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For many decades in the 18th and 19th centuries, Russia was the world's greatest exporter of flax and hemp and Great Britain its major customer. Most studies of flax and hemp and their associated industries have hitherto concentrated on the economic and historical events surrounding the rise and fall of these industries in Britain. This book is based on a large body of new material consisting of lead-alloy seals that were attached to bundles of flax and hemp exported from Russia and aims chiefly to describe the different seals that were used and to explain the reasons why they were employed. It offers a short history of their use, a guide to their identification and a catalogue of items recovered in Britain, opening up a valuable new source of material for analysing a different aspect of the history of commercial relations between Russia and Britain and providing assistance for finders and museum curators in identifying and deciphering these objects correctly. The text guides the reader through the different types of seal so far recorded using illustrations, transliterations of the Cyrillic texts found on the seals and explanatory tables, as well as a comprehensive catalogue. Analysis is conducted of the information found in the seals. This information provides us with a picture of the manner in which the export of these products from Russia to Britain was handled and allows us to make comparisons over different periods of time and to analyse the different systems of quality control used. It also enables us to record the geographical distribution of Russian ports used for the export of flax and hemp to the UK, where the spread of their distribution tells us something of the redistribution of these imports and provides an understanding of the use to which their by-products were put as part of the agricultural practices of the 18th and 19th centuries.
The story of Irish linen is a story of the Irish people. Many thousands of men and women made Irish linen a global product and an international brand. It is also a story of innovation and opportunity. Irish linen has served its makers as sail cloth of incredible strength and durability for world exploration; it has functioned as watertight containers for farmers and firemen; it has soothed the brows of royalty and absorbed the sweat of the working class. As outerwear and underwear, linen has covered the bodies of men, women, and children from birth to death--the rich and powerful, poor and pitiful alike. Into this cultural history, Kathleen Curtis Wilson weaves personal narratives, giving the story a voice: words and songs of individual spinners, factory workers, and out-workers like Sarah McCabe, who created fabulous linen lace; Sarah Leech, who wrote poetry as she spun fine thread; the three Patterson women, who worked in Mossley Mill for a total of one hundred years; and the Herdman brothers, who settled in County Tyrone to build a mill and a utopian community. Lavishly illustrated and engagingly written, each chapter tells of art, social and economic history, design, architecture, technology, and cultural traditions that celebrate the industry of making linen, a highly useful and desirable commodity that helped transport Irish people across the Atlantic to influence the settling of North America.
This book explores the fascinating history and present-day practices associated with cotton. This is a story of commercial and cultural enterprise, of the ties and tensions between East and West, of technological and industrial revolution, social modernization, colonialism and slavery. Cotton's history mirrors profound global transformations. And cotton remains one of the most significant mass commodities today. Cotton's track record on labor conditions in factories and plantations has tarnished its history and reputation, even as cotton clothes became the hallmark of modern industrialized society. Cotton expressed popular fashions and popular politics in dynamic ways. Yet cottons also take other cultural forms and are part of vibrant craft traditions in many parts of the world. This book explores the history, impact and ongoing life of this hugely influential textile.
In When the Air Became Important, medical historian Janet Greenlees examines the working environments of the heartlands of the British and American cotton textile industries from the nineteenth to the late twentieth centuries. Greenlees contends that the air quality within these pioneering workplaces was a key contributor to the health of the wider communities of which they were a part. Such enclosed environments, where large numbers of people labored in close quarters, were ideal settings for the rapid spread of diseases including tuberculosis, bronchitis and pneumonia. When workers left the factories for home, these diseases were transmitted throughout the local population, yet operatives also brought diseases into the factory. Other aerial hazards common to both the community and workplace included poor ventilation and noise. Emphasizing the importance of the peculiarities of place as well as employers' balance of workers' health against manufacturing needs, Greenlees's pioneering book sheds light on the roots of contemporary environmentalism and occupational health reform. Her work highlights the complicated relationships among local business, local and national politics of health, and community priorities.
"The Clean Clothes Campaign is a worldwide movement that aims to improve the wages and conditions of sweatshop workers. This is the story of their struggle. Large retailers such as Tesco, Walmart and Carrefour lure shoppers in with prices that seem too good to be true. This book shows that they're too good to be fair. All along the industry's supply chain, workers, often children, are exploited through poverty wages, unpaid overtime and harsh anti-union measures. The campaign urges those in charge of the garment industry's supply lines to protect their workers and treat them fairly. This dynamic account of direct engagement by concerned consumers is a must read for those that see globalization differently and want their shopping choices to support the most vulnerable people involved in the clothing industry"--Publisher description.
