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A timely and incisive look at austerity measures that succeed-and those that don't Fiscal austerity is hugely controversial. Opponents argue that it can trigger downward growth spirals and become self-defeating. Supporters argue that budget deficits have to be tackled aggressively at all times and at all costs. In this masterful book, three of today's leading policy experts cut through the political noise to demonstrate that there is not one type of austerity but many. Looking at thousands of fiscal measures adopted by sixteen advanced economies since the late 1970s, Austerity assesses the relative effectiveness of tax increases and spending cuts at reducing debt. It shows that spending cuts have much smaller costs in terms of output losses than tax increases. Spending cuts can sometimes be associated with output gains in the case of expansionary austerity and are much more successful than tax increases at reducing the growth of debt. The authors also show that austerity is not necessarily the kiss of death for political careers as is often believed, and provide new insights into the recent cases of European austerity after the financial crisis. Bringing needed clarity to one of today's most challenging subjects, Austerity charts a sensible approach based on data analysis rather than ideology.
Issues such as tax evasion and the size and impact of the shadow economy have ranked highly in political and economic policy debates across the globe in recent years. Yet, despite various methodological advances and growing empirical evidence, there are still large areas of interest that have not been explored, or where scientific research efforts are still in their infancy. This timely book addresses such issues from various perspectives in order to demonstrate the extent and scope of tax evasion, the shadow economy and their interaction. Leading scholars examine recent evidence from theoretical and empirical research on tax compliance and tax evasion, and provide an in-depth analysis of underlying methods. Strategies to fight tax evasion are evaluated and the motivations behind it are explored, as are the impact and size of the shadow economy in Europe. As well as promoting a better understanding of the issues, this book intends to stimulate further debate and, in so doing, broaden the exchange of ideas and concepts. Comparing and contrasting differences and common elements of both tax evasion and the shadow economy, this unique book will prove a fascinating and enlightening read for scholars of economics in general, and public sector, public choice and Austrian economics more specifically. Professionals in ministries of finance and national offices of statistics, dealing with tax evasion will also find the book to be an illuminating read.
This second edition of the Dictionary of Taxation contains over 200 new or substantially revised entries to enhance the existing wide range of accessible definitions and terms used to describe various aspects of tax and tax systems around the world. The entries relate to the analysis of taxation, key concepts, major developments and controversies in taxation. The Dictionary draws on economic, accounting and legal aspects of taxation as well as the contributions of other social sciences to the understanding of taxation and its effects. Sorted alphabetically, with cross-referencing, each entry presents the essential points of a particular law, accountancy practice or economic concept. Additionally this revised and updated Dictionary offers a guide to readers of other literature on certain concepts or practices. Written in an accessible style, it will be indispensable to all those who need to know more about the concepts of taxation, including practitioners, academics and students.
Containing an authoritative set of original essays, Environmental Taxation and Climate Change provides fresh insights and analysis on how environmental sustainability can be achieved through fiscal policy. Written by distinguished environmental taxation scholars from around the world, this timely volume covers a range of hotly debated subjects including carbon related taxation in OECD countries, implications of environmental tax reforms, innovative environmental taxation and behavioural strategies, as well as many other relevant topics. This up-to-date and well-informed book will appeal to policymakers in government as well as students, researchers and academics in environmental law and other academic disciplines.
Tax scholars traditionally emphasize economics and assume that all tax systems can be evaluated in more or less the same way. By applying the insights of anthropology, sociology, and other social sciences, Michael A. Livingston demonstrates that tax systems frequently pursue different values and that the convergence of tax systems is frequently overstated. In Tax and Culture, he applies these insights to specific countries, such as China and India, and specific tax issues, including progressivity, tax avoidance, and the emerging area of environmental taxation. Livingston concludes that the concept of a global tax culture is, in many cases, merely a reflection of Western hegemony, and is unlikely to survive the changes implicit in the rise of non-Western nations and cultures.
