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This singular new textbook is both an introduction to the major theories of second language acquisition and a practical proposal for their application to language learning courses. It explains and evaluates these theories, and focuses on recent research that has enriched thinking about the best ways to facilitate communicative effectiveness in an L2. It then suggests practical applications regarding language planning, curriculum development, pedagogy, materials development, teacher development, and assessment, establishing a tangible connection between theory and practice. Unlike many SLA books which are narrowly focused on the acquisition of language, it explores the roles of factors such as pragmatics, para-linguistic signals, gesture, semiotics, multi-modality, embodied language, and brain activity in L2 communication. SLA Applied connects research-based theories to the authors' and students' real-life experiences in the classroom, and stimulates reflection and creativity through the inclusion of Readers' Tasks in every chapter. This engaging and relevant text is suitable for students in Applied Linguistics or TESOL courses, trainee teachers, researchers, and practitioners.
Changing from child to young adult is difficult everywhere. But to experience childhood in continuous flight from conflict, then move into adolescence as a refugee in a radically different culture, is a more than usually complicated transition for teens and for their parents, communities, teachers, and social workers. Improvised Adolescence explores how teenagers from southern Somalia, who spent much of their childhood in East African refugee camps, are adapting to resettlement in the American Midwest. The collapse of the Somali state in 1991, and subsequent chaos in the Horn of Africa, disrupted the lives of these young people educationally, culturally, and developmentally. Folklorist Sandra Grady has intermittently observed the lifeworld of these teens-their homes, their entertainment choices, their interaction with classmates and teachers at school, and their plans for the future-for more than seven years to understand the cultural tools they've used in their journey from this disrupted childhood. They negotiate two sets of cultural expectations: in the resettled Somali Bantu community, traditional rites of passage continue to mark the change from child to adult; in the surrounding U.S. culture, an unfamiliar in-between category-"adolescent"-delays adulthood. Offering analysis that is both engaging and theoretically grounded, Grady tracks the emergence in this immigrant community of an improvised adolescence.
The day-to-day assessment of student learning is unquestionably one of the most demanding, complex, and important tasks that teachers face. Language Classroom Assessment is a comprehensive overview of different forms of language classroom assessment and practical applications that support students' learning in any context. The activities and reflective breaks interspersed throughout the book give teachers a unique opportunity to learn experientially and to reflect critically on core aspects of their assessment practices.
Corrective feedback is a vital pedagogical tool in language learning. This is the first volume to provide an in-depth analysis and discussion of the role of corrective feedback in second and foreign language learning and teaching. Written by leading scholars, it assembles cutting-edge research and state-of-the-art articles that address recent developments in core areas of corrective feedback including oral, written, computer-mediated, nonverbal, and peer feedback. The chapters are a combination of both theme-based and original empirical studies carried out in diverse second and foreign language contexts. Each chapter provides a concise review of its own topic, discusses theoretical and empirical issues not adequately addressed before, and identifies their implications for classroom instruction and future research. It will be an essential resource for all those interested in the role of corrective feedback in second and foreign language learning and how they can be used to enhance classroom teaching.
Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We have not used OCR(Optical Character Recognition), as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. (2) In books where there are images such as portraits, maps, sketches etc We have endeavoured to keep the quality of these images, so they represent accurately the original artefact. Although occasionally there may be certain imperfections with these old texts, we feel they deserve to be made available for future generations to enjoy.
During a field trip in Detroit on a summer day in 1989, a group of African American fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-graders talked, laughed, and ate snacks as they walked. Later, in the teacher\u2019s lounge, Jeanetta, an African American teacher chided the teachers, black and white, for not correcting poor black students for \u201ceating on the street,\u201d something she saw as stereotypical behavior that stigmatized students. These thirty children from Detroit\u2019s Cass Corridor neighborhood were enrolled in the Dewey Center Community Writing Project. Taught by seven teachers from the University of Michigan and the Detroit public schools, the program guided students to explore, to interpret, and to write about their community. According to David Schaafsma, one of the teachers, the \u201ceating on the street\u201d controversy is emblematic of how cultural values and cultural differences affect education in American schools today. From this incident Schaafsma has written a powerful and compelling book about the struggle of teaching literacy in a racially divided society and the importance of story and storytelling in the educational process. At the core of this book is the idea of storytelling as an interactive experience for both the teller and listener. Schaafsma begins by telling his own version of the \u201ceating on the street\u201d conflict. He describes the history of the writing program and offers rich samples of the students\u2019 writing about their lives in a troubled neighborhood. After the summer program, Schaafsma interviewed all the teachers about their own version of events, their personal histories, and their work as educators. Eating on the Street presents all of these layered stories - by Schaafsma, his collegues, and the students - to illustrate how talking across multiple perspectives can enrich the learning process and the community-building process outside the classroom as well. These accounts have strong implications for multicultural education today. They will interest teachers, educational experts, administrators, and researchers. Uniting theory and practice, Eating on the Street is on the cutting edge of pioneering work in educational research.
