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The Fine Rolls were the earliest rolls kept by the English royal chancery. Recording offers of money to the king for all manner of concessions and favours, they are central to the study of political, governmental, legal, social and economic history. The reign of Henry III (1216-1272) is a particularly rich period for surviving documents; there are some 56 rolls preserved in the National Archives, one for each regnal year. However, despite the light they shed on politics, government, and society, they have never previously been properly edited or published, and these fully-indexed volumes - covering the period up to 1248 - will therefore be widely welcomed. The Latin rolls are presented in English translation, with all identifiable place-names modernised, although the original forms are preserved; and each volume includes full person, place and subject indexes. This volume covers in some detail the first phase of Henry's personal rule, which began in 1234. The rolls provide key evidence both for the great reform of the realm following Henry's marriage to Eleanor of Provence in 1236 and for the concessions by which Henry encouraged participation in his Poitevin campaign of 1242. In two years when fine rolls are missing the volume prints originalia rolls (copies of the fine rolls sent to the Exchequer) in their place, thus enabling detailed examination of the processes by which the king raised his revenue.
We are well aware of the rise of the 1% as the rapid growth of economic inequality has put the majority of the world's wealth in the pockets of fewer and fewer. One much-discussed solution to this imbalance is to significantly increase the rate at which we tax the wealthy. But with an enormous amount of the world's wealth hidden in tax havens in countries like Switzerland, Luxembourg, and the Cayman Islands this wealth cannot be fully accounted for and taxed fairly. No one, from economists to bankers to politicians, has been able to quantify exactly how much of the world's assets are currently hidden until now. Gabriel Zucman is the first economist to offer reliable insight into the actual extent of the world's money held in tax havens. And it's staggering. In The Hidden Wealth of Nations, Zucman offers an inventive and sophisticated approach to quantifying how big the problem is, how tax havens work and are organized, and how we can begin to approach a solution. His research reveals that tax havens are a quickly growing danger to the world economy. In the past five years, the amount of wealth in tax havens has increased over 25% there has never been as much money held offshore as there is today. This hidden wealth accounts for at least $7.6 trillion, equivalent to 8% of the global financial assets of households. Fighting the notion that any attempts to vanquish tax havens are futile, since some countries will always offer more advantageous tax rates than others, as well the counter-argument that since the financial crisis tax havens have disappeared, Zucman shows how both sides are actually very wrong. In The Hidden Wealth of Nations he offers an ambitious agenda for reform, focused on ways in which countries can change the incentives of tax havens. Only by first understanding the enormity of the secret wealth can we begin to estimate the kind of actions that would force tax havens to give up their practices. Zucman's work has quickly become the gold standard for quantifying the amount of the world's assets held in havens. In this concise book, he lays out in approachable language how the international banking system works and the dangerous extent to which the large-scale evasion of taxes is undermining the global market as a whole. If we are to find a way to solve the problem of increasing inequality, The Hidden Wealth of Nations is essential reading.
Fully updated each year, Taxation: Policy and Practice continues to provide coverage of the UK's tax system as it has for 15 years. Written in an accessible style with many examples, activities and questions throughout, this textbook gives the reader a thorough understanding of the UK's taxation principles and current practices. Reader friendly and informative, this text is based on a structured conceptual framework. Updated annually to ensure an accurate reflection of the current tax climate, it avoids unnecessary and confusing detail. It provides an ideal introduction to both macro and micro perspectives of UK taxation, fiscal policy and decision making.
The book is written for students of business economics and tax law. It focuses on investment and financing decisions in cross-border situations.
In particular, the book deals with: Legal structures of international company taxation, International double taxation, Source-based and residence-based income taxation, International investment and profit shifting, International corporate tax planning, International tax planning and European law, Harmonization of corporate taxation in the European Union, International tax planning and tax accounting.
International tax law is designed to avoid international double taxation and to combat international tax avoidance. Nevertheless, companies investing in foreign countries may suffer from international double taxation of profits. On the other hand, these companies may also be able to exploit an international tax rate differential by means of cross-border tax planning.
Ulrich Schreiber holds the chair of Business Administration and Business Taxation at the University of Mannheim. He serves as co-editor of Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift fur betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung (zfbf) and Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr) and is affiliated with the Centrefor European Economic Research (ZEW) as a research associate. Ulrich Schreiber is a member of the Academic Advisory Board of the Federal Ministry of Finance.