Concise introductions to the main issues in energy policy and their interaction with environmental policies in the EU. The European Union (EU) faces critical challenges in energy policy making, the most pressing of which are how to achieve the deep greenhouse gas reductions promised at the December 2015 UN Conference of the Parties in Paris, and how this effort can be coordinated with already existing policies. Energy policy is primarily a member state responsibility, and policy makers need an overarching view of the main issues in energy policy and their interaction with environmental policies. This volume aims to fill this need, offering concise introductions to some of the major issues as well as practical suggestions for policy making. The contributors discuss reforms to the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), the world's largest carbon market; ways to improve the operation and integration of the EU's power grids, in terms of both supply and demand; changes to the EU's Energy Tax Directive, which sets tax floors for fuels outside the ETS; the coordination of climate policies with policies to promote renewables and energy efficiency; research into clean technology; challenges to shale gas development; and transportation policy and the need for action on such externalities as traffic congestion. Finally, contributors consider obstacles to reform, including its potential effects on vulnerable households and energy-intensive industries. Contributors Mikael Skou Andersen, Niels Anger, Bruno De Borger, Antoine Dechezlepretre, Jos Delbeke, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christian Flachsland, Beatriz Gaitan, Polona Gregorin, Cameron Hepburn, Alan Krupnick, Andreas Loeschel, Claudio Marcantonini, Felix Christian Matthes, Paul Nahmmacher, Ian Parry, Karen Pittel, David Popp, Stef Proost, Christina Roolfs, Bert Saveyn, Oliver Schenker, Stephen Smith, Alexander Teytelboym, Kurt Van Dender, Herman Vollebergh, Nils-Henrik M. von der Fehr, Zhongmin Wang, Georg Zachmann
This book discusses the impact of taxation on economic growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment. The public finance literature commonly distinguishes between three major functions of taxation: the traditional function of raising revenue to finance government expenditure; the distributional function as an instrument to alter the distribution of income and wealth amongst households; and the regulatory function that uses taxation at the benefit of stabilization and other economic policies. Especially after the Second World War, OECD countries have increasingly used taxation to achieve a variety of economic and social objectives. Today many governments use the tax system to stimulate economic growth and employment. Fiscal measures also play a role in creating a favourable climate for business investment and to promote a long-term sustainable environmental policy. Currently, in the debate on global warming, the use of tax instruments to tackle climate change is on the top of the international agenda. The authors aim to provide the reader with the necessary empirical information, while at the same time presenting an overview of the latest theory and best practices. In doing so, many relevant policy issues are touched upon. Based on theoretical and empirical studies and practical experiences in OECD countries, the book establishes guidelines for effective tax policy. The book offers tools for tax design in a globalising economy and the world of the internet with increasing tax competition and a growing battle for companies and brains between countries. The book also presents a 'carrot and stick' model to promote clean technologies, reduce pollution and combat climate change. The message from the authors is straightforward: broad, low, simple, and a shift from income to consumption taxation. These principles are illustrated in a concept proposal for a so-called Second Life Tax system.
This book provides an insightful, and in-depth analysis of the fiscal reform process experienced in Spain over the last 30 years. The authors initially focus on the political economy of tax reform in Spain, and the fact that political and economic bodies were able to form alliances at key junctures during the process in order to push reforms forward. A comprehensive analysis of the main instruments of the Spanish tax system, including the introduction of VAT upon Spain's accession to the European Common Market, is presented. The rapid fiscal decentralization process that led Spain from being one of the most centralized countries in the world to being one of the least centralized is also discussed, as is the modernization of the Spanish tax administration system. Written by a select group of scholars with deep knowledge of the Spanish fiscal system, this book will be of great interest to students, tax policymakers and researchers all over the world and especially in Latin America.