This is a brief story of the long agitation for textile unions in the South. To evaluate the contributions of textile unions and to determine whether they are socially desirable, it is necessary to know the history of the union movement and the effect unions have had in educating workers. Mitchell gives a clear, succinct account of the movement in the South. Originally published in 1931. A UNC Press Enduring Edition -- UNC Press Enduring Editions use the latest in digital technology to make available again books from our distinguished backlist that were previously out of print. These editions are published unaltered from the original, and are presented in affordable paperback formats, bringing readers both historical and cultural value.
This book is the winner of the 2015 Bancroft Prize and the 2015 Philip Taft Prize. It was the finalist for the 2015 Pulizter Prize for History and short-listed for the 2015 Cundill Prize in Historical Literature. For about 900 years, from 1000 to 1900, cotton was the world's most important manufacturing industry. It remains a vast business - if all the cotton bales produced in 2013 had been stacked on top of each other they would have made a somewhat unstable tower 40,000 miles high. Sven Beckert's superb new book is a history of the overwhelming role played by cotton in dictating the shape of our world. For centuries it was central to India's prosperity - a prosperity that was devastated by Britain's imperial takeover of the industry. It formed the core of Britain and Europe's industrial revolution. It revived and modernized slavery in the American South. Essential to billions of people and easily transported, cotton made fortunes, changed geographies and was crucial to modern capitalism and globalization. Empire of Cotton is both a gripping narrative and a brilliant case history of how the world works.
Most places in Britain have had some connection with the woollen industry. For several hundred years, it was Britain's principal source of wealth and provided more jobs than all the other industries put together. The country's fortunes were largely dependent on the wool trade. The English language has been enriched by many phrases derived from the trade - 'dyed in the wool', 'spinning a yarn', 'on tenterhooks' - and many thousands of people owe their surnames to ancestors who were websters, weavers, fullers, tuckers, walkers, listers and so on. This book traces the history of wool in Britain from Prehistoric times to the present day and uses many previously unpublished illustrations to illuminate its story.
Fashion Retail Supply Chain Management: A Systems Optimization Approach is a comprehensive reference source that provides the state-of-the-art findings on many important emerging research issues related to retail supply chain management and optimization problems. The book takes an explicit systems approach, and discusses retailled fashion supply chain coordination mechanisms and consumer market informationdriven fashion retail supply chain models, as well as suggesting future research avenues. This volume will be of interest not only to those involved in the fashion industry, but also to academics and practitioners in the wider fields of business, manufacturing engineering, systems engineering and supply chain management.
The area around Manchester has always been served by cotton mills. The climate and the easy access to plentiful supplies of clean fresh water for both power and processing were all an important factor in the setting up of mills in the area. Around Glossopdale and Longendale were many mills, both large and small, providing the main employment for men, women and children from the nineteenth century onwards. The mills are now gone, some closed as the trade moved to cheaper countries such as India, or by flooding as the valleys were used for new reservoirs to supply Manchester with water. Illustrated with over 60 old photographs, diagrams and maps, this book looks at the history of the cotton industry in Glossopdale and Longdendale between 1500 and 1920, highlighting the importance of water power, the history of the slave trade, the cruelties and miseries of labour and the consequent revolts and movements and the advent of less labour intensive cotton mills.
This book of essays, which draws on the expertise of leading
textile scholars in Britain and the United States, focuses on the
problem of and responses to foreign competition in textiles from
the late nineteenth century to the present day.
Fast fashion is an industrial trend that refers to the concept of shortening lead time (production, distribution) and offering new products to the market as fast as possible. Despite an abundance of research results, there is no comprehensive reference source that covers the state-of-the-art findings on both theoretical modeling and empirical research on fast fashion systems. This edited volume consists of three sections - review and exploratory studies, analytical models, and empirical research - made up of many interesting contributions in the respective domain. The result is a well-balanced handbook which includes both theoretical results (from various perspectives) and empirical findings. This volume will be of interest not only to those involved in the fashion industry, but also to academics and practitioners in the wider fields of business, manufacturing engineering, systems engineering and supply chain management.