Americans spend hours every day sitting in traffic. And the roads they idle on are often rough and potholed, their exits, tunnels, guardrails, and bridges in terrible disrepair. According to transportation expert Robert Poole, this congestion and deterioration are outcomes of the way America provides its highways. Our twentieth-century model overly politicizes highway investment decisions, shortchanging maintenance and often investing in projects whose costs exceed their benefits. In Rethinking America's Highways, Poole examines how our current model of state-owned highways came about and why it is failing to satisfy its customers. He argues for a new model that treats highways themselves as public utilities--like electricity, telephones, and water supply. If highways were provided commercially, Poole argues, people would pay for highways based on how much they used, and the companies would issue revenue bonds to invest in facilities people were willing to pay for. Arguing for highway investments to be motivated by economic rather than political factors, this book makes a carefully reasoned and well-documented case for a new approach to highways that is sure to inform future decisions and policies for U.S. infrastructure.
Effective planning of your tax affairs to help your business save money Every profitable business in the UK has to pay tax, but some small businesses pay more tax than is necessary. This book examines the tax liabilities that the owners or managers of small businesses need to bear in mind and explains how to manage these tax requirements in the best possible way so as to avoid paying more tax than you have to. Uniquely, this guide traces how tax should be dealt with throughout the life-cycle of a business, from start-up to the time it is sold, wound up, or passed on, so that whatever stage your business is at this book will be valuable for you. Areas that are covered include: - What business structure you should choose when starting out: self-employed sole trader, partnership or limited company. - How to register your business and when to start paying tax. - When tax inspections might arise and how to deal with them. - How to manage business expenses effectively and make use of relevant tax benefits. - How to withdraw from a business and pass it on, or how to go about selling it.Guidance about tax is spread over many different locations; on the internet, in booklets provided by HMRC, and in magazines and annual publications. Russell Cockburn brings the information together in this simple and incisive summary enabling you to approach your tax affairs as efficiently as possible.
Taxation is crucial to the functioning of the modern state. Tax revenues pay for public services - roads, the courts, defence, welfare assistance to the poor and elderly, and in many countries much of health care and education too. More than one third of national income in the industrialized (OECD) countries is on average taken in taxation. Taxes affect individuals in many ways. Taxes paid on income and spending directly reduce taxpayer disposable income, taxpayers face the hassle of tax returns and making payments, and they may be anxious about the possibility of investigation and enforcement action. People also adapt their activities in various ways to reduce the impact of taxation - putting money into tax-free savings accounts, or making shopping trips to other countries where taxes are lower. Taxation is therefore central to politics and public debate. Politicians that make reckless campaign promises about taxation then have to live with the uncomfortable consequences if elected. Businesses lobby for tax breaks that they claim will create jobs and prosperity. In this Very Short Introduction Stephen Smith shows how taxes have real effects on citizens and the economy that tax policy-makers have to balance. Although tax policy will always be a highly political issue, he argues that public decisions about taxation would be improved by a better understanding of the role of taxation, and of the nature and effects of different taxes. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Rayney's Tax Planning for Family and Owner-Managed Companies 2019/20 is an invaluable source of money-saving guidance for anyone who advises or runs a family or owner-managed company. Widely recognised as the leading book on the subject, it examines a wide variety of tax planning matters from the viewpoint of the company, its working and non-working shareholders, and its employees. The 2019/20 edition has been updated to include the following: Revised FA 2019 rules for corporate intangibles regime The new Structures and Buildings Allowances IR35, off payroll working, and the implications of the recent 'TV personality' cases Dealing with the EBT 5 April 2019 loan charge FA 2019 changes to the Entrepreneurs' Relief regime, including new 5% economic test Recent cases on Business Property Relief, including the Vigne decision
This groundbreaking book analyzes how the ecology of taxation is fundamental for the success or failure of tax systems. It specifically focuses on the role of the ecological environment on taxation; the factors that determine the ecology of taxation; and how the ecology of taxation has changed and may continue to evolve. Income taxes operate well in highly industrialized countries, characterized by large enterprises, modern accounting, thousands of workers and tangible products. There are great difficulties, however, when they operate in countries with higher levels of informality. Vito Tanzi addresses this effect and the influence of economic structure; the income distribution; globalization; technology; and various other main elements that determine the ecology of taxation. The implicit, important conclusion is that there are no permanent or universal optimal tax theories: all theories are related to this ecology. Students of taxation from various fields and economists interested in taxation and public finance will appreciate this book's new perspective on success and failure of taxes and tax systems. It will also serve as a useful resource for tax historians, policy experts, teachers, and tax theorists.