A comprehensive annual guide to the full range of UK taxes, this is a highly practical guide written in a very accessible style. It is aimed primarily at the high street practitioner who does not have the breadth of expertise or expert knowledge at his/her own firm. Contains worked examples throughout. Part 1: Income tax: Income tax - outline; Employment; Self-employment; Share incentives; Pensions, state benefits, tax credits; Savings and investments; Land and property; Allowances, reliefs and deductions; Other income, etc; Income tax planning; Part 2: Capital gain tax: CGT - outline; Disposals; Reliefs; Particular assets and situations; Planning and other issues; Part 3: Corporation tax: Corporation tax - outline; Close companies; Corporation tax computation; Trading companies; Investment companies; Company losses (single company); Groups of companies; Foreign matters; Particular matters; Corporation tax planning; Part 4: Inheritance tax: IHT - outline; Reliefs and exemptions, etc; Lifetime transfers; IHT on death; IHT and trusts; IHT planning; Part 5: Trusts and estates: Trusts and estates - outline; Income tax and trusts; CGT and trusts; IHT and trusts; Estates; Part 6: VAT: VAT - outline; Registration and deregistration; Imports and exports; Special VAT schemes; Other VAT matters; VAT planning; Part 7: National insurance contributions: Employers and employees; Self-employed; Class 3 NIC; NIC planning; Part 8: Stamp duties: SDLT; Stamp duty and stamp duty reserve tax; Part 9: HMRC powers, penalties, etc: HMRC powers, penalties, etc - outline; Filing of forms; HMRC enquiries, discovery, etc; Payment of tax; Interest and penalties; Time limits for claims, elections, etc; Record keeping; HMRC inspections; Part 10: Leaving or arriving in the UK: Residence, ordinary residence and domicile; Taxation of individuals not resident in the UK, or not domiciled in the UK; The remittance basis; Double taxation relief. Previous edition ISBN: 9781780434216
Theoretical and policy perspectives on the taxation of pension, viewed in an international context. Policy makers and academic researchers have been preoccupied in recent decades with the design of pension schemes and effective pension system reform. Relatively little attention has been given to the taxation of pensions and, more broadly, the provision of retirement income. In this book, experts from a range of countries explore the interconnection. Their contributions are especially timely, given recent demographic and political developments including population aging that lengthens the time between contribution payment and benefit receipt, the mobility of capital and labor brought about by globalization, and the complexity of pension taxation within and between countries. In shedding light on these issues, the chapters document the various forms of taxation of pension systems; use economic theory to explain both qualitative and quantitative observations; and consider whether the observed interaction of taxation and pensions is efficient. Theoretical overviews are followed by rigorous analyses of pension taxation in specific countries, including Denmark, Sweden, Portugal, Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Contributors Torben M. Andersen, Spencer Bastani, Hazel Bateman, Soeren Blomquist, Axel Boersch-Supan, Jorge Miguel Bravo, Gary Burtless, Rafal Chomik, Helmuth Cremer, Carl Emmerson, Csaba Feher, Bernd Genser, Robert Holzmann, Paul Johnson, Alain Jousten, Christian Keuschnigg, Eric Koepcke, George Kudrna, Jukka Lassila, Luca Micheletto, Pierre Pestieau, John Piggott, Christopher Quinn, Tarmo Valkonen, Alan Woodland
Tax policy questions may relate to specific problems, concerning perhaps the revenue implications of a particular tax, or they may involve an extensive analysis of the cost and redistributive effects of many taxes and transfer payments. This book is concerned with the ways in which tax policy design can be enhanced by the use of a behavioural tax microsimulation model capable of evaluating the effects of planned or actual tax reforms. An advantage of such a large-scale tax simulation model, which reflects the heterogeneity of the population and captures the details of the tax structure, is that it can examine detailed practical policy questions and can provide direct inputs into policy debates. After introducing behavioural models, the authors discuss the role of means testing, several hypothetical policy reforms, actual and proposed reforms and recent modelling developments. Tax Policy Design and Behavioural Microsimulation Modelling will be of interest to academics and researchers of economics, econometrics and public finance. It will also be useful reading for policymakers responsible for the formulation of taxation.
This book demonstrates how the reliable measurement of growth in tax revenues, both for a tax system and for its component taxes, is important for the design of tax policy. The need for discretionary changes in tax parameters (such as tax rates, income thresholds and allowances) is conditional on the expected automatic revenue growth generated by the tax system. The properties that generate these automatic revenue changes are referred to as the built-in flexibility, or revenue responsiveness, of the tax. This concept is the central focus of the analyses in this book, which provides an invaluable review and synthesis of analytical results and demonstrates how this concept can be applied in practice to yield estimates of revenue responsiveness in various countries. John Creedy and Norman Gemmell highlight how an understanding of the principal determinants of a tax system's responsiveness, and a knowledge of the relevant magnitudes, are important for the design and reform of tax policy where both revenue and redistributional considerations are typically central to the policy agenda. Providing extensions of analysis to cover indirect taxes, and direct and indirect taxes combined, as well as empirical applications for several countries, Modelling Tax Revenue Growth will be warmly welcomed by researchers and graduate students interested in public finance and government officials and those in international organisations interested in tax revenue growth.