Advances in technology, combined with the ever-evolving needs of
the global market, are having a strong impact on the textile and
clothing sector. The global textile and clothing industry:
Technological advances and future challenges provides an essential
review of these changes, and considers their implications for
future strategies concerning production and marketing of textile
This handbook is a compilation of comprehensive reference sources that provide state-of-the-art findings on both theoretical and applied research on sustainable fashion supply chain management. It contains three parts, organized under the headings of "Reviews and Discussions," "Analytical Research," and "Empirical Research," featuring peer-reviewed papers contributed by researchers from Asia, Europe, and the US. This book is the first to focus on sustainable supply chain management in the fashion industry and is therefore a pioneering text on this topic. In the fashion industry, disposable fashion under the fast fashion concept has become a trend. In this trend, fashion supply chains must be highly responsive to market changes and able to produce fashion products in very small quantities to satisfy changing consumer needs. As a result, new styles will appear in the market within a very short time and fashion brands such as Zara can reduce the whole process cycle from conceptual design to a final ready-to-sell "well-produced and packaged" product on the retail sales floor within a few weeks. From the supply chain's perspective, the fast fashion concept helps to match supply and demand and lowers inventory. Moreover, since many fast fashion companies, e.g., Zara, H&M, and Topshop, adopt a local sourcing approach and obtain supply from local manufacturers (to cut lead time), the corresponding carbon footprint is much reduced. Thus, this local sourcing scheme under fast fashion would enhance the level of environmental friendliness compared with the more traditional offshore sourcing. Furthermore, since the fashion supply chain is notorious for generating high volumes of pollutants, involving hazardous materials in the production processes, and producing products by companies with low social responsibility, new management principles and theories, especially those that take into account consumer behaviours and preferences, need to be developed to address many of these issues in order to achieve the goal of sustainable fashion supply chain management. The topics covered include Reverse Logistics of US Carpet Recycling; Green Brand Strategies in the Fashion Industry; Impacts of Social Media on Consumers' Disposals of Apparel; Fashion Supply Chain Network Competition with Eco-labelling; Reverse Logistics as a Sustainable Supply Chain Practice for the Fashion Industry; Apparel Manufacturers' Path to World-class Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainable Supply Chain Management in the Slow-Fashion Industry; Mass Market Second-hand Clothing Retail Operations in Hong Kong; Constraints and Drivers of Growth in the Ethical Fashion Sector: The case of France; and Effects of Used Garment Collection Programmes in Fast Fashion Brands.
Proper selling is professional, ethical and plays a vital role in the success of any business. The Real World Guide to Fashion Selling and Management explores the proven real-world principles of personal selling, customer relationships and sales management. The second edition is updated to reflect the latest sales methods and addresses the digital world as it applies to the sales activity. The use of social media, content marketing and time management tools are key elements covered in this revised edition. Sherman and Perlman outline the essentials required for success in the industry: how salespeople define and locate their markets, the importance of developing and maintaining relationships with clients, techniques for top-notch sales presentations, basic professional do's and don'ts, dynamic "behind the label" success stories, and how to anticipate-not just keep up with-today's global marketplace. New to this Edition: - Expanded to cover professional selling in retail beyond fashion - New sections on Business-to-Consumer (B2C) retail sales management - New chapter digital and social media in sales including - Covers top sales management strategies and software tools, and how they can be used to increase productivity and time management Emphasizes how to find a job, networking, and building relationships Instructor's Guide available
Given the widely-accepted premise that free trade is the best means of maximising overall societal welfare, why has it proven so difficult to achieve in certain industries? This book tackles arguably the most perennial and deep-rooted of all questions in political economy, and questions the incumbent orthodox liberal theories of collective action. Using a historical institutionalist framework to explore and explain the political economy of trade protectionism and liberalization, this book is based on detailed case studies of the textiles and clothing sector in the EU, United States, China, Caribbean Basin and sub-Saharan Africa. From this, the book expands to discuss the origins of trade protectionism and examine the wider political effects of liberalization, offering an explanation of why a successful conclusion to the WTO `Doha' round has proven to be so elusive. The book argues that the regulation of global trade - and the economic consequences that this has for both developed and developing countries - has been the result of the particular way in which trade preferences are mediated through political institutions. The Global Political Economy of Trade Protectionism and Liberalization will be of interest to those studying and researching international and comparative political economy, developing area studies, economics, law and geography.