The Zondervan 2017 Church and Nonprofit Tax and Financial Guide annual reference guide continues to be one of the few resources offering tax and financial advice to churches and nonprofit organizations. Issues of financial accountability, receiving and maintaining tax-exempt status, accounting for charitable gifts, and other crucial topics receive careful and full discussion. The 2017 edition also contains a thorough description of tax laws affecting churches and other nonprofit organizations, ensuring compliance with all regulations. The book includes expert advice on handling charitable gifts, sample policies and procedures, easy techniques for simplifying financial policies and procedures, insights on medical expense reimbursements, key steps in sound compensation planning, and examples of required IRS filings.
For years, ministers have trusted the Zondervan Minister's Tax & Financial Guide to save them time and money. This easy-to-understand workbook simplifies the tax code and offers dozens of tips to reduce your tax bill. For 2017, the guide includes a line-by-line explanation of the 1040 Form as well as information on recent changes in the tax code. Dan Busby also explains the easy steps you can take now to minimize next year's tax bill. This 2017 edition also includes sound retirement planning helps, compensation planning guidance, and ways to maximize business expense reimbursements. Zondervan Minister's Tax & Financial Guide is also useful to church treasurers, business administrators, and tax preparers who assist ministers.
A surprising and revealing look at what Americans really believe about taxes Conventional wisdom holds that Americans hate taxes. But the conventional wisdom is wrong. Bringing together national survey data with in-depth interviews, Read My Lips presents a surprising picture of tax attitudes in the United States. Vanessa Williamson demonstrates that Americans view taxpaying as a civic responsibility and a moral obligation. But they worry that others are shirking their duties, in part because the experience of taxpaying misleads Americans about who pays taxes and how much. Perceived "loopholes" convince many income tax filers that a flat tax might actually raise taxes on the rich, and the relative invisibility of the sales and payroll taxes encourages many to underestimate the sizable tax contributions made by poor and working people. Americans see being a taxpayer as a role worthy of pride and respect, a sign that one is a contributing member of the community and the nation. For this reason, the belief that many Americans are not paying their share is deeply corrosive to the social fabric. The widespread misperception that immigrants, the poor, and working-class families pay little or no taxes substantially reduces public support for progressive spending programs and undercuts the political standing of low-income people. At the same time, the belief that the wealthy pay less than their share diminishes confidence that the political process represents most people. Upending the idea of Americans as knee-jerk opponents of taxes, Read My Lips examines American taxpaying as an act of political faith. Ironically, the depth of the American civic commitment to taxpaying makes the failures of the tax system, perceived and real, especially potent frustrations.
While this volume presents the important writings of James M.
Buchanan on taxation and debt, Geoffrey Brennan makes it clear in
the foreword that the thrust of Buchanan's work in this area has
been to integrate theories of taxation and debt with
public-expenditure theory. Therefore, the editors strongly urge
that the present volume on taxation and debt be read in tandem with
the subsequent Volume 15, "Externalities and Public Expenditure
This book analyses and compares taxation in different countries. It looks at what tax systems have in common, how they differ and seeks to explain the the similarities and the differences. No attempt is made to confine the analysis on each topic to the same group of countries. Whilst the emphasis is on the larger advanced countries, countries are drawn on from all round the world according to the nature of the topic and the data available. The book seeks to answer questions such as: Why do developing countries rely heavily on indirect taxes? Why is income tax the dominant tax in advanced countries? Why is the property tax the most widely used tax in local government? Why do some countries have more tax expenditures than others? Why has VAT become the dominant sales tax world-wide? Why do less than half OECD countries have annual wealth taxes? Why are there so many differences in the way countries tax corporate income and capital gains? What are the keys to success in tax reform? And many more. In seeking to answer these questions the author draws on economic theory but also recognises the significance of historical, legal and social differences, the importance of constitutional constraints, the influence of geography and globalisation and the often decisive role played by the convictions and whims of politicians.
The rise and fall of a tax shelter industry that enabled some of America's richest citizens to avoid paying their fair share of taxes. For ten boom-powered years at the turn of the twenty-first century, some of America's most prominent law and accounting firms created and marketed products that enabled the very rich-including newly minted dot-com millionaires-to avoid paying their fair share of taxes by claiming benefits not recognized by law. These abusive domestic tax shelters bore such exotic names as BOSS, BLIPS, and COBRA and were developed by such prestigious firms as KPMG and Ernst & Young. They brought in hundreds of millions of dollars in fees from clients and bilked the U.S. Treasury of billions in revenues before the IRS and Justice Department stepped in with civil penalties and criminal prosecutions. In Confidence Games, Tanina Rostain and Milton Regan describe the rise and fall of the tax shelter industry during this period, offering a riveting account of the most serious episode of professional misconduct in the history of the American bar. Rostain and Regan describe a beleaguered IRS preoccupied by attacks from antitax and antigovernment politicians; heightened competition for professional services; the relaxation of tax practitioner norms against aggressive advice; and the creation of complex financial instruments that made abusive shelters harder to detect. By 2004, the tax shelter boom was over, leaving failed firms, disgraced professionals, and prison sentences in its wake. Rostain and Regan's cautionary tale remains highly relevant today, as lawyers and accountants continue to face intense competitive pressure and regulators still struggle to keep pace with accelerating financial risk and innovation.
This book presents a variety of research papers on factories' locations, city systems, and regional development. Consisting of three parts, it provides insights into the locational aspects of firms' activities from a strategic perspective. Part 1 discusses decision-making in the context of location, specifying the motivation for firms to move their factories provided by the corporate tax system. It also presents a case study from East Asia to clarify a mechanism by which firms move factories. Part 2 addresses city systems, offering theoretical clues to understanding why city systems are important to regional economies. It also clarifies from the empirical analysis the relations between city systems and the performances of regional economies. Part 3 investigates the topic of industrial parks, demonstrating how they form a basis for establishing industrial clusters in regional economies. In addition, it examines the economic phases, such as economic disparity, generated in the process of development.
Goods and Services Tax (GST) was implemented in India in July 2017, after four decades of protracted deliberations amid critical socio-economic and political challenges. GST is a comprehensive multistage value added tax (VAT) on goods and services where both central and state governments share the same tax base. Finding a suitable design for GST that encompasses taxes from both the centre and the state tax brackets makes the Indian GST unique among GST implemented in other federal countries. This book is a study of the evolution of GST in India since the Report of the Indirect Taxation Enquiry Committee of 1977. It studies the following issues on GST: a) inclusion and exclusion of taxes, b) finding a suitable mechanism to handle inter-state transactions, c) finding revenue neutrality of the tax reform, d) providing compensation to states for any possible loss of revenue due to its adoption, and e) possible scope for coordination in GST administration.
This book focuses on Integrated Reporting as a contemporary social and managerial innovation where a number of initiatives, organizations and individuals began to converge in response to the need for a consistent, collaborative and internationally accepted approach to redesign corporate reporting. Integrated Reporting is a process that results in communication of the annual "integrated report" which describes value creation over time. An integrated report is a concise communication about how an organization's strategy, governance, performance and prospects lead to the creation of value over the short, medium and long term. This book offers a fresh perspective with expert contributions focusing on both the theoretical underpinnings and the practical challenges for the future of corporate reporting.
Foundations in Accountancy (FIA) awards are entry-level, core-skill focused qualifications from ACCA. They provide flexible options for students and employers, and as an ACCA Approved Content Provider, BPP Learning Media s suite of study tools will provide you with all the accurate and up-to-date material you need for exam success.
This book contains an explanation of the major provisions of the federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes as they apply to transfers in 2014. It provides basic principles regarding the computation of these three transfer taxes. It also provides a history, description, and analysis of the Federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes (also referred to as the "wealth transfer taxes"), as well as a description of selected reform proposals.
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