This book provides a detailed introduction to behavioural tax microsimulation methods and reviews the use of such models for evaluating tax policy reforms. The steps required to construct a microsimulation model are described in detail and methods of evaluating policy changes are then presented. Labour Supply and Microsimulation deals with a number of issues related to interpreting results from microsimulation, such as welfare measurement, income distribution, confidence intervals around the simulated results and feedback effects on the wage distribution via labour demand. All of the approaches and proposed methods are general and not model-specific. The book includes detailed descriptions of how labour supply models can be used in building behavioural microsimulation models as well as the development of new methods for evaluating policy reforms; for example, dealing with income distribution in discrete hours models, measuring welfare changes and constructing confidence intervals. John Creedy and Guyonne Kalb's book will appeal to graduate students and academic researchers in the fields of labour economics and public finance. Economists in government departments who wish to use the output from microsimulation models in tax policy analysis and design will also find much to engage them within the book.
Taxation and Economic Behaviour offers a number of broad introductory surveys in the areas of public economics and public finance. Divided clearly into two parts - measurement issues and taxation and economic behaviour - this innovative collection of articles consists of published refereed papers and several new and previously unpublished pieces. Initially, the book focuses on measurement issues, and includes chapters on income inequality, poverty, tax progressivity, income dynamics and welfare changes. It then goes on to explore the wider theme of taxation and economic behaviour, including material on taxation and labour supply, behavioural micro simulation modelling, and general equilibrium. Throughout the book, John Creedy makes use of numerical examples which help to illustrate the structure and use of the various models. Providing introductory material and syntheses of a wide range of topics, Taxation and Economic Behaviour will be welcomed by students, lecturers and researchers with an interest in public finance and public sector economics.
This innovative book offers an original and radical tax policy proposal which can be used to promote growth and stability without affecting income equality. Immediately following the publication of Keynes's General Theory, Kalecki recognized that the theory of tax had to be re-thought, as aggregate income could no longer be thought of as fixed with respect to tax-induced changes in aggregate demand. To this day, orthodox tax policy analysis continues to ignore aggregate demand effects. The authors consider this orthodox approach to be deficient, and show how tax policies can promote growth without having a negative impact on equity. They incorporate Kalecki's theory of tax incidence into an analysis of income determination, income distribution, investment, business cycles, and growth. In addition, they examine the incidence of the corporate profits tax and the macroeconomic and regional incidence, and effects of local taxation. A Dynamic Theory of Taxation will be a welcome addition to the literature and will be of interest to tax policy analysts and government policy advisors, as well as scholars working in the fields of public finance, post Keynesian and Kaleckian economics.
This text is volume IV of a five-volume reference work that surveys the entire literature on law and economics. The entries consist of two elements: a review of the literature by an authority in the field and a bibliography which covers most of the published material in the particular area.
Tax Policy provides a comprehensive collection of the most important and widely-cited articles on tax politics and policy. Essays by the leading political scientists, economists and lawyers in the field cover the key intellectual dilemmas and policy issues in the field of taxation. Topics covered include: the foundations of tax policy; an exploration of the public's attitude to taxes and taxation; the principles behind the making of tax policy; tax incentives and tax expenditure; the need for tax reform in the late 1980s and the form of these changes; and the relationship between internationalization and domestic tax policy choices
Local Government Tax and Land Use Policies in the United States is an accessible, non-technical evaluation of the most recent economic thinking on the nexus between local land use and tax policies. In Part I, Helen Ladd provides a comprehensive summary of the extensive literature on the interaction of local land use and tax policies. She explores the theoretical controversies and clarifies issues such as the use of land use regulation as a fiscal tool, the effects of taxes on economic activity and the success of tax policies to promote economic development. In Parts II and III, a group of experts presents new research on important issues such as the impact of growth on tax burdens, metropolitan tax base sharing, the incidence of impact fees and the shift to land value taxation in urban areas. This book raises provocative questions concerning the conventional wisdom in fiscal policy. It will be indispensable for economists and students interested in urban issues and local public finance as well as planners and policymakers.
The Question Bank provides all the knowledge required for the Personal Tax unit. Question Banks allow students to test knowledge by putting theory into practice and refine exam technique. Features include: assessment standard practice questions and answers, guidance of revision technique, hints and tips. Our materials and online equivalents will help ensure you are ready for your assessments and prepared for your career in accounting.
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