This book explores the fascinating history and present-day
practices associated with cotton. This is a story of commercial and
cultural enterprise, of the ties and tensions between East and
West, of technological and industrial revolution, social
modernization, colonialism and slavery. Cotton's history mirrors
profound global transformations. And cotton remains one of the most
significant mass commodities today. Cotton's track record on labor
conditions in factories and plantations has tarnished its history
and reputation, even as cotton clothes became the hallmark of
modern industrialized society. Cotton expressed popular fashions
and popular politics in dynamic ways. Yet cottons also take other
cultural forms and are part of vibrant craft traditions in many
parts of the world. This book explores the history, impact, and
ongoing life of this hugely influential textile.
The textile industry has been one of the most prolonged and widespread influences on the development of historic buildings in the South West. The regional industry pre-dated the classic period of the Industrial Revolution by several centuries, resulting in distinctive types of vernacular buildings, industrial buildings, townscapes and landscapes, all contrasting with those in other areas. The work builds on the previous RCHME studies of textile mills and a wide range of more recent reports and publications by EH and others. The book provides a wide-reaching analysis of historical context, an account of the origins and development of each of the industries, an interpretation of the distinctive features of the buildings, a clarification of the historical importance of South West textile mills and clear statements on the benefits of their conservation. A range of topics is introduced to enable the reader to appreciate the national significance of the region s textile industries, including a general introduction to textile processes and the historical importance of the factory system, together with an initial overview of the main industries. The core of the book deals with the industries in detail, each chapter providing historical context followed by an account of the distinctive features of the buildings based on descriptions of representative examples. The final chapter emphasises the tradition of re-use and conversion in the South West textile industries, encourages the continued adaptation and conservation of both mills and related townscapes, and concludes with new statements on national significance and comparisons with other regions.
In recent years, the study of textiles and culture has become a dynamic field of scholarship, reflecting new global, material and technological possibilities. This is the first handbook of specially commissioned essays to provide a guide to the major strands of critical work around textiles past and present and to draw upon the work of artists and designers as well as researchers in textiles studies. The handbook offers an authoritative and wide-ranging guide to the topics, issues, and questions that are central to the study of textiles today: it examines how material practices reflect cross-cultural influences; it explores textiles' relationships to history, memory, place, and social and technological change; and considers their influence on fashion and design, sustainable production, craft, architecture, curation and contemporary textile art practice. This illustrated volume will be essential reading for students and scholars involved in research on textiles and related subjects such as dress, costume and fashion, feminism and gender, art and design, and cultural history. Cover image: Anne Wilson, To Cross (Walking New York), 2014. Site-specific performance and sculpture at The Drawing Center, NYC. Thread cross research. Photo: Christie Carlson/Anne Wilson Studio.
The Grammar of Pattern describes characteristics of textile and other surface patterns, and identifies, illustrates, and reviews a wide range of pattern types including spotted, striped, checked, tessellating and other types of all-over patterns with original drawings and images. This book includes original black-and-white line drawings and color images. The modular nature of patterns is explored, and attention is focused on the vast diversity of pattern types which can emerge from a small inventory of components. The book features material that is easily accessible with obvious mathematical content kept to a minimum and offers fresh perspectives on the nature of tessellating and other all-over patterns. This book serves as an effective practical guide for both students and professionals. Select sample exercises and student assignments are included, making this an ideal course text for teachers engaged across the full range of design education.
Paris, along with New York, was one of the main centres of the fashion industry in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. But although New York based garment workers were mobilized early in the twentieth century, Paris was the stage of vibrant revolutions and uprisings throughout the nineteenth century. As a consequence, French women workers were radicalized much earlier, creating a unique and unprecedented moment in both labour and feminist history. Seamstresses were central figures in the socio-political and cultural events of nineteenth and early twentieth century France but their stories and political writings have remained marginalized and obscured. Drawing on a wide range of published and unpublished documents from the industrial revolution, `Sewing, Fighting and Writing' is a foucauldian genealogy of the Parisian seamstress. Looking at the assemblage of radical practices in work, politics and culture, it explores the constitution of the self of the seamstress in the era of early industrialization and revolutionary events and considers her contribution to the socio-political and cultural formations in modernity.
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