gains taxes pose a host of technical and political design problems and yet, while the literature on the theory of capital gains taxation is substantial, little has been published on how governments have addressed these dilemmas. Written by a team of distinguished international experts, Capital Gains Taxation addresses the gap in the literature; it explains how a number of countries tax capital gains and the successes and pitfalls of these methods. Examining key issues in the theory and practice of capital gains taxation in a general context, this book also provides a detailed analysis of the tax systems of Australia, Canada, China, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa, the UK and the US. It questions whether capital gains should be taxed in the same way as ordinary income, considers the rate at which they ought to be taxed, if indeed they should be at all, and compares the taxation on realisation of capital gains versus on an accruals basis. Eloquent and astute, Capital Gains Taxation will be a crucial point of reference for students and scholars of tax law and policy. Its pragmatic approach will also benefit tax practitioners, policy-makers and tax authorities.
Gordon Brown was a past-master at sneaking in new taxes by stealth, but his efforts as Chancellor and then Prime Minister were merely the latest in a long line of party leaders desperate to extract more money from reluctant taxpayers. This book challenges the need for government to resort to such underhand practices which undermine the economy, killing the goose which lays the golden eggs, and the integrity of the political process. The author argues that not only does taxation flout the principle of private property, but it 'is a primal cause of both inflation and unemployment. Regardless of this, the freely elected governments of contemporary trading economies - with the acquiescence of their electorates - persist in raising the major part, if not all, of their revenues by means of taxation. The immediate cause of such action by governments...is ignorance of any acceptable alternative method of raising sufficient public revenue.' Burgess shows how the development of Keynes' general theory of employment 'leads to the conclusion that an open trading economy is likely to be most competitive, and therefore most prosperous, only when taxation is abolished' - but government must be funded. How can this be done without taxation? To provide an answer he refines Alfred Marshall's distinction between the public and private value of property to reveal an alternative, peculiarly public source of revenue. Unlike a tax, defined by a former Labour Chancellor, Hugh Dalton, as 'a compulsory contribution imposed by a public authority, irrespective of the exact amount of service rendered to the taxpayer in return', the 'public value' identified by Marshall would deliver an exact equivalence between the benefits enjoyed and the amount paid. On the basis of this widely accepted definition, therefore, it is not a tax but the price for services rendered like any other transaction - the price fixed by the market. The author shows how reform may be introduced with a minimum of disruption, so that politicians with an eye to re-election can achieve measurable results during the lifetime of a parliament.
How to plan and implement tax-efficient investment strategies, incorporating all the latest budget amendments
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