Perspectives on Teaching Adults English in the Digital World presents an overview of adult ESL online in the USA, using five students to illustrate a number of important points, and the following chapter focuses on teaching and learning English online, specifically at the tertiary level in the US. The book also presents a clear and concise summary, this time of adult education and workplace English language learning and teaching online in the US.
Enable your students to be successful regardless of their literacy levels. Wordless books help to develop oral language, listening, vocabulary, and so much more! With wordless books, K-12 and adult students can be authors and write stories that they interpret from the pictures. In addition, the lesson ideas are aligned with the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and with the TESOL Pre-K-12 English Language Proficiency Standards. Sample rubrics are included in the book and online as editable documents.
School counselors need to have a working knowledge about the needs of all students and must specifically address the complexity of the needs of English learners. This last volume in the ESOL for Different Professions series focuses on the specific knowledge and skills that school counselors need to develop in order to best serve the English learner population in their schools. These skills include knowledge of current roles and responsibilities of school counselors; legislation such as Title III of NCLB, and the Bilingual Education Act; and an overview of issues such as second language development and multicultural counseling practices, and appropriate counseling interventions.
This revised volume brings together the best of the past with suggestions for the future and proves that teachers' imaginations continue to produce an interesting and varied range of ways to learn English within the broad guidelines of communicative language learning. New Ways in Teaching Adults, Revised provides classroom teachers with a range of activities for all stages of the learning process. The many activities included encourage discovery learning, provide practice, and extend students' learning beyond the classroom. Also, various activities allow students to work in pairs, small groups, individually, and with the entire class.
Why assess? And what will I do with the results? This book examines classroom assessment (not standardized assessment) through the lenses of three ESL teachers from across the United States. The teachers face a number of challenges particular to their individual situations, and other challenges common to all U.S. public school teachers. Most important, this book views teachers as the people best able to make their students successful. The decisions they make about assessments in the areas of literacy, oral language, and content-specific language development result in actionable information. Short reflections, jargon sidebars, and chapter activities make this an enjoyable, user-friendly resource for teachers in any classroom.
When students are motivated, they are more confident and successful in their learning. But what is at the heart of a motivated learner? This book discusses the five elements of motivation-the teacher, teaching methodology, the text, the task, and the test-and explores how to use these "5 Ts" to impact student motivation.
Why do questions about idioms often leave us "tongue-tied" in our classrooms? This book takes a look at learning and teaching idioms from two perspectives. First is a survey of recent work on learning and teaching idioms from diverse perspectives in the linguistics and educational research literature. The survey includes definitions of idioms from theoretical and pedagogical literature, focusing in particular on cognitive, cross-linguistic, and social constructionist research. Second is a summary and critique of idiom textbooks and classroom practices from around the world.
Many things have changed in the landscape of English language teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the 35 years since the British Council published the booklet English Language Teaching Profiles. Therefore, this book will present readers with an up-todate summary of the current situation for English language teachersand learners in what is now referred to as KSA. Dr. Hastings presents a clear and concise account of the rise of English language teaching and learning in KSA, at the national and at the local level, from when the nation state was first established in the early 1930s to the present day.
Nearly three-quarters of public schools in the United States enroll English language learners (ELLs). That means teachers at all grade levels need to know how to help these students achieve full academic English language proficiency. In Dispelling Misconceptions About English Language Learners, Barbara Gottschalk dispels 10 common misconceptions about ELLs and gives teachers the information they need to help their ELLs succeed in the classroom. From her perspective as a teacher of English as a second language, Gottschalk answers several key questions: Just who is an English language learner? Why is it important to support home language maintenance and promote family engagement? What are the foundational principles for instruction that help educators teach ELLs across the content areas? How can teachers recognize and incorporate the background knowledge and experiences ELLs bring to class? Why is it important to maintain high standards and expectations for all students, including ELLs? How can a teacher tell when an ELL needs special education versus special teaching? By answering these questions, and more, Gottschalk gives teachers a crystal-clear understanding of how to reach ELLs at each stage of English language acquisition. Her expert guidance reinforces for teachers what they are already doing right and helps them understand what they might need to be doing differently.
Covering both theoretical and practical approaches, Writing the Research Paper guides students studying in English as a second or additional language through the skills necessary for success in university-level writing and research. The book begins with theoretical considerations, such as research, argumentation and critical thinking. It then offers a broad range of practical assistance covering all aspects of the writing process, including topic selection, argument, counter-argument, paragraph structure and cohesion. The book is accompanied by a companion website, writingtheresearchpaper.com. The website hosts many features, including chapter summaries, exercises, quizzes, PowerPoints, additional learning material, and technology assistance. The website also hosts numerous authentic examples of student papers at each of the critical stages of the writing process.
The field of English language teaching continues to become more and more complex. To stay up-to-date with the developments as the discipline grows, English language teachers must work to expand their knowledge base by participating in continual professional development and practicing reflective teaching. Farrell provides useful insights about the many kinds of training and discusses the practices you can engage in to ensure your own growth, including team teaching, action research, and teaching portfolios. Learn about the different stages of professional development, what approaches are right for you, and how you can sustain your growth throughout your career